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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

15 ® 

LIBKAEY 

U. S. PATENT OFFICE. 


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THE 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

EDITED BY 

JOHN M. MAISCH. 

i 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR 1874 : 

CHARLES BULLOCK, HENRY N. RLTTENHOUSE, 

THOMAS 8. WIEGAND, JAMES T. SH1NN, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VO L UME XLVI . 
FOURTH SERIES, VOL. IV. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRESS OF M ERR I HEW & SON, 135 N. THIRD STREET. 
1874. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JANUARY, 1874. 



PARAFFIN, COSMOLINE AND VASELINE. 

By A. W. Miller, M. D., Ph. D. 
(Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, December 16.) 
In the course of my recent inquiries concerning cosmoline,* I as- 
certained incidentally that the manufacture and purification of par- 
affin is carried on in quite an extensive manner in our city. It oc- 
curred to me therefore that a few notes on this subject might prove to 
be acceptable. 

The establishments engaged in this industry are mostly situated on 
the Eastern banks of the Sehuylkill, in the neighborhood of Gray's 
Ferry Arsenal. The process begins by subjecting the so-called re- 
siduum of the coal oil refiners to distillation in large stills, made of 
five-eighths inch boiler iron, having a capacity of about 1500 to 2500 
gallons. Direct heat is applied immediately beneath the stills, the 
bottoms of which toward the end of the process reach a white heat # 
The distillate is condensed in a system of iron pipes, which are con- 
tained in large wooden tanks. Distillation begins at 220°, and is 
terminated at about 570°. The product is a thick, unctuous mass at 
ordinary temperatures, but it liquefies at about 100°, or a little over. 
It has the peculiar iridescent color and the characteristic odor of pe- 
troleum. The residue of the distillation is a hard, porous, black mass, 
which is free from odor and presents a close analogy to the ordinary 
coke of the gas works. In the yards referred to, it is in fact called 
coke, and is used as fuel to heat the stills. 

The distillate, which has thus been obtained, is next treated with 
from four to five per centum of sulphuric acid, to kill the green, as it 

* See December number, page 534. 



2 Paraffin, Gosmoline and Vaseline. { AjA j^ v i, im!™ 

is termed by the workmen. After the removal of the acid by carbon- 
ate of sodium, the oily mass is introduced into bags, made of the ma- 
terial called duck, each of which holds about three or four gallons. A 
number of these are then placed horizontally in an ordinary screw 
press, being superimposed on each other and separated by intervening 
boards. During the summer, it is necessary to use ice in order to 
lower the temperature and prevent too much loss of paraffin. 

The oil expressed during this process has the gravity of 25° ; it is 
known as heavy paraffin oil, and is an excellent lubricator for cylin- 
ders. It can be readily deodorized and also freed from unpleasant 
taste, so that it may represent the softer variety of the so-called cos- 
moline. 

The crude paraffin, when taken from the presses, is melted and run 
into moulds. It is now of a light yellowish or straw color, rather 
soft, and still strongly redolent of petroleum. In this state it is sold 
to the refiners, who further purify it, in order to adapt it to the mul- 
titudinous purposes to which modern industry applies this valuable in- 
heritance of prehistoric ages. 

The refiners subject the crude article, which they designate as wax, 
to powerful hydraulic pressure, and thus obtain therefrom a second 
variety of paraffin oil of about 28° gravity. This is also used almost 
exclusively as a lubricator. The residue is further purified by treat- 
ing it with a variety of gasolin or benzin of definite density, which 
is specially prepared for this purpose. Steam is also called into requi- 
sition in order to completely deodorize the product. 

Two varieties of pure, white paraffin are manufactured, namely, the 
ordinary hard article having an apparently crystalline structure, and 
another having a softer and more gelatinous consistence, which is 
termed gum stock, and is chiefly consumed for chewing-gum. Some 
of the refiners consider these two products as separate and distinct 
bodies, and state that they cannot convert either of them into the 
other. One single refining establishment in this city is reported to 
find a market for an average production of these substances to the 
extent of 10,000 lbs. per month. 

Among the more important applications of paraffin in our neighbor- 
hood may be enumerated its use for laundry purposes ; when added 
to starch, it imparts to it an additional lustre in the same manner as 
spermaceti or white wax. It has been found to be an effective pre- 
servative of wood, and large quantities are consumed in this industry. 



AM j?!n U i,' im RM '\ Paraffin, Cosmoline and Vaseline. 3 

Chewing gum, as has been already stated, is the softer variety of pa- 
raffin ; although this is apparently a very trivial and non-important 
article, it is in reality sold in enormous amounts by many of the whole- 
sale confectioners. The manufacturers of friction matches are heavy 
purchasers of paraffin, which they use for impregnating the sticks, so 
that they will more readily ignite, and burn with greater uniformity. 
Of late, paraffin is also beginning to be used extensively for the pur- 
pose of sizing various textile fabrics. Paraffin or ozokerite candles 
are well known, and they are confidently asserted to produce a finer 
light than any other variety. Confectioners also use paraffin to im- 
part a gloss or lustre to some of their bon-bons, such as cream choco- 
late drops and others. 

In Europe, paraffin has in addition been used for water-proofing 
various woven goods, for coating the interior of wine and beer barrels, 
for the preservation of fresco paintings, for the purpose of saturating 
cork and paper, as a sizing or finish for leather and small articles 
turned from wood and bone, as a preservative of fruits and for many 
other similar applications. 

Returning to my remarks on cosmoline at the last meeting, I would 
state that I have since then succeeded in obtaining several petroleum 
products, which furnish a more satisfactory result than the mixture of 
neutral oil and crystallized paraffin. The defect of this preparation 
is that it cannot be readily deodorized, and that it is of a somewhat 
granular consistence, instead of being perfectly smooth and homoge- 
neous like cosmoline. I present herewith a sample of a very heavy, 
gelatinous paraffin oil, of which I have good reasons for believing to 
be the identical source from which at least one variety of cosmoline is 
manufactured. 

In devising a process for the purification of this oil, I endeavored 
to imitate the method by the action of steam, which was alluded to in 
my former paper. About one ounce of the oil was therefore placed 
in a shallow dish with, a quart of water and boiled for four hours, more 
water being added from time to time as it evaporated. The oil na- 
turally spread itself in a thin sheet over the surface of the water, so 
that all the vapor was forced to pass through it, carrying along with 
it the small remnant of light hydro-carbons, on which the disagreeable 
odor depends. At the expiration of this time, the oi) was found to 
be tasteless and inodorous. It was then further purified by filtering 
through prepared animal charcoal, being kept liquid by being placed 



4 Paraffin, Cosmoline and Vaseline. { AM hu!A K *874. CB * 

near to a hot stove. On a larger scale, a hot water bath would of 
course be much preferable, particularly as the slightest excess of heat 
seems to redevelope a coal oil odor. A portion of the color and all 
the adhering mechanical impurities were thus removed. The paraffin 
ointment, which is so obtained, resembles cosmoline very closely in- 
deed, having a similar color, consistence and melting point, being 
quite inodorous and perfectly bland to the taste. 

The preparation of the animal charcoal consisted in washing it with 
a five per cent, solution of carbonate of sodium, warming it repeatedly 
with a large excess of hydrochloric acid, and then percolating with 
water until all the acid was removed. When dried it was found to be 
reduced to one-fifth of the original weight. 

The above process can also be applied to the paraffin oil of 25° 
gravity, which is obtained in the first expression of the crude distil- 
late. The melting point of this oil may be altered to almost any de- 
sirable point, by adding to it some of the gum stock or softer variety 
of paraffin, which is preferable to the hard on account of remaining 
homogeneous. 

The attention of the last meeting was directed by Mr. Shinn to 
another similar preparation, euphoniously called Vaseline. Although 
I have so far had no opportunity of examining this " Essence of Pe- 
troleum," I infer from the contents of a letter in my possession, that 
paraffin ointment may also be safely substituted for it. Mr. Robert 
A. Che^sebrough, the inventor and patentee of vaseline, advises me 
as follows : " The article called cosmoline is an infringement of our 
patents, and its manufacture or sale renders the parties making or 
selling, liable to us for damages." Such being the case, we, as good, 
law-abiding citizens, are furnished with an additional reason for re- 
fusing to dispense cosmoline, and for recommending paraffin ointment 
in place of it. 

I would state in this connection that I have remitted to the Com- 
missioner of Patents the necessary fee for obtaining a copy of Mr. 
Cheesebrough's patent. Still, I feel firmly convinced that the asser- 
tion contained in an advertisement of vaseline, which was transmitted 
to me, is literally true, namely, that " There is no wonderful ingre- 
dient in it known to no one but the proprietor. It is simply — Pe- 
troleum." 



AM Ta J n Tm4 ABM -{ Purification of Grab Orchard Salt, 



PURIFICATION OF CRAB ORCHARD SALT. 

By Richard Y. Mattison. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, December 16. 

Among the purgative medicines used in various sections of this 
country, none are more rapidly finding favor among physicians and 
the general public than the salt obtained by evaporating the waters 
of the springs at Crab Orchard, Lincoln county, Kentucky. 

As the salt appears in our market it is of various degrees of color 
and purity. It is usually prepared by concentrating the water in 
iron kettles and then allowing the concentrated water to stand at rest 
until the largest portion of the organic matter is precipitated. The 
supernatant liquid is then decanted, more or less care being used, and 
evaporated. The yield is about 1 to 1.25 per cent., ten gallons of 
the water yielding about a pound of the commercial salt. Much more 
care was formerly used in the preparation of this salt than now, and 
of late years the salt has gradually grown more and more impure, 
owing to the ready sale found for it, which fact was noticed in a letter 
from the proprietors a short time ago, in which they remarked " that 
the supply was not equal to the demand." 

When dissolved in water the solution of the commercial salt pre- 
sents a very unsatisfactory appearance, and is certainly very far from 
being inviting as a medicine. This should be remedied; in fact, Crab 
Orchard salt should never be dispensed without first being purified^ 
which is easily done by the following process (which I think should 
be performed at the spring, before the salt is ever offered to the mar- 
ket.) Dissolve the salt in boiling water and filter through paper, or, 
on a large scale, flannel bags are best. The filtrate is then evapo- 
rated carefully to dryness, stirring meanwhile to favor granulation 
and prevent caking. If the directions are carefully followed, the pro- 
duct will be a beautiful snow-white salt, perfectly soluble in water ; 
one^which the pharmacist can recommend and dispense with satisfac- 
tion ; more active than the ordinary salt, as it is free from the in- 
soluble earthy admixtures of alumina, calcium sulphate, etc. The 
purified salt usually contains much less water than the commercial, 
which varies very much, the amount ranging from 35 to 50 per cent., 
the mean being usually about 40 per cent. The active ingredients 
seem to be principally magnesium and sodium sulphates, also a con- 
siderable proportion of potassium sulphate, with sodic and lithio 



6 Syrup of Iodide of Iron and Manganese. { jl™X mt u ' 

chlorides. A small amount of ferric oxide is left in the filter, but the 
amount is so small that I think it of little consequence that the puri- 
fied salt does not contain it. 

Large quantities of a spurious salt are prepared by a house on one 
of the principal streets of Louisville, but with such secresy that stores 
only a few squares distant sell the salt without a doubt of its genuine- 
ness. It seems to be principally magnesium sulphate, with a small 
proportion of ferric sulphate. 

After considerable experience in purifying Crab Orchard salt, I 
may state that the usual amount of organic matter in the salt is from 
8 to 12 per cent. From 20 to 35 per cent, of loss is sustained in the 
purification, the greater portion of the loss being water. This loss 
need not be met with by pharmacists generally, a partially anhydrous 
salt being desired by myself for the production of an active granular 
effervescent salt. I would commend to all the advantage of preparing 
the purified salt themselves, the preparation of a few pounds being a 
matter of little trouble, and yielding a fair remuneration by the satis- 
faction accorded and increase of sale. 

Philadelphia, 12th mo. 18, 1873. 



SYRUP OF IODIDE OP IRON AND MANGANESE. 
By J. U. Lloyd. 

I find that syrup of iodide of iron and manganese, as prepared by 
the published process, viz : double decomposition between the mixed 
sulphates of iron and manganese with iodide of potassium, is objec- 
tionable, inasmuch as the preparation so obtained will contain, if the 
precipitated magma of sulphate of potash is well washed, an appre- 
ciable amount of this salt, which, after a time, crystallizes in a mi- 
nute form throughout the syrup, imparting to it a milky turbidity, 
and if the said sulphote of potash be not completely washed, the re- 
sulting syrup will be deficient in strength. 

In the process above referred to (U. S. Dispensatory and Parrish's 
Pharmacy), a large amount of the objectionable sulphate of potash is 
obtained, so that I find it almost impossible to properly manipulate 
the syrup without meeting with the above-named difficulty, and to 
overcome this fault I prepared the following formula, and have for a 



AM ia J n°.T; wf' } Fluid Extract of Sumach Berries. 1 

number of years followed it in making this preparation, with perfec 
satisfaction. 

Sulphate of manganese, . . 240 grs. 

Iodide of potassium, . . 288 " 

Iodine, . . . 744 " 

Iron Wire (small), . . 240 " 

Sugar, . . . 17 oz. av. 

Distilled water, q. s. 
Place the iodine, three ounces of distilled water, and the iron wire 
cut into small pieces, in a thin glass flask or a porcelain dish, shake 
or stir occasionally until the reaction ceases, and the solution has ac- 
quired a clear greenish color, without a tinge of yellow. Having in- 
troduced the sugar into a porcelain dish, filter the solution of iodide 
of iron upon it. Wash the filter by pouring into it two ounces of dis- 
tilled water, allowing the same to filter into the sugar. Dissolve the 
sulphate of manganese and iodide of potassium separately in one-half 
an ounce of cold distilled water by trituration in a mortar ; mix the 
two solutions together and allow the sulphate of potash to precipitate, 
then carefully remove the mixture into a moistened filter-paper within 
a glass funnel, and allow the solution of iodide of manganese to filter 
upon the sugar. When well drained wash the precipitate within the 
funnel with one-half an ounce of cold distilled water, allowing it to 
filter into the sugar. 

Finally, finish the operation by adding to the above enough dis- 
tilled water to make the whole measure twenty fluid ounces ; stir oc- 
casionally until dissolved, and filter. 
Cincinnati, Dec. 8, 1873. 



FLUID EXTRACT OF SUMACH BERRIES. 
By Joseph P. Remii\gton. 
Read before the Pharmaceutical Meeting, Dec. 16, 1873. 
In some sections of this city, this valuable preparation is duly ap- 
preciated, being largely prescribed as an ingredient in mouth washes 
and gargles, where the astringent and pleasantly acid properties of 
sumach berries would be indicated. 

Not having a satisfactory formula for the preparation of the fluid 
extract, it occurred to the writer to try the Pharmacopoeia process for 
the astringent fluid extracts, and the result you have before you, a 



8 



Cacao- Cream. 



S Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1874. 



rich, bright red liquid, possessing the virtues of the berries in a marked 
degree. The glycerin is a good solvent for the tannic acid, and the 
malic acid present rapidly dissolves in the menstruum. 
The formula is as follows : 

Take of sumach berries in moderately fine powder sixteen troy 

ounces. 
Glycerin, four fluid-ounces. 

Water, 

J ' } each a sufficient quantity. 

Mix half a pint of alcohol, three fluid-ounces glycerin and five fluid- 
ounces of water, and, having moistened the sumach with four fluid- 
ounces of the mixture, pack in a suitable percolator (Squibb's new 
percolator answers very well), pour on top the remaining portion of 
the sixteen fluid-ounces of menstruum ; close the percolator and allow 
the powder to macerate for four days ; then open the percolator and 
continue the percolation until twenty-four fluid-ounces have been ob- 
tained. Of these, reserve the first fourteen fluid-ounces, and evapo- 
rate the remainder to two fluid-ounces, mix with the reserved portion 
and filter, if necessary. 

Like many other fluid extracts containing glycerin, a slight pre- 
cipitation of coloring and extractive matter takes place when diluted 
with water. If considered desirable, the precipitation may be mixed 
with an equal quantity of water, and re-evaporated at a low tempera- 
ture ; but, as probably all of the prescriptions into which it would en- 
ter would require filtration, it is unnecessary. 

A very good gargle and mouth wash may be made by taking — 

Fid. ext. rhus glab., . . f giv. 

Potass, chlorate, . . 3ij. 

Glycerin, pure, . . . <$iv. 

Water, . . . 3vij. 

Filter. 



CACAO-CREAM. 

By T. S. Glenn. 

Almost every apothecary has more or less demand for a prepara- 
tion of this kind, and many may wish to include some appliance of 
this character among their specialties. 

Having what I consider a most excellent formula for such a pre- 



AM jan D i;i P 874 EM '} Benzoinated Ointment of Oxide of Zinc. 9 

paration, I here offer it for the benefit of those who have not already 
a better one. 

^ Oleum theobromae, . . Ixvi. 

" ricini, . . ^xcvi. 

" bergamii, . . 3vi. 

" limonis, . . liss. 

" citronellae, . . ^iss. 

" lavandulae, . ^iv. 

Spts. coloniensis, 95 per cent., Jlxiv. 
Melt the oil of theobroma, warm the castor oil and mix. Dissolve 
the essential oils in the cologne spirit. Fill the bottles two thirds 
full with the first mixture, and fill balance of bottle with the perfumed 
spirit. 

This forms an elegant mixture for dressing the hair, and is quite 
popular with many. In very cold weather it becomes quite hard, but 
a little heat soon renders it fluid. 

St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 20, 1873. 



BENZOIN ATED OINTMENT OF OXIDE OF ZINC. 

By Oliver Jester. 

This ointment is one of the most popular productions of the 
apothecary, and regarded as a valuable remedy by the medical pro- 
fession generally ; yet there appears to be some little controversy as 
to its merits, which probably arises from certain irritating properties 
it is said to possess. Now this objection may be ascribed to impuri- 
ties, or an improperly prepared ointment, either of which might 
aggravate instead of allay. Various modes for its preparation having 
been published, I also submit a process which gives satisfaction, 
although not strictly pharmaceutical. 
Take of 

Adeps, . . . . . . 30 troy ounces, 

Oxide of Zinc, 5 troy ounces, 

Tinct. Benzoin (4 oz. to pint), . . 5 fluid drachms. 

Thoroughly incorporate the tincture with the lard in a porcelain 
vessel and set aside. On a piece of brown paper with a rough surface, 
reduce the oxide with a spatula, until it passes through a No. 60 
sieve and set aside. Heat the lard to the boiling point and strain. 
Add the oxide and stir until cold. 



10 



Dispensing Poisons. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan. 1, 1874. 



Although the process of heating to the boiling point is followed by 
a deposit of the resin, the alcohol is also dissipated. And while it 
still retains sufficient fragrance of the former to prevent rancidity, 
the necessity of the absence of the latter is obvious. 

The effects following its application is all that can be desired. 
And I have to hear the first fault, after dispensing it three years in 
various affections. 

Philadelphia. December 18th, 1873. 



DISPENSING POISONS. 
By Benjamin Lillard, Phar. D. 

The accurate dispensing of poisons is of the greatest importance 
to the profession and the public ; and at different times, various sug- 
gestions of more or less practical value, for the accomplishment of 
that object have been made ; among which may be mentioned labels 
of unusual designs and colors or with sanded edges, and bottles of 
fancy colors and shapes or with rough edges or places. These, how- 
ever, are intended more to prevent errors in administering than in 
dispensing. The practice of dispensing poisons when ordered by a 
physician, in any unusual way, to prevent improper administration, 
should not be adopted without the advice or consent of the physician. 
We have a right to suppose the physician has given all the necessary 
precautions. However, when he has omitted the dose or directions 
for use, it is well to cautiously inquire how it is to be used, and, if 
necessary, say a word about diluting. 

The principal duty of the pharmacist should be to use all the pre- 
cautions he can to prevent errors in dispensing. The plan I have 
adopted, although not entirely original or new, yet probably possesses 
some features not generally known. All poisonous drugs or compounds 
are kept in a separate closet under lock and key, and taken out only 
under the following 

Rules for Dispensing Poisons. 

First. Each and every dispensing, for any purpose whatever, must 
be entered by the dispenser and witnessed. 

Second. The witness must examine the package containing the 
poison, see that it is the one wanted, and that the correct quantity is 
taken out ; and place the package back in the poison case. 

Third. The witness must examine the prescription, order or person 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. I,18f4. ' j" 



Syrup of Wild Cherry. 



11 



wanting the poison, and see that they get the kind and quantity 
wanted. 

Fourth. If the poison is to be mixed, compounded, or divided in 
any way, the witness must examine the order or prescription and the 
finished preparation, to see that it is properly compounded. And 
when there is no written order or prescription, the person ordering 
should write down what he wants ; such orders to be retained, num- 
bered and filed the same as a prescription. 

Fifth. The witness shall examine the entry in the register, see that 
it is right, and sign his name in the proper place. 

The register contains columns for " date, name of article, who for, 
residence, who by, quantity, price, sold by, witnessed by, remarks;" 
under the heading 4 remarks,' if the poison was for a prescription or 
order, we enter the number of the prescription on file of that date. 

I have had this plan in operation some time and find that it works 
well. And although it may be difficult to carry out all its provisions 
strictly in every case, my plan under such circumstances, is to conform 
as nearly as possible to the intention or spirit of them. 

Poisons like arsenic, morphia, and laudanum, when sold in an un- 
co mb in ed state, should be labelled with some of the usual poison signs, 
and with the name of the antidote and directions for use, so as to be 
convenient in case of accident ; for instance, on every package of 
morphia or laudanum sent out, we have conspicuous on the label, 
" morphia and laudanum are dangerous poisons, and should be ad- 
ministered only as ordered by a physician and with great care. In 
case of an overdose, give powdered mustard mixed with warm water, 
until copious vomiting is produced, and send at once for a physician." 

The plan that is sometimes adopted, of substituting some harmless 
drug of similar appearance, for the poison wanted when we have 
reason to believe it would be improperly used, has, by delaying or 
preventing its sale at other places, frequently been the means of pre- 
venting persons from doing what they might afterwards regret. 

Nashville, November, 1873. 



SYRUP OF WILD CHERRY. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir: — The following formula for syrup of wild cherry, I 
offer as an improvement on the one directed in the Pharmacopoeia : — 
Take of 



1 2 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM j a J n ™; i*™*' 

Wild cherry bark, in moderately fine powder, . . 3v, 
Sugar, granulated, ...... Ixx, 

Glycerin, - . f^ij, 

Water a sufficient quantity. 
Mix half a pint of water with one fluid-ounce of glycerin, moisten the 
powder with one-half of the menstruum, pack it firmly in a glass per- 
colator, cover it with a disc of filtering paper, pour on the remaining 
menstruum, and covering it closely, allow it to stand for 48 hours ; add 
the remainder of the glycerin and water and percolate twelve fluid- 
ounces ; set aside ; continue the percolation with water until exhausted ; 
evaporate* this to four fluid ounces, and add to the first obtained 
percolate ; add the sugar to the liquid agitating it until dissolved. 

Charles Schnabel. 

Philadelphia, Twelfth month 1th, 1873. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Preservation of Vegetable Powders. — Mr. L. Cre'teur reports on the 
method for the preservation of vegetable powders, proposed by Louis 
Corne'lis, pharmacist at Diest, and which consists essentially in keep- 
ing the powders dry by means of burned lime. This is effected by 
means of glass bottles, into the wide mouths of which hollow pear- 
shaped stoppers are fitted, having below a large opening, which grad- 
ually becomes smaller, and on the outside a thread-like groove for 
fastening the paper and linen. The cavity of the stopper is filled with 
pieces of burned lime, and double thicknesses of filtering paper and 
linen are tied over it, after which the stopper is inserted. f The au- 
thor has had powdered rue, preserved in this manner, in his posses- 
sion for four years, during which time it preserved its color and odor 
perfectly. — Bull. Soc. Roy. Phar. de Brux., 1873, November. 

*It appears to us that this syrup is intended to represent principally the 
sedative properties of wild cherry bark, and that for this reason, evaporation 
of any portion of the percolate should be avoided. If an uniform and fine pow- 
der of the bark is used and its percolation is properly managed, evaporation 
will not be necessary. — Editor. 

t This is an improvement of M ohr's method for the preservation of vegetable 
drugs, which are kept in the drawers upon a perforated tin box containing 
burned lime. — Editor Am. Journ. Phar. 



AM jan D ^;i874 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 13 

Iodide of Calcium. — Ch. Meniere recommends to prepare it from 
sulphuret of calcium, because the other metallic oxides are then effect- 
ually removed ; some iodate of calcium which is likewise formed, has 
to be deoxidized by calcining the saline mass with a little charcoal ; 
the residue should then be dissolved in 95 per cent, alcohol, when 
the pure iodide will be obtained. 

During the siege of Paris, iodide of calcium was usually found to 
be fraudulently mixed with iodide of potassium. The author calls 
attention to the presence of sometimes considerable quantities of lime 
in the commercial iodide of calcium,* added for the purpose of obtain- 
ing a white salt. — Ibid. 

Influence of Camphor and Oil of Turpentine upon Vegetable Life. 
— Since Barton's experiments in 1798, no further investigations ap- 
pear to have been made with camphor and plants. The results re- 
cently obtained by Dr. L. Raab and Aug. Vogel, modify, to some 
extent, Barton's views; while camphor stimulates the vital func- 
tions of some plants, it is without influence upon others, and acts even 
injuriously upon some. The most beneficial influence was observed 
upon germination, which, almost without exception, is either hastened, 
or, if partly lost, restored. 

Water containing oil of turpentine has a similar stimulating action 
upon germinating plants, but when further advanced, it becomes de- 
cidedly hurtful.— Buchners N. Repert., 1872. 545. 

So-called Antimonic Bluc\ — C. Kraus has proved that this new 
pigment is a compound of cyanogen and iron, and that antimony is 
not necessary for its formation ; it is obtained by boiling ferrocyanide 
of potassium in muriatic acid, hydrocyanic acid gas being copiously 
evolved, and the production of the pigment is hastened not only by 
metallic antimony, but also by antimonic chloride and by solutions of 
mercury. When first produced, the color of the precipitate is often 
green, but on exposure to the air it invariably changes to blue.| — 
Ibid, 548—551. 

* We have also met with bromide of calcium which had been whitened by 
the addition of lime ; a basic salt of a strong alkaline reaction is formed, and 
this is readily obtained very white. Iodide and chloride of calcium are similar 
in their behavior towards lime. — Editor. 

t See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 301. 

X This pigment appears to be closely allied to if not. identical with the com- 
pound formed by the officinal process for hydrocyanic acid. 



14 Manufacture of Carbonate of Soda, etc. { AM j a J n 0l \ R "il > 74 ARfti:s 

New Reagent for Binoxide of Hydrogen. — The Poljtechn. Notiz- 
blatt recommends a solution of nitrate of argent-ammonium, which 
must be free from every trace of free ammonia ; a few drops added to 
water containing the binoxide in solution, produces on boiling a tur- 
bidity in consequence of the separation of minutely divided metallic 
silver.— Pharm. Centrallialle, 1873, No. 47. 



BOTANICAL ORIGIN OF THE BALSAMS OF TOLU AND PERU.* 
By Professor Baillon. 
The plant which yields the balsam of tolu, and which, during the 
present century, has been described under the name of Myroxylon 
toluiferum, was named by Linnaeus, in his "Materia Medica," Tolui- 
fera balsamum, and that name should still be retained for it. The 
younger Linnseus thought that the balsam of Peru was the product of 
another leguminous plant of the same genus, which he had received 
from Mutis, and which he named M. peruiferum. This was an error, 
since the pretended balsam of Peru did not even come from South 
America, but from the Costa del Balsamo, or Balsam Coast, in San 
Salvador. The tree which produces the greater part of this San Sal- 
vador balsam is that w 7 hich Klotzsch, multiplying beyond measure the 
species of the genus, designated under the name of M. Pereirce, but 
which cannot be separated specifically from Toluifera balsamum [M. 
toluiferum). Here, as in the entire genus, characters taken from the 
form, size and proportions of parts of the fruit, — especially of the 
wing at its base, which varies infinitely in size and direction in one 
and the same plant, — cannot be held sufficient for the separation of 
species. The elongated, or more or less punctiform pellucid spots of 
the leaflets, do not appear as though they ought to be considered to 
h'ive specific value ; hence the slight value of M. punctatum. 

The different qualities and characters of the balsams seem to de- 
pend entirely upon the method of extraction. But all the forms of 
T. balsamum have one constant character in the smooth surface of the 
seeds, which arises from the fact that the cotyledons are not rumin- 
ated. On the contrary, in M. peruiferum, which should take the 
name of Toluifera peruifera, they are ruminated. The latter tree 
yields scarcely any useful products, or at least any sent as such to 



* Note read before the Congress at Lyons [Repertoire de Pharmacie [n. s.,. 
i , 566], from the Revue Scientifique. 



^ji°? i87 H 4 ARM '} Detection of Digitalin and Atropia. 15 

Europe. The balsamic substance is present, however, on the surface 
of the seed, as in T. balsamum, but in less quantity, and it is sunk 
into the crevices of the seminal envelope, instead of being deposited 
in a smooth layer. This is the sole difference between the two spe- 
cies of the genus Toluifera — Pharm. Journ., Nov. 15, 1873. 



DETECTION OF DIGITALIN AND ATROPIA. 
By H. Brunner. 

The detection of digitalin in toxicological researches is very diffi- 
cult. By employing the method of Stas-Otto, the greater part of this 
glucoside is obtained from the acid ethereal solution as a resinous 
body, which in most cases does not give the characteristic red color 
with sulphuric acid and bromine-water. The smaller portion which is 
found in the alkaline-ethereal solution, cannot be distinguished from 
delphinia and aconitia, because delphinia gives the same reaction 
with sulphuric acid and bromine, and both alkaloids yield the same 
results with the phosphoric acid tes*t as digitalin. The latter com- 
pound can, however, easily be detected by Pettenkofer's test. 

On adding sulphuric acid to a dilute solution of dried bile contain- 
ing a trace of digitalin, a splendid red color is produced as soon as 
the temperature rises to 70°. One c.c. of a decoction of 0*3 gram of 
foxglove-leaves in 180 grams of water gave the reaction quite dis- 
tinctly. 0*03 and 0*05 gram of digitalin were dissolved, each in half 
a litre of Bavarian beer, and the solutions treated by the method of 
Stas-Otto ; no digitalin could be detected in the residue by means of 
bromine and sulphuric acid, whilst the least trace of it, after being 
washed with water, gave an intense color with Pettenkofer's test. 
Other glucosides give the same reaction, but this does not prevent its 
application in a toxicological research, if the physiological effects are 
also taken into consideration. A similar case is the detection of the 
picrotoxin be means of Fehling's solution, which is also reduced by 
many other substances. 

The residue obtained from the acid ethereal solution may also con- 
tain lactic acid, tartaric acid, colchicia, and traces of atropia and pic- 
rotoxin, but these bodies are not colored by Pettenkofer's test, nor 
are other alkaloids affected by it, with the exception of narcotia and 
others which give a red color with sulphuric acid alone. 

The most characteristic tests of atropia are the dilatation of the 



16 



Adulteration Notes, etc. 



< Am. Jour. Pbabm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1874. 



pupil and the aromatic smell which is produced by adding this alka- 
loid and a little water to a hot mixture of sulphuric acid and potassi- 
um dichromate or ammonium molybdate. The latter reaction, al- 
though very characteristic, requires great skill ; but it takes place 
without fail on placing the atropia on a few crystals of chromic tri- 
oxide contained in a porcelain basin, and applying a gentle heat until 
the trioxide assumes a green color. — Pharm. Journ., Nov. 15, 1873. 



ADULTERATION NOTES RESPECTING TURMERIC IN RHUBARB, 
AROMATIC CHALK POWDER, AND MUSTARD. 
By W, L. Howie. 

Turmeric in Powdered Rhubarb. — The experiments of which the 
following notes are the result were suggested by the expression of an 
opinion by many pharmacists of my acquaintance that turmeric was 
responsible for the brilliant yellow color of certain samples of very 
fine powdered rhubarb. 

The test for turmeric given by Pereira, Christison, and other 
authorities, and lately elaborated by Professor Maisch, U. S. (vide 
Pharm. Journ. vol. i., 3rd series, p. 1027), requires the preparation 
of a tincture or decoction of the rhubarb, and is far from delicate, 
owing to the difficulty of detecting the brown-red tinge in presence of 
the deep yellow color of the rhubarb. My aim has been to supplant 
this preliminary exhaustion of the suspected rhubarb by a process 
which should more completely eliminate the curcumin, and while 
rendering the test strictly practical for counter use, improve its 
efficiency. 

An effort to discover a menstruum in common use which would dis- 
solve the coloring principle of one only of the drugs under notice 
proved not altogether successful, in a measure owing to a variation in 
the peculiar constituents of different varieties of rhubarb, which will 
further referred to. 

Of turpentine, carbon bisulphide, benzole, ether, and chloroform, I 
have been induced to prefer the last-named, though the test can be 
applied with either of the others, should convenience suggest such a 
course ; but, with the exception of ether, none seems so efficient as 
chloroform, on account of the readiness with which it dissolves curcu- 
min, and its volatility, rendering the manipulation of a number of 
samples exceedingly rapid. 



AM jaH; uSf" } Adulteration Notes, etc. 1 7 

I discard ether, because chrysophanic acid is much more soluble in it 
than in chloroform. 

The application of the test is as follows : — 

Let the required number of pieces of white blotting-paper, about 
three inches square, be numbered and placed on a pill tile or glass 
slip ; in one corner of each of these papers place about five grains of 
the several rhubarb samples to be tested, keeping the powder as much 
together in one heap as possible ; press it flat and smooth with the aid 
of a piece of paper, and drop cautiously on the centre of the powder, 
chloroform, so that it may slowly percolate to the circumference, 
carrying with it any soluble matters, and extend nearly one inch from 
the powder, taking care not to float any particles over or under the 
paper, which would interfere to some extent with the succeeding tests. 
Having allowed the papers to dry, it will be found that a yellow stain 
of varying intensity has been left around the powder. With really 
fine, bright- colored East Indian rhubarb, this stain is scarcely per- 
ceptible, but cheaper and darker samples may yield a brilliant yellow, 
while even the finest bright colored English powder will give a yellow 
stain as deep, and in most cases, deeper, than the darkest East In- 
dian. Should turmeric be present in quantity in any sample it will at 
once give a brilliant yellow stain, in tint undistinguishable from that 
of the rhubarb, but which may readily be identified by the following 
tests. 

Place a minute pinch of biborate of soda in powder on that portion 
of the paper over which the chloroform had extended, and which pro- 
bably has a yellow tint, choosing the deepest colored part. With a 
glass rod deposit a single drop of hydrochloric acid over the borax. 
In a few seconds, should turmeric be present, a distinct red will be 
produced, which is changed to black or greenish black with solution of 
potash, but no change, except a slight bleaching, takes place if the 
yellow is caused by rhubarb colors only. A drop of solution of pot- 
ash instantly changes the yellow stain of turmeric to a more or less 
brown tint, while a pure rhubarb gives a bright reddish-purple color. 

For delicate operations, a saturated solution of boracic acid is pre- 
ferable to the powdered borax, so that any obstruction of view by the 
white powder may be obviated ; but it is necessary in either case to 
use hydrochloric acid, which quickens and intensifies the action of the 
boracic acid. 

By this means turmeric can readily be detected in rhubarb contain- 

2 



18 



Adulteration Notes, etc. 



f Am. JoubC. Pharm. 
1 Jan. 1, 1874. 



ing only 0*05 per cent. While 0-1 per cent., or seven grains in one 
pound of rhubarb, gives at once distinct and unmistakeable evidence 
of its presence. 

As turmeric often carries in its train wheaten flour or farina, which 
can be best identified under the microscope (vide Pharm. Journal, 
vol. ii., 3d series, p. 841), rhubarb in which it is found should always 
be looked upon with suspicion. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that of some thirty-six samples 
procured in different parts of the United Kingdom, only in one have 
I found turmeric ; and strangely it was in a specimen of the old time 
Turkey, which a friend had carefully stored as a curiosity. The 
quantity present however was so small, about 0*07 per cent., that it 
could hardly be called a wilful adulteration, and may be accounted 
for when we remember that it is, or was, the practice of some dealers 
to rub the roots with turmeric to improve the color. Some such roots 
had no doubt been used in this instance for powdering. 

That no one may be deterred from testing every parcel of rhubarb 
before taking into stock, I have only used chemicals found on the 
shelves of every pharmacy, and may just add that five samples may 
be tested in as many minutes, leaving no apparatus soiled but a glass 
rod and pill tile, and at the cost of a fluid-drachm of methylated chlo- 
roform. 

European in East Indian Rhubarb. — The observation of the regu- 
larly varying depth of tint of the yellow stain on paper, given by dif- 
ferent rhubarbs with chloroform, suggested this test as a useful and 
ready means of determining not only the absence of turmeric, but 
also the quality of the drug. 

East Indian rhubarb, sound, pale in color, dense, and freed from 
the cortical layer, when reduced to powder gives up almost no color 
to chloroform. A dark-colored but otherwise sound piece gives but 
a slight tint, while the cortical layer gives a more distinct yellow, as 
does in a yet more marked degree the interior of such pieces as are 
worm-eaten and rotten. 

English indigenous rhubarb even when carefully selected gives a 
deep yellow tint, which is yet more intense from cortical and faulty 
pieces. 

French indigenous rhubarb which sometimes appears in commerce 
in this country (vide Pharm. Journal, vol. ii., 3d series, p. 1009), 
though in external appearance and density greatly superior, is in 



A VnTmT M, | Adulteration Notes, etc. 19 

therapeutic value and chemical characteristics much like our own na- 
tive root, and gives up about as much color to chloroform. 

Of the character of the stain given by inferior or false rhubarbs, 
excepting its intensity, as compared with that produced by fine East 
Indian root, I have unfortunately been unable to distinguish any pe- 
culiarity such as would lead to its unfailing detection : still the con- 
stancy of the variation, according to the kind of rhubarb used, is such, 
I think, as ought to give a reliable index of quality. 

A powder offered as East Indian rhubarb, of pale brilliant color, 
having the usual characteristics of that variety, should give but an ex- 
ceedingly pale yellow tint. Should a deep yellow be given I would 
suspect English or French contamination. An East Indian powder 
of a dark hue however may give almost as deep a color as English, 
and still be genuine ; though by this color I would judge it was the 
product of unpicked roots, trimmings, or even worm-eaten pieces, ac- 
cording to the depth of tint. 

The few specimens of Turkey rhubarb I have been enabled to ex- 
periment upon, through the kindness of several friends, yield results 
like East Indian, 

The cause of this varying color yielded by different rhubarbs is 
somewhat obscure, the chemistry of the drug being as yet far from 
satisfactorily elucidated. Chloroform seems to dissolve out chiefly the 
resinous principles erythroretin, phseoretin, (and aporetin ?) which 
exist in varying quantity in different parts and varieties of root, 
while the crystalline principles chrysophanic acid and emodin are 
left behind. 

Beautiful aggregates of granular crystals of chrysophanic acid may 
be easily obtained by percolating ether after chloroform through East 
Indian rhubarb, and allowing the ether to evaporate spontaneously. 
It is noteworthy that English and French rhubarbs treated thus yield 
no such crystals, the residue being a minute quantity of pale browa 
gummy extractive ; though from ail varieties distinct brownish acicu- 
lar crystals, probably emodin, will be observed on the sides of the 
evaporating basin. 

It may be suggested that chrysophanic acid which is recognized as 
the chief principle of rhubarb, by continued exposure to atmospheric 
influences, absorbs oxygen and is converted into what is at present 
known as the resins erythroretin and phaeoretin, which some have 
not accepted as distinct principles, but assert to be " nothing but im- 



20 



Adulteration Notes, etc. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Jan. 1, 1874. 



pure chrysophanic acid." (Batka). Being thus changed in the exte- 
rior insect-perforated and spongy portions of the root into amorphous 
resins soluble in chloroform, we may trace in imagination the cause 
of the deep yellow stain given by deteriorated roots. 

The formulae slightly bear out this theory, that of chrysophanic 
acid given by Rochleder and Heldt, who seem to have obtained it 
from the lichen Parmelia parietina, is C 10 H 8 O 3 , and that given by 
Thann, who procured it from rhubarb, is C 17 H 10 O 2 , while that of 
phaeoretin is stated as C 16 H 10 O 7 , and erythroretin C 19 H 18 7 by 
Gmelin, whose formula for chrysophanic acid is C u H 10 O 3 (altered to 
new notation). 

Chrysophanic acid gives with caustic alkalies a red color, and 
erythroretin a bright purple, as may be observed by touching the 
yellow rhubarb stain with solution of potash. 

With a substance such as rhubarb, varying in chemical as well as 
physical characteristics, great care must be exercised before pro- 
nouncing definitely upon any test for distinguishing between the va- 
rieties, depending upon such a minute difference as depth of tint. 
While putting forward this method of identifying European in pres- 
ence of fine Eastern grown rhubarb with some degree of confidence, 
having found unvarying results from the examination of, well-nigh one 
hundred specimens, it is much to be desired that others would take 
up the subject and confirm or discredit the results I have obtained. 

It is necessary that day-light be used in following these tests, as 
gas, or other common artificial light being yellow, the delicate tints 
are thereby rendered invisible. 

Turmeric in Aromatic Chalk Powder. — As with bright-colored rhu- 
barb, so it is not uncommon to hear turmeric suggested as the cause 
of the fine yellow color of some makes of aromatic chalk powder. 

This and other powders containing saffron may be tested exactly in 
the same manner as above directed for rhubarb. Polychroite, or cro- 
cin, the coloring principle existing to the extent of 50 or 60 per cent. 
(Pereira) in hay saffron is quite insoluble in chloroform, which only 
dissolves out a small quantity of yellowish oil. Aromatic chalk pow« 
der should therefore give no yellow stain with chloroform ; a very 
small proportion of turmeric will thus be at once detected. 

The saffron yellow, which may be obtained by using alcohol instead 
of chloroform, unlike that of turmeric, is changed to green by con- 



AM jan™; i P 874 RM ' } Detection of Solania and Solanidia. 21 

centrated nitric acid, and to indigo blue, fading to dirty-red and 
brown, by sulphuric acid. 

Turmeric in Mustard. — In ''mustard condiment" turmeric will be 
found by the same process, though like the gilding on otto bottles, it 
is generally expected, and not so likely to disturb a proper estimation 
of the quality; besides, it seems to serve an important purpose in 
keeping the article presentable for a week or more after being made, 
while a pure flour soon becomes unsightly, and has to be renewed for 
table use almost daily. 

Mustard branded "genuine," should contain no turmeric. 

Other applications of the principle involved in this test will no 
doubt suggest themselves to many pharmacists. — Pharm. Journal, 
Nov. 1, 1873. 



THE DETECTION OF SOLANIA AND SOLANIDIA. 

By Professor Francois Salmi. 

The author, in a memoir, presented to the Institute of Bologna, 
demonstrates that solania, in an acid solution, and at a temperature 
beyond 10° or 11°C, is in twenty-four hours decomposed partially 
into solanidia and other products. After remarking that this decom- 
position would nearly always take place in the viscera, he points out 
that although toxicologists are acquainted with some characteristic 
reactions of solania, they are as yet unacquainted with the means of 
detecting solanidia. This has led Professor Salmi to investigate the 
subject, and to publish in his memoir what he considers to be the 
most characteristic tests for the presence of solania and its derivative. 
The principal reagents for solania are — 

1. Brominated hydrobromic acid, which gives a violet coloration. 

2. Dilute sulphuric acid reduces it by eremacausis, giving a violet- 
red coloration. 

3. Nitric acid and an alkali give a pale yellow color. 

4. Sulphuric acid and arsenic or phosphoric acid, added succes- 
sively, give a red coloration. 

5. Traces of chloride of platinum give a purple coloration. 

6. Phosphoric acid and traces of molybdic acid give the same 
purple color. 

7. Brominated hydrobromic acid gives rise to long acicular crystals 
if the combination be treated with water and evaporated to dryness. 



22 Suspension of Bismuth in Mixtures. { AM jfj u J; 



Pharm. 
1874. 



Solanidia may be recognized by — 

1. The special form of the crystals cf its hydrochlorate. 

2. The form of the crystals of its hydrobromate. 

3. The bright yellow color which results from the action of nitric 
acid and a caustic alkali. 

4. The red color caused by phosphoric acid, and traces of molybdic 
acid. 

5. By the orange-yellow color produced by brominated hydrobromic 
acid when the mixture is evaporated to dryness. 

Professor Salmi states, that by operating with the care required in 
such experiments, small quantities of either of these substances may 
be indubitably detected that would escape observation with any of the 
processes indicated in treatises on toxicological chemistry. — Pharm. 
Jour, and Trans., Nov. 29, 1873. 



SUSPENSION OP BISMUTH IN MIXTURES.!, c ^ 

The September number of the New Orleans Medical and Surgical 
Journal contains a paper entitled " Practical Questions to a Practical 
Druggist, with his Answers," and signed by Wm. A. Vogel. We clip 
from it the following : 

What media are best suited to hold bismuth or powdered charcoal 
in suspension, when the physician desires to obtain their most efficient 
action as absorbents ? 

A. The common and time-honored practice of suspending bismuth 
in mixtures by the aid of gum arabic, I will not venture to pronounce 
positively bad, yet, in my opinion, it deserves to be criticised, and 
should be discarded for some more appropriate method. I have ob- 
served that bottles coming back to be refilled, frequently contain at 
the bottom quite a considerable quantity of the bismuth originally put 
in, and which was not at all easy to dislodge. It seems that the 
particles of bismuth are enveloped, as it were, by the gum, and in their 
gradual descent, carry this with them to form at the bottom a finely 
agglutinated mass which can only be broken up and again thoroughly 
mingled with the supernatant liquid by energetic and protracted agi- 
tation. Although invariably admonished to do this by a " shake 
well " label, the direction is seldom properly conformed with, and 
patients, and even doctors, will sometimes indulge in the, to them, 
delightful occupation of censuring and rebuking the innocent apothe- 



\ J n .T;i P 8?r} New Solvent of Phosphorus, etc. 23 

eary for having prepared the medicine badly. Several years ago I 
first suggested using a solution of wheat starch, in the proportion of 
one drachm to four ounces, in the stead of gum, and to my gratifica- 
tion it was at once adopted as a decided improvement by many physi- 
cians. The suspension, I admit, is not permanent, yet the separation 
is very gradual, and simply upturning the bottle promptly restores 
the desired condition. For charcoal mixtures, half a drachm of 
starch to four ounces will be sufficient. If a sweetener is to be added, 
glycerin, for obvious reasons, will be found to answer better than 
sugar. — New Orleans Med. and Surg. Journal. Sept. 1, 1873. 



A NEW SOLVENT OF PHOSPHORUS ; ITS PREPARATION AND 
PHARMACEUTICAL USE. 

By A. W. G-errard, 
Dispenser aud Teacher of Pharmacy to the University College Hospital. 

The principal known and most generally adopted solvents of phos- 
phorus and pharmaceutical purposes are bisulphide of carbon, chloro- 
form, ether, alcohol, oil of almonds, oil of theobroma, and mutton 
suet. 

The power of these bodies to dissolve this element varies from any 
proportion to less than half per cent. ; the most powerful being bi- 
sulphide of carbon, the least, alcohol. 

Most of the above solutions of phosphorus, when dispensed, are of 
an unsatisfactory and unstable character. Those which are fluid and 
miscible with water in the presence of mucilage — the manner in which 
it is usually prescribed — are rapidly decomposed and become inert; 
they are likewise nauseous and objectionable to the patient in an ex- 
* treme degree. The solid forms are but little better and are exceed- 
ingly troublesome to manipulate. 

Bisulphide of carbon has been recommended by Mr. Proctor, of 
Newcastle, as a means of dispensing phosphorus in the pill form, and 
it answers the purpose very well, with the exception that the pills re- 
tain a compound smell of phosphorus and bisulphide of carbon, which 
is repulsive in the utmost degree. 

The new substance which I propose to add to the list of sol- 
vents of phosphorus is resin, that body described in the Pharma- 
copoeia as the " residue of the distillation of the turpentine." This 
substance suggested itself to me amongst others as a probable solvent, 



24 New Solvent of Phosphorus, etc. { k *J™XmT' 

and the result of my experiments upon it is that I have found it capable 
of dissolving four or more per cent, of phosphorus ; the limit of its 
solubility is a question for further experiment. 

I would call this substance phosphoretted resin. The method of 
preparing it is thus : — Take a strong wide-mouthed well-stoppered 
bottle and weigh it, then melt a quantity of resin sufficient to fill the 
bottle ; let the bottle be warmed, then pour in the resin to nearly but 
not quite fill the bottle, reweigh, and for every ninety-six parts of 
resin take four of phosphorus. Now observe that the resin is in a 
fluid state ; if so. add the phosphorus, and fix the stopper tightly. 
Place in a sand-bath previously warmed, and apply heat to 200° C, 
or 892° F. ; digest at this temperature, and shake frequently until 
the phosphorus is dissolved. 

The kind of resin to be used in this preparation is the black trans- 
lucent variety, know in commerce as rosin, not that pale yellowish 
kind usually met with in chemists' shops, unless it has previously been 
deprived of its water, of which it contains a varying amount, some- 
times ten per cent. 

In conducting the process, it is necessary to observe the following 
precautions : — In adding the phosphorus, if possible let it be in one 
piece, and take care that the resin is previously in a fluid condition, as 
then the phosphorus readily sinks below the surface, and is covered 
by the resin ; otherwise, if the phosphorus were in small pieces and the 
resin semi-fluid, the phosphorus would rest on the half-hot resin, and 
speedily take fire ; but by observing the above precautions, this acci- 
dent may be prevented. 

A bottle full of the preparation should be made at a time, as I find 
there is great risk of accident (having had one myself) if the vessel is 
only partly filled. The phosphorus is also volatilized, and deposited 
in the upper portion of the bottle. 

Keep a thermometer in the sand-bath during the process, and 
maintain the temperature between 200° and 210° C. At higher 
temperatures the resin boils, and the heat is liable to change the 
phosphorus to the red amorphous state. 

When the prepared resin has cooled it is difficult to remove it 
unless the bottle be broken ; the method I have adopted is to draw it 
from the bottle, when partly cooled, under hot water. 

It is a pharmaceutical process which, like many others, requires 
care and attention to ensure success, but whatever difficulties may 
arise, to a practical person a remedy will suggest itself 



AM j a J n 0U f; 1 8™'} Antimony Terchloride as a Reagent for Oils. 25 

I will here mention a curious change which takes place if this phos- 
phoretted resin be reheated. When it reaches a certain temperature 
it becomes of a whitish cream color throughout ; if the temperature be 
raised still higher it again becomes transparent ; this phenomenon 
does not occur in the cooling. It is probably due to the influence of 
molecular change. 

The formula I would suggest for its exhibition is the following : — 
Take of— 

Phosphoretted Resin, 4 per cent. . . 25 grains. 
Powdered White Sugar . . . . 75 

Tincture of Tolu, a sufficient quantity. 

Pulverize the resin, mix with the sugar, and form into a mass with 
tincture of tolu, — eight to ten drops are sufficient ; then divide into 
twenty pills, each pill will contain one-twentieth of a grain. This 
forms a mass of an excellent consistence, and pills made therefrom 
retain their form and present an elegant appearance without the 
addition of any coating ; they have but a faint odor of phosphorus, and 
that may be completely removed by the addition of oil of peppermint. 

The experience gained from the administration of these pills in the 
in-and out-patients' departments of the hospital to which I am at- 
tached proves that the therapeutic properties of the phosphorus are in 
no way injured or modified by this combination, but that it is fully 
equal to any that had been previously used. 

In conclusion, I consider the advantages of this preparation to be 
that it is inoffensive to the tastes of the patient, definite and reliable 
for the prescriber, ready and convenient to the dispenser, and I believe 
judging from its nature it has unlimited keeping powers. — Pharm. 
Journal (London), Dec. 6th, 1873. 



ON ANTIMONY TERCHLORIDE AS A REAGENT FOR OILS. 
By Isidor Walz, Ph. D. 

All chemists who have occasion to occupy themselves with the 
analysis and testing of oils must admit the unsatisfactory condition 
of our science as regards these substances, and the desirableness of 
finding a larger number of characteristic reagents for the same. 
With this object in view I first took up anhydrous stannic chloride, 
but abandoned it after trying it with several oils, because the abun- 
dant fumes which it gives off render it a very disagreeable reagent to 



26 Antimony Terchloride as a Reagent for Oils. { ku il™l]m k ™' 

work with. In passing I may mention that I found anhydrous stan- 
nic chloride completely soluble in benzin ; the oil after a time turns 
reddish-brown and is partially resinified, while large acicular crystals 
form throughout the liquid. 

Turning next to antimony terchloride, I attempted to use (Merck's) 
"solution of terchloride of antimony, sp.gr. 1-345," but found this would 
not mix sufficiently well with oils to produce satisfactory reactions. 
Good results were, however, obtained by concentrating this solution 
on the water-bath to a syrupy consistence. 

Antimony terchloride, as thus prepared, reacts with all the oils 
which I have tried, animal, vegetable, essential, and those derived 
from petroleum.* 

In the case of the animal and vegetable oils there ensues generally 
a rapid darkening, the color turning to a reddish, greenish, or dirty 
brown, accompanied generally by a perceptible rise in temperature, 
and increased consistency of the oil, the latter becoming viscid, and 
in one or two cases solidifying altogether. After the lapse of a 
little time a stratum of antimony chloride solution separates at the 
bottom of the test tube, which has a greenish-yellow color. The 
oils for which this general description may suffice are rape seed, 
poppy seed, tallow, neat's foot and sperm. 

Some characteristic reactions were observed with the following : 

1. Olive oil (three samples). Forms a whitish emulsion, rapidly 
passing through light to dark green. No perceptible rise of temper- 
ature. 

2. Cotton seed oil (two samples.) Turns chocolate brown, with 
evolution of considerable heat. One of the samples solidified a few 
minutes after the test was applied, so that the tube could be inverted, 
while still warm, without the oil flowing out. 

3. Neat's foot oil. Turns pink ; subsequently darker and thicker. 
The temperature rises. 

4. Rosin oil. Turns purple. Though the color becomes gradually 
darker, the peculiar purple tint can be recognized even after a long 
time. 

Of the petroleum oils I tried gasolin, benzin, and kerosene. 
After shaking, two strata separate in the test-tube. A portion of the 
oil is resinified, the resin adhering to the sides of the tube a thin, 

* The experiments were made by putting 2-3 c. c. of the oil into a test tube, 
adding a few drops of the reagent, and shaking till a mixture was effected. 



Compound of Starch with Iodine. 27 

peculiarly colored, blueish-green-purple coating. The lower stratum 
is of a bright red color. Antimony terchloride is therefore a very 
good reagent for the petroleum oils. 

With oil of turpentine I obtained a very violent reaction, attended 
by the evolution of great heat and the deposition of a yellowish res- 
inous mass. 

Laboratory, No. 18 Exchange Place, New York. — American 
Chemist, Nov., 1873. 



NOTE ON THE COMPOUND OP STARCH WITH IODINE. 
By E. Sonstadt. 

Some starch was kept for more than two months in a solution of 
salts containing more free iodine than the starch could take up. The 
iodized starch was then washed for a fortnight on a filter, by 
which time the water came through very nearly colorless ; it was then 
further washed by decantation untrl the water was colorless after 
settling. The iodized starch thus prepared was black, and had little, 
if any, odor. A portion of it, air-dried, was found to contain 3*2 per 
cent of iodine. Another portion was then heated in an oven for a 
long while at a temperature somewhat higher than that of a water- 
bath. While drying, it smelt perceptibly of iodine, but, when thor" 
oughly dry, it was perfectly free from odor, and the color remained 
black. This stove-dried compound, heated in a closed tube, gave off 
no trace of free iodine, but a small quantity of a yellowish vapor came 
off, of a pungent odor, attacking the eyes, and condensing in the cool 
part of the tube in drops. The heat was then raised to redness, and 
the charcoal formed examined for iodine, which it proved to contain. 

The stove- dried compound is extremely stable, and the ordinary 
reagents attack it very slowly ; it could not be analyzed by treatment 
with solution of thiosulphate of sodium, or of chlorine. A solution of 
the former, in excess, failed to decolorize it after a week's treatment, 
with frequent shaking. It was prepared for analysis by moistening 
it with a strong solution of hydrate of sodium, and heating to redness, 
and the iodine was estimated in the solution of the residue by chlo- 
rine-water. It contained 3*2 per cent of iodine, the same percentage 
of iodine as was contained in the air-dried specimen. 

Another portion of the stove-dried compound was charred at a 
gentle heat, continued for about an hour, in a covered crucible, and 



28 On the Oleo-Stearates, etc. { A V*™;wT~ 

at the last the heat was raised for about ten minutes to low redness. 
The charcoal proved, on analysis, to contain 3*2 per cent, of iodine, 
equal to 19*64 per cent, of the iodine contained in the specimen before 
its conversion into charcoal. Thus, about four-fifths of the iodine 
contained in the strongly-dried iodized starch is driven off (though 
not as a free iodine) by charring at a red heat, and a fifth of the iodine 
remains with the charcoal formed. — Qhem. News, Nov. 14, 1873. 



ON THE OLEO-STEARATES, AND PARTICULARLY ON THE 
OLEO-STEARATE OF ZINC, 
By Arthur Yan Harlingen, M. D. 
Translated from the Bulletin Generate de Therapeutiqut, Sept. 1873. 

We desire to call the attention of practitioners to the advantages 
which these compounds present, both as entering into particular 
pharmaceutical preparations, and as to the therapeutic results which 
may be hoped for from their use. 

Oleo-stearates for rather oleo-stearo-margarates) are salts which 
have as bases oxides of the various metals, and as acids the oleic, 
stearic, and even margaric ; and which are extracted from fatty sub- 
stances by saponification. 

Two processes may be employed for the preparation of these salts : 
one, which is direct, consists in mingling in presence of a certain 
quantity of water the different oxides which it is desired to combine, 
and the acids, or rather the natural fatty substances which are found 
in combination with glycerin under the names of olein, stearin, and 
margarin. In this process the action of heat is often necessary, in 
order that the combination may be more easily effected. 

This method is similar to that by which almond soap (oleate of 
soda), white soap, and lead plaster (oleo-stearo-margarate of lead) are 
prepared. 

In other cases, and particularly where the oxide which is to enter 
into combination is very slightly alkaline, or of feeble solubility in 
water, and where, on the other hand, the oleo-stearate is insoluble in 
the same vehicle, it is necessary to have recourse to a second process, 
which permits of obtaining the salt indirectly and by double decom- 
position. 

It is by this process that the oleo-stearates of iron, copper, mercury, 
etc., and of the various alkaloids, are obtained. 



Am Jour. Phabm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1874. j 



On the Oleo-Stearates, etc. 



29 



For this purpose a solution of almond soap is added in small por- 
tions to a solution of some soluble salt, with the base of which it is 
desired to obtain an oleo-stearate, until a precipitate is formed. Care 
must be taken always to employ an excess of the solution of soap, the 
presence of which excess is recognized by the milky tint of the su- 
pernatant fluid, the latter being clearly separated from the precipi- 
tated oleo-stearate. 

That metallic salt should be chosen which precipitates most easily: 
thus, for iron or copper the sulphate, for mercury the per-nitrate, 
should be used ; avoiding in the latter an excess of nitric acid, which 
possesses the property of decomposing the alkaline soap and setting 
free the fatty acids. 

For the oleo-stearates of the alkaloids as proposed by M. Tripier, 
the chlorides of morphia, quinia, etc., are used. 

The salts, as we have said, offer as pharmaceutical preparations 
several advantages, which have been pointed out by various writers, 
particularly M. Jeannel. * 

They allow, by their easy solubility in fatty substances, the prep- 
aration of ferruginous oils, and pomades containing active principles 
(oleo-stearates of morphia, quinia, etc.), where the state of solution in 
the excipient in which they exist makes them preferable to similar 
preparations where the active principles are incorporated by simply 
mixing or are dissolved in water, and are perhaps much less easy of 
absorption. 

Finally the oleo-stearates lend themselves successfully to various 
therapeutical applications. To give a single example, we may cite 
the oleo-stearate of zinc, which mingled with a convenient quantity of 
an unctuous excipient, as in the following formula, gives excellent 
results in the treatment of chronic eczema accompanied by itching : 
R. Oleo-stearate of zinc (dry), 3 parts ; 
Mutton-suet, 15 parts; 
Oil of sweet almonds, 15 parts. 
Slowly incorporate the oleo-stearate of zinc with one part of the 
oil of almonds in a slightly warmed porcelain mortar, and add, little 
by little, the melted and partially cooled mixture of the remainder of 
the oil with the suet. — Medical Times (Philadelphia), Nov, 1, 1871. 



30 



Examination of Blood Staiyis. 



/ Am. Joub. Pharm. 
t Jan. l, 1874. 



THE EXAMINATION OF BLOOD-STAINS. 

A Commission, composed of MM. Mialhe, Mayet, Lefort, and 
Cornil, have furnished an interesting report on this subject (Reper- 
toire de Pharmacie, July 10th, 1873 ; Progrls Medical, August 23). 
They point out that in the present day it is no longer possible, in the 
examination of blood-stains in legal medicine, to rest satisfied with 
the physical characters observed by the naked eye. The microscope, 
sometimes alone, but more often associated with chemical analysis 
and the spectroscope, enables us to obtain an exact diagnosis formerly 
impossible in a great number of cases. Two conditions may occur. 

1. When the stain is of recent date or supposed to be so, the red 
corpuscles should be particularly examined, and every care taken to 
preserve them without change. The stains must not be washed with 
water, so that the hgematin may not be altered. After insisting on 
the microscopic characters of the blood-stains, isolated or compared 
with those of various animals, the commission enumerate with care 
the fluids which are destructive or preservative of blood-corpuscles. 
Among the first, water, and particularly hot water, acetic, gallic, 
hydrochloric, and sulphuric acids ; and of alkalies, potash and soda, 
even in weak solution, and ether and chloroform, and many other 
reagents, so alter the blood corpuscles as to cause them to entirely 
disappear. Alcohol, chromic and picric acid, and bichromate of 
potash, preserve the corpuscles, though they alter their form. The 
preservative fluids are those whose composition approach nearest to 
serum, such as the iodized serum of Schultze, an excellent preparation, 
made with amniotic fluid, to -which are added a few drops of the 
tincture of iodine, so as to give it the color of white wine ; or better, 
a fluid composed thus — white of egg, 30 grammes ; distilled water,, 
270 grammes ; and chloride of sodium, 40 grammes ; or even a fluid 
containing 0-5 per cent, of chloride of sodium, or five or six per 
cent of sulphate of soda. If the stains be wetted and softened by 
these fluids and then examined, white and red corpuscles and fibroid 
particles will be observed. 

2. In more difficult cases, when the microscope, owing to the alter- 
ations which time has effected in the hgematin, can give but vague 
information, examination by the spectroscope and chemical analysis 
enables us to arrive at precise results. The use of these means, 
being less known and also more delicate, requires special study. 



AM ja J n OT ^'i874. BM '} Examination of Blood Stains. 31 

1. Spectrum Analysis. — Coloring matters have the power of absorb- 
ing certain colored rays of white light — the same always for the 
same substance. This is the principle on which spectroscopic exam- 
ination is based. If into an analysing tube filled with water a few 
drops of a solution of haemoglobin be introduced till it has the color of 
peach-blossoms, the luminous rays of the spectrum passing through this 
fluid present two bands of absorption between the lines D and E of 
Frauenhofer in the yellow and the green. The same fact would be ob- 
served if a few drops of blood were substituted for haemoglobin in the 
analysis. In a case of doubt the haemoglobin of the blood could be 
reduced by adding to the latter areducing body. Destroyed haemoglobin 
has a different spectrum from oxygenated haemoglobin ; a single ab- 
sorption band as large as the two former bands united, and a little to 
the left of Frauenhofers line D. 

2. In blood in a state of decomposition, or which has been treated 
by acids or caustic alkalies, haemoglobin is changed into a new sub- 
stance ; haematin is formed, which, combined with hydrochloric acid, 
gives characteristic crystals. In order to obtain them, we must pro- 
ceed thus. A small fragment of dried blood is placed on a glass slide ; 
it is dissolved in a drop of water, and a minute portion of sea-salt is 
added. It is covered with a thin slide, and pure acetic acid is made 
to pass between the two slides, and it is heated over a spirit-lamp, to 
boiling point. Acetic acid is again added, and it is heated afresh, 
and this is repeated till the crystals are obtained. They are rhom- 
boidal, of a dirty brown color, quite characteristic, and require to be 
seen with a magnifying power of three hundred or four hundred diam- 
eters. With the smallest quantity of blood these two reactions can 
always be produced — the spectrum examination and the crystals of 
hydrochlorate of haematin ; and they are so certain, that the existence 
of one alone enables one to affirm the presence of blood. 

3. The third process, though not so exact as the preceding, ought 
nevertheless not to be neglected. If to a very small quantity of blood 
dissolved in a little water be added a few drops of tincture of guiai- 
cum and of binoxide of hydrogen, a persistent blue color is immediate- 
ly produced ; but this very sensitive reaction can be obtained with 
other organic matter, nasal mucus, saliva, &c; it therefore only gives 
a probability. We must proceed in the following manner. A tinc- 
ture of guiaicum is prepared with alcohol at 83 degrees, and guiaicum 
resin ; a mixture of sulphuric ether and binoxide of hydrogen is also 



32 Adulteration of Tartaric Acid. \ A ™'£TimT' 

made, and enclosed in a stoppered bottle, and kept under water in 
the dark. This preparation is less liable to change than pure oxygen- 
ated water. The object stained with blood, if it be white, is put into 
a little cup, then moistened with water to dissolve out the blood-stain, 
and washed in distilled water ; this water is then submitted to the ac- 
tion of these reagents. If the thing stained be colored, and the stain 
little or not at all visible, it must be moistened and then pressed be- 
tween two or three sheets of white blotting paper, and tried first with 
the guiaicum. If the stain be of blood, a reddish or brown spot will 
form on the paper. One of the sheets should be treated with ammo- 
nia, and the stain will become crimson or green. A second sheet, 
treated with tincture of guiaicum and ozonised ether, will give a blue 
color more or less intense, according to the quantity of the blood. 

To recapitulate: 1. If the stains or scales of blood appear recent, 
the corpuscles may, after the necessary precautions, be examined un- 
der the microscope, and their presence, diameter, &c, observed, which 
will enable one to diagnose the origin of the blood, whether human or 
animal. 2. If the stains be old and the blood changed, the reaction 
with the tincture of guiaicum would make the presence of blood prob- 
able ; but its actual presence cannot be affirmed without spectrum ex- 
amination, or the production of crystals of hydrochlorate of haematin ; 
one of the two is sufficient. It is unnecessary to add that these re- 
actions do not show whether the blood is human or animal. — Qhem. 
News, Dec. 5, 1873. 

ADULTERATION OF TARTARTIC ACID. 
By H. Maclagan. 

In the account of the proceedings of the Am. Pharm. Association, 
in the November number of the Journal, I noticed a reference to th e 
presence of sulphuric acid in commercial tartartic acid. That it is 
sometimes present, and in considerable quantity, I can fully attest, 
having once suffered considerable annoyance therefrom. Complaint 
was made by a customer of our seidlitz powders — that there was 
something wrong with them, as a quantity of white powder remained 
in the tumbler after drinking. I" found, on mixing one, that such was 
indeed the case — that when the effervescence was about ended, the 
mixture became cloudy, and in a very short time a considerable white 
deposit had accumulated in the bottom of the glass. This was col- 
lected and examined, and proved to be bitartrate of potassa. Sus- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jan. 1, 1874. / 



Varieties. 



33 



pecting the tartartic acid, I examined it, and found it to contain sul- 
phuric acid, which sufficiently explained the mystery. The sulphuric 
acid decomposed the Rochelle salt, producing cream of tartar and sul- 
phate of soda, thus : — 

2K JSTa C 4 H 4 6 + H 2 S0 4 = 2K H C 4 B 4 6 + Na 2 S0 4 . This 
makes a considerable difference in the character of the mecticine. 
The patient, instead of taking Rochelle salt and neutral tartrate of 
soda, is swallowing a mixture of cream of tartar and glauber salt, 
which, in some cases, might not be desirable. 

I did not estimate the percentage of impurity present, but, to 
judge from the quantity of bitartrate produced, it must have been 
very considerable. — Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, Dec, 1873. 

Lindsay, Ont. 



t)arictie0. 



Distilled Cherry -laurel '.Water as a Vehicle for Narcotic Injections. — M. 
Luton states that distilled cherry laurel water is the best vehicle for narcotic 
hypodermic injections as morphia and atropia. It prevents mouldiness of the 
solution better than any other distilled water, and it does not irritate the tissues 
any more than common distilled water. — Med. News and Lib., Nov., 1873, 
La Tribune Medicate, 14, Sept,, 1873, from Rep. de Pharm. 



Determination of Paraffin in Candles Sold as Stearin. — E. Donath having 
tried the method of Hock (see Amer. Jour, of Pharm., 1873, p. 127), finds that 
it is very difficult to remove the soap from the filter in the cold by washing 
with water or dilute alcohol, whilst if the solvent be applied hot, or even slightly 
warmed, the paraffin forms an emulsion and runs through the filter. The solu- 
tion of paraffin in ether is also a slow process. Hence Donath proposes the 
following modification : 6 grms. of the sample are boiled for half an hour with 
200 to 300 c. c. of potash lye, specific gravity, 1*15, and chloride of calcium is 
then added so as to produce a complete precipitation. If a large admixture 
of paraffin is suspected, a quantity of carbonate of soda is added to the chlor- 
ide of calcium, which gives rise to the formation of carbonate of lime, and 
renders the precipitate more easy to pulverize. The lime-soap with which the 
paraffin is mechanically entangled is washed on a filter with hot water, and 
dried at 100°. The mass is then pulverized and exhausted in a displacement 
apparatus with cerosolin (essence of petroleum). The solution obtained is 
evaporated, and the residue after being dried at 100° is weighed as paraffin. 
On operating upon known mixtures the author has obtained results correct to 
0*3 per cent. — Chem. News, Sept. 19, from Moniteur Scientif. 



84 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm.. 
\ Jan. 1, 1874. 



Adulteration of Wax with Tallow. — M. Hardy. — Wax floats upon alcohol 
at 29°. By determining the strength which alcohol must have so that the 
sample may float upon its surface, the quantity of wax may be found in a sam- 
ple falsified with tallow only . — 

When the Alcoholo- 



meter marks- 



The Wax contains- 



f 29-00° 100 per cent. 

3963 . . . . . 75 

50-25 ..... 50 

60-87 . j . . . 25 

71-50 

Ibid. 



Alleged Presence of Iron Filings in Tea. — In several cases of prosecution 
under the Adulteration Act which have recently been reported, the analyst 
has been able to demonstrate that a magnet thrust into a specimen of tea 
would attract certain particles which were stated to be iron filings ; and held 
to be indisputable proof of a fraudulent admixture. That this inference is 
necessarily correct has, however, been disputed in more than one quarter. Mr. 
TrefFrey, of Exeter, writing to the Grocer, asserts that the mineral matter found 
in tea is not iron filings but a native magnetic oxide of iron, and he states that 
"it is probably titaniferous iron sand, which is very abundant in China." Mr. 
Alfred Bird, F. 0. S , of Birmingham, says that he has separated particles of 
mica and quartz from the magnetic oxide of iron found in tea, his inference 
being " that as magnetic oxide of iron forms part of the soil of China, it would 
rise with the dust of the country, and coming in contact with the damp leaves 
would adhere to them when they are dried, and thus make the dried leaves 
stick to the magnet as if there were iron filings mixed up amongst them." 
Speculative, to say the least, as this may seem, it would appear to receive some 
support from an experiment made by Mr. Bird upon some French bean leaves 
grown in his own garden. One hundred grains were dried, and upon testing 
with a magnet were found to be attracted by it in a similar manner to that re- 
ported of some specimens of tea leaves. A closer examination of the matter 
adhering to the leaves showed that it was magnetic oxide of iron, and 0*02 of 
a grain was obtained from the 100 grains of bean leaves. An investigation of 
the black mould of the garden in which the plants were grown showed that it 
contained an abundance of magnetic oxide of iron. 

If all that the opponents of the Adulteration Act say against it were true, 
it would be but little to be able to reply that it is not an unmitigated evil ; but 
still it is a fact that the Act has given a great impulse to the investigation of 
food substances, the benefit of which must appear in an acquisition to our store 
of knowledge respecting this important subject. For even should Mr. Bird's 
speculations prove correct, it would not be the only instance that has recently 
come under our notice where the presence of a gross adulterant has been al- 
leged upon insufficient grounds. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Nov. 22, 1873. 

Haschisch. — The natives of the Turkish Empire, and in the north of Africa, 
are far more addicted to the use of the haschisch {Cannabis Indica) than to 



Am Jour. Phakm. > 
Jan. 1, 1874. j 



Varieties. 



35 



that of opium. They have a similar effect, yet the former is decidedly prefer- 
red. They use either the dry leaves for smoking, or they drink the pressed juice, 
or use it in the form of cakes soaked with that essence. Much uncertainty 
prevails among botanists regarding the plant or plants which produce these 
narcotics — whether they are different species or mere varieties of the common 
hemp. Probably G. sativa and Indica are identical, yielding the Gunja and 
Bhang of the East. Both the above drugs are sold separate in the Indian ba- 
zaars, and in external appearance are considerably different. Gunja has a 
strong aromatic and heavy odor, abounds in resin, and is sold in the form of 
flowering stalks for smoking with tobacco. It is made up in bundles about two 
feet long and three inches in diameter, containing about twenty-four plants. 
Bhang is in the form of dried leaves, without stock, of a dull green color, not 
much odor and only slightly resinous, and its intoxicating properties are con- 
siderably less. Bhang is not smoked, but pounded up with water into a pulp 
so as to make a driuk highly conducive to health, and people accustomed to it 
seldom get sick. Bhang grows in abundance in Tirhoot and Bhagulpoor in the 
wild state. In Scinde a stimulating infusion made from the plant is much drunk 
among the upper classes, who imagine that it is an improver of the appetite. 
Gunja is frequently mixed with tobacco to make it more intoxicating. This is 
especially done by the Hottentots, who chop the hemp leaves very fine, and 
smoke them together in this manner. Sometimes the leaves powdered are 
mixed with aromatics, and thus taken as a beverage, producing much the same 
effects as opium, only more agreeable. — Garvadian Pharm. Joum., Nov. 1873. 



Homoeopathic Pilules Proved a Sham. — The London Practitioner for April, 
1873, gives account of recent examinations, by chemical analysis, of some of the 
more commonly used homoeopathic pilules. The average weight of each was 
0.6 grains ; and, in the strength known as the second dilution, should contain 
0.00006 of a grain of the drug. This quantity, in the case of the drug chosen, 
is fairly within the reach of analysis. The third dilution places the drug beyond 
the reach of analysis. 

In sulphate of copper pilules, no copper could be detected in a sample of 100 
pilules, nor in another sample of 200 pilules. As little as 0.0001 grain would 
have been detected, if present, and in these samples there should have been 
0.006 gr. in the first, and 0.012 grain in the second. 

In 200 corrosive sublimate pilules, less than 0.0005 gr. was found, whereas 
0.012 grain should have been present. 

No strychnia or atropia could be detected in 300 nux vomica and belladonna 
pilules respectively, though the tests are of extreme delicacy. 

The pilules were from two leading homoeopathic pharmacists. 

Of course there cannot be any effect from the taking of such pilules, except 
what is due to imagination. — Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, Oct. 16, 1873. 



36 Minutes of the College. {^'^m^' 

Ititwtes of i\t ftalkp af ifearmats. 

Philadelphia, Twelfth month, 29th, 1873. 

A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this 
afternoon in the College Hall. Nineteen members in attendance. Dillwyn 
Parrish, President, in the Chair. 

The minntes of the stated meeting in September, and the special meeting in 
October last, were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees 
were also read by William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, for information, 
and approved. 

Alfred B. Taylor, Corresponding Secretary, reported that he had sent copies 
of the resolutions adopted at the meeting in September, relative to the aboli- 
tion of the stamp tax on medicines to the different Colleges of Pharmacy and 
Pharmaceutical Associations in the United States, soliciting their co-operation 
in endeavoring to effect a repeal of the law, and that a number of answers had 
been received by him, all showing a general interest in the matter, and promis- 
ing to use their best endeavors to effect a repeal of the obnoxious features of 
the law. 

Charles Bullock, on behalf of the Committee appointed to bring forward a 
test case for a legal decision relative to the ruling of the Commissioner of In- 
ternal Revenue, made a verbal report, the substance of which was as follows : 

The Committee, with their attorney, called upon the United States District 
Attorney, and agreed with him to have the subject amicably brought before 
the Court; but Supervisor Tutton refused to act in the matter, stating that 
he could only do so when a demand had been made upon him for goods seized 
by the revenue officers. 

The Committee, therefore, under the circumstances, thought it best to aban. 
don the subject for the present. The Committee, were on motion, continued. 

Mr. Bullock further alluded to the matter as it had been attended to by the 
Committee of the Drug Exchange, stating that many thousand circulars had 
been sent all over the United States, and that petitions had been signed by 
over three thousand druggists, desiring a repeal of the onerous features of the 
law, and that these had been placed in the hands of the Hon. Leonard Myers, 
to be used at his discretion in Congress. 

The Committee on Deceased Members reported that they had acknowledged 
the receipt of the portrait of Elias Durand, and conveyed the thanks of the 
College to Mr. A. B. Durand for the gift. 

Charles Bullock, on behalf of the Committee on deceased members alluded 
to the death of Henry K. Bowman, a member of the College, and called upon 
Joseph P. Remington, a friend of the deceased, who read the following obituary : 

Henry Kresge Bowman was born in September. 1846, in Kresgeville, Mon- 
roe county, Pa. He was unfortunate enough to lose both parents when very 
young, and he, with his two sisters, younger than himself, were adopted by his 
grandfather, Philip Kresge, living in Kresgeville, and a farmer of the old 
school, one of the sturdy pioneers of that part of the State, who instilled into 
the mind of young Henry those principles of integrity and honor which became 
his bulwarks in the short eventful life that followed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1,1874. J 



Minutes of the College. 



37 



Whilst still a boy, Henry showed evidences of a nobility of soul as rare as it 
was praiseworthy, in his devotion to his motherless sisters, whose advocate he 
became, defending- them frequently with ability far beyond his years, and with 
a pertinacity which proved to be a distinguishing trait in future life. 

The early part of the year 1864 found him in Philadelphia, seeking for an op- 
portunity to feed the ambitious longings of his nature, which could not be sat- 
isfied with the quiet round of duties of a life in the country. He found a posi- 
tion with B. F. Johnson, a pharmacist, doing business in the northern part of 
the city, with whom he engaged as an apprentice. 

He served here four years and three months, struggling under the disadvan- 
tages of an imperfect knowledge of English literature ; but his motto was ''For- 
ward," and though the hours allotted to business were by no means short, his 
employer often found him poring over his book late at night and early in the 
morning. 

Still anxious to perfect himself as well as he could, he sought the welcome 
walls of the College ot Pharmacy, where, by close study, he was soon in the 
foremost rank. 

His class complimented him by electing him President of the Zeta Phi So- 
ciety, and although he excited some opposition by his manner, he was in the 
main successful. The position that he was placed in early in life, in caring for 
his sisters, produced in him a manner which seemed sometimes rather patroni- 
zing, but the majority of his classmates were willing to overlook his fault, which 
was one that was not sufficiently glaring to be uncomfortable. 

Graduating amongst the first in the class, his friends thought that for a time 
at least his ambition would be satisfied ; but new fields arrayed themselves en- 
chantingly before him, and although deeply attached to his preceptor and his 
home, he sought and obtained a position with the well-known firm of Powers 
& Weightman. 

It was not long that his peculiar abilities went unappreciated here ; honest, 
self-reliant and persevering, he rapidly won his way. Soon after beginning his 
engagement with them, Henry was selected to prepare and take charge of a 
valuable collection of chemicals that were to be placed on exhibition at the 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in Chicago. 

Showing his aptness for this kind of work, and the firm having had many re- 
quests to exhibit their chemicals in various parts of the country during the 
next three years, he visited the more important cities as their representative ; 
whilst returning from Cincinnati in the fall of 1870, by way of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad, when near Grafton, the sleeping car in which he was riding was 
rolled down an embankment fifty feet high ; the accident occurred early in the 
morning and was caused by a misplaced switch. A number of the passengers 
were serionsly injured, and among the rest Henry. With characteristic 
energy he immediately set to work helping the wounded, and seemed to be un- 
mindful of his own wounds, generously lending his services at all times to any 
who needed them. He rescued a lady, who was extricated with difficulty from 
the surrounding debris, and did not leave her till she was safe at her home in 
Philadelphia. 

When he arrived home, it was manifest that he had been injured seriously. 
Although he regularly attended to his duties, those who knew and were inter- 
ested in him could not fail to notice that his health was gradually declining, 
and the change which took place recently was exceedingly rapid, terminating 
in death on the 11th of this month. 

The College has lost a valuable young member, the Alumni Association an 
active and beloved officer, the firm whom he was proud to serve a promising 
business man, the church of which he was a member a practical Christian, and 
the strings need to be lightly touched when the sad loss to his sisters is whis- 
pered. R. 

The reading was listened to with interest, whilst a feeling ot sadness per- 



38 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting* { k *jl™ljm™' 

vaded the meeting' at the loss of one so young, and who had just entered on a 
life of usefulness. The report was referred to the Publication Committee. 

Letters were received from Messrs. W G. Buchanan and Charles L. Jeffer- 
son, resigning their right of membership in the College. On motion, their 
resignations were accepted, and the Secretary was ordered to notify them of 
the fact. 

A letter was received by Alfred B. Taylor, Corresponding Secretary, an- 
nouncing the organization of the Richmond Pharmaceutical Association, on 
the 10th of November last This College extends to the association the hand 
of fellowship and a warm welcome. The Corresponding Secretary was di- 
directed to acknowledge its receipt. 

A letter from Jos. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa., on the subject of the 
stamp tax, was also read and directed to be filed. 

Then on motion adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



[iiurtes of % f larmaautol lUeting. 



The regular meeting was held December 16th, 1873. Present, twenty mem- 
bers. On motion Charles Bullock was elected President, and the Registrar 
read the minutes of the last meeting, which were approved 

Under the head of donations to the cabinet, Dr. W. H. Pile presented an 
accurately graduated standard minim pipette, and on behalf of the manufactu- 
rers. Andrew Blair presented a new drug-mill, made by the Enterprise Manu- 
facturing Company, which was received and the thanks of the meeting directed 
to be forwarded for the gift. 

The reading of papers, essays, etc., being next in order, R. V. Mattison pre- 
sented " Purified Crab Orchard Salt and Tasteless Chloride of Iron Salt," and 
read a paper on the " Purification of Crab Orchard Salts," which elicited some 
discussion from the members, in the course of which it was stated that for a 
number of years a large wholesale house in Louisville manufactured Crab 
Orchard Salt from Epsom Salt and Sulphate of Iron, and that with one maker 
of Crab Orchard Salt, it was customary to throw into the concentrated solution 
two barrels of Epsom Salt. 

Dr A. W. Miller read a continuation of his paper on cosmoline, vaseline, 
etc., detailing an improvement in making his paraffin ointment which makes it 
approximate more closely to cosmoline ; his paper was accompanied by a num- 
ber of interesting specimens illustrating the various steps in the process of 
making cosmoline. Dr. Pile presented four samples of vaseline to the College, 
which had been sent to him by the agent. 

Professor Maisch presented a carefully selected specimen of Cantharis 
vittata, from J. W. Eckfeldt, Delaware county, also a curious pine cone from 
Robert C. Davis, both of which were received with thanks. 

A discussion was now entered into upon the merits or demerits of the Enter- 
prise Company's drug-mill, in the course of which Professor Procter remarked 
that the principal objection he had to the mill was that the throat was not 



St*!*} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 39 

'large enough to admit large masses of drugs, although he had found it to 
-answer very well for general work and considered it an improvement on Swift's. 

Andrew Blair spoke at length in favor of the mill, and believed it to be the 
best that had yet been contrived for the purpose of griuding drugs. He 
exhibited five specimens — sassafras, gentian, senna, coriander, and liquorice 
root — which were ground with just ordinary care and not sifted. The results 
spoke practically and favorably for the work of the new comer, and it looks as 
if the time was approaching when the retail druggist could be independent of 
the drug miller and furnish many of his own powders without going out of his 
own store. 

Professor Maisch considered the mill the best that had yet been devised, 
and thought that one of the prominent advantages was the facility with which 
the internal working parts could be viewed by simply turning one screw. 

Joseph P. Remington exhibited a combined retort and condenser, which had 
proved useful ; it consisted of a glass cylinder fitted in both ends with rubber 
corks, which were bored with holes in the centre, through which the neck of the 
retort passed, fitting tightly ; two smaller holes, to accommodate two small tubes, 
were also made, which permitted the ingress and egress of the water for re- 
frigeration, as is usually seen in Liebig's condensers. He also read an article 
on Fluid Extract of Rhus Glabrum, which will be found in another place in this 
Journal. 

Andrew Blair brought to the notice of the meeting the improved graduates 
that are being made at the present time and introduced. The improvement 
consists in having the plunger graduated, which of course renders the graduate 
more accurate if the plunger itself is correct. 

Dr. Pile said that he had used the graduates, but found an objection when 
dark liquids had to be measured, on account of the trouble of reading the marks 
on the inside from the absence of reflection. Some of the graduates are sold, 
however, marked on the outside in addition by scratching with a file, which 
remedies this difficulty. 

Professor Maisch exhibited a monstrosity in the shape of an orange, which 
had been sent to him from Mobile, Alabama, from Charles Scott Brown. When 
the cortex was carefully dissected from the distal end, a small orange was 
revealed inside of the larger one and connected with it by an internal roll of 
,peel ; both were devoid of seeds. The tree which produces these fruits is near 
Pascagoula, Miss., on the Gulf shore, and has been bearing fruit 114 years. 

No further business coming before the meeting, a motion was carried to 
adjourn. 

Joseph P. Remington, Registrar, 



flarmamttol Colleges Qmtktim. 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the regular monthly meeting held 
December 1 Ith. the Committee on Stamp Law reported the collection of me- 
morials distributed through the city containing a large number of signatures, 
also liberal contributions to defray expenses incident to its presentation to 



40 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



( Am. Joto. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1874. 



Congress. An amendment to by-laws and code of ethics, expelling members 
for cause, was adopted, and a committee appointed to revise entire by-laws 
and report to the College for action thereon. 

A communication from the Medical and Surgical Society of Baltimore, pro- 
testing against the action of this College, as published in the American Journal 
of Pharmacy, July, 1873, was read, and on motion laid on the table. 

The President appointed J. Newport Potts, Reporter of the College. 

J. N. Potts, Reporter. 



St. Clair Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois. — At the 
stated meeting held in Belleville, December 9, the Secretary and Treasurer 
presented their annual reports, after which the following officers were elected 
for the current year: President, N. T. Baker; Yice-President, Hubert 
Kuenster; Secretary, A. G. F. Streit Ph. D. ; Treasurer, A. Rudolph. A pe- 
tition to Congress was adopted, requesting the entire abolition of the Stamp 
Tax upon medicines, in view of the conflicting decisions by different revenue 
officers ; the petition was sent to Hon. Mr. Oglesby for presentation in the 
Senate, and to Hon. W. R. Merriam for presentation in the House. 



California Pharmaceutical Society. — The annual meeting took place on 
October 9th, 1873. The following officers were elected to serve for the ensuing 
year: President, John Calvert; Vice-Presidents, John Newman and A. L. 
Lengfeld ; Secretary (Recording and Corresponding), J. W. Forbes; Treasurer, 
Wm, J. Bryan ; Board of Directors, John Calvert, Win. T. Wenzell, J» Gv 
Steele, J. W. Forbes, H. B. Shaw. 

The retiring officers presented reports which were accepted. 
A report on behalf of the Board of Pharmacy, presented by the Secretary, 
Mr. J. (x. Steele, contains the following information : 

There have been registered of Graduates, .... 20 
" Licentiates, ... 25 
" " " Practising Pharmacists, . 81 

" « " " " Assistants, 102 

228 

Actions have in every instance resulted in favor of the Board when they have 
been compelled to institute them for infractions of the law. Such a proceeding, 
however, has been the last resort, every means being employed to induce com- 
pliance therewith and to avoid ill feeling toward the Act and the Officers of the 
Board. 

Owing to the onerous nature of the position of Secretary, Mr. James G-. 
Steele has been obliged to resign the position, of which notice is given in the 
report. At the following meeting of the Board, his resignation took effect, 
when J. Winchell Forbes was elected to fill the vacancy. The financial affairs 
of the Society are in the most encouraging condition, the balance on hand 
being larger than at any previous report, although the expenses for the current 
year have been heavier. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1874. $ 



Editorial. 



41 



The meetings of the Society are now held at the rooms of the College, No. 
728 Montgomery street. 

J. Winchell Forbes, Secretary. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the meeting held Decem- 
ber 3d, Mr. Thomas H. Hills presiding, Professor Bentley exhibited fresh 
specimens of Eucalyptus globulus, and gave an account of some botanical char- 
acters and medicinal and other products obtained from this and allied species. 
Mr. Hanbury remarked that the eucalyptus tree was not only said to cure fever, 
but what was more remarkable, that it rendered localities that were feverish, 
habitable. It had been of great advantage to the low lying districts around the 
Mediterranean and especially Algeria, and the marsh fevers had entirely dis- 
appeared from some localities. Dr. Weddell had said that the tree acted like 
a great sponge drawing the moisture out of the ground, which effect is referred 
by Mr. Preston to the enormous roots. 

Mr. Gale read a note on glycerite of gallic acid, and stated that, on diluting 
the officinal preparation with three parts of water, the gallic acid crystallizes 
out ; Mr. Martindale had noticed a similar occurrence in consequence of low 
temperature, without the previous dilution of the glycerin. Mr. M. Carteighe 
believes that these glycerites have not proved as satisfactory as might have 
been wished, due to the fact, not generally known, that they require to be 
mixed with water before use ; crystals of ferric chloride dissolved in glycerin had 
been applied to serious hemorrhages without any useful effect, until the glycerin 
solution had been diluted with water, when it was at once effective. 

Mr. A. W. Gerrard read a paper entitled " A New Solvent for Phosphorus ; 
its Preparation and Pharmaceutical Use." The paper called forth some 
interesting remarks on the exhibition of phosphorus and some of its compounds. 
Mr. Gerrard's preparation contains the phosphorus probably mechanically 
divided in the form of an intimate mixture with the resin. 

After an interesting discussion on adulterations, the meeting adjourned to 
February 4th. 



(EMtorial Department. 



Physicians' Prescriptions and Patent Medicines. — Cannot a physician pre- 
scribe any article or articles in the Materia Medica (U. S. P.), in such propor- 
tions or in such combination as he may judge best suited to his patient? and is 
not the druggist at liberty to fill such a prescription, when in proper form, 
without regard to the fact that a similar or identical preparation was or is in 
existence in the form of a patent medicine? 

A correspondent sends this query, and desires to have our views on the sub- 
ject stated therein. We presume that there cannot be any difference of opinion 
in regard to the first portion of the query ; a physician has the undoubted right 
to prescribe any article, whether a simple drug, a Galenical preparation or 
chemical compound, which in his judgment is best adapted for any special case 



42 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Phaem. 
\ Jan. 1, 1874. 



of sickness ; and this liberty of selecting the curative agents is not only con- 
fined to those articles which are contained in the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States, but extends to any article which he may suppose to meet any special 
indication. Pharmacopoeias define the quality of those medicinal agents — 
whether simple or compound — which are employed to a certain extent; but 
they are not intended to make a selection of such which ought to be used or 
rejected by the physician. Hence all pharmacopoeias contain a larger number 
of drugs and preparations, possessing astringent, tonic, aperient, cathartic, 
sedative, &c, properties, which are actually prescribed by some physicians. 
The number of drugs and of chemicals actually used by each physician is, in 
the large majority of cases, very small, and, as far as the individual is con- 
cerned, perhaps nine-tenths or even more of all the articles might be stricken 
from his Pharmacopoeia. But that even the Pharmacopoeia, comprehensive as 
it necessarily must be, does not define the limits beyond which a medical prac- 
titioner does not go, is well known to all pharmacists actively engaged in busi- 
ness, and that such limits cannot be drawn is evident, unless it were possible 
to fix the boundary lines of human research and progress. 

The unlimited liberty of selection naturally includes the same unlimited lib- 
erty of combination of remedies; hence, in our opinion, no patent, of what- 
ever kind, can interfere with the cure of disease, by preventing a physician 
from prescribing certain remedies in any desirable proportion, combination or 
form, .And if the prescribing of remedies used in patented medicines cannot 
be prevented, surely the compounding of such prescriptions by the pharmacist 
cannot interfere with the real or pretended rights of anybody, and the phar- 
macist is not only at liberty, but we would consider him morally bound, to dis- 
pense each special prescription, and not to entrust the dispensing of it to some 
other party in a distant locality. 

Some five or six years ago a New York firm procured a patent upon the 
combination of salts of bismuth with pepsin, and we believe intended at one 
time to enforce their supposed monopoly; but we have yet to learn of the first 
physician who, by this patent, had been deterred from prescribing the two ar- 
ticles together, or of the apothecary who, from fear of infringing upon that pat- 
ent right, had refused to dispense such a prescription. 

During the last year or two, reference has been repeatedly made in this jour- 
nal to a combination of cod-liver oil, phosphate of calcium, lactic acid, &c, for 
which a patent has been obtained by a party of this city. We know that such 
combinations are at the present time prescribed in various parts of the coun- 
try, and we believe also in Europe, by formulas published in this journal, and 
elsewhere; but we do not believe that a single physician or pharmacist has been 
prevented from prescribing or dispensing these articles, officinal in the U. S. 
and other pharmacopoeias, although they happen to be the same articles for 
the combination of which the Patent Office has seen fit to issue letters patent. 

While we contend for the unrestricted liberty of the pharmacist to dispense 
any article of animal, vegetable or mineral origin, which a physician may hap- 
pen to prescribe, we desire to be uuderstood as not expressing any opinion in 
regard to the legality of offering preparations for sale which may be put up in 
imitation of such for which letters patent have been obtained. We regard all 



Am. Jour. Phaem. ) 
Jan. 1, 1874. f 



Editorial. 



43 



preparations for which not the full working formula is given, in the light of half 
or full-blown nostrums, and as akin to quackery, no matter what their real or 
pretended remedial merits may be. 

The Stamp Tax. — A large number of petitions have been presented to both 
houses of Congress, asking for the repeal or modification of the Internal Rev- 
enue Law as far as it relates to the stamping of medicines. We have kept our 
readers advised of the action taken by the various pharmaceutical bodies 
throughout the country in response to the ruling of Commissioner J. W. Doug- 
lass, as contained in his letter of September 9th, 1873. Since our last issue we 
have received copies of resolutions and petitions of several societies, in addi- 
tion to those mentioned in the December number, all of which agree in sub- 
stance with those previously published. 

During the past month a Committee of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange 
had an interview with the Committee of Ways and Means, having been intro- 
duced by Hon. Leonard Myers. The result of this interview of course cannot 
be known, since the Committee will doubtless give a hearing to the Officers of 
the Internal Revenue Bureau, and to such Committees of druggists and phar- 
macists desiring to be heard ; and we would therefore urge upon our readers in 
all parts of the country to take such steps as will bring their grievances di- 
rectly before the proper Congressional Committee, and likewise before their 
Representatives in Congress and their Senators. 

We understand that there is no probability that the internal taxation will be 
lessened during the present session of Congress ; but the members seem to be 
favorably disposed towards rendering Section 13 of the Act of July 13, 1866, 
unmistakably clear, by striking out the last portion, commencing with "Noth- 
ing in this section shall be construed," &c, and towards modifying Schedule 
C so as to include only patent or proprietary medicines, and such preparations 
for which any proprietary claim to merit, composition, preparation or quality is 
set forth. This would leave the tax where it was intended to be put at first, 
namely, upon proprietary articles, and would remove all uncertainty. To 
accomplish this end, every pharmacist can contribute his mite in the manner 
indicated above. 



Charges against Pharmacists — On page 88 of our last volume we pub- 
lished an account of the Proceedings of a Conference of Delegates of Medical 
Societies in Baltimore, and of the Maryland College of Pharmacy, which grew 
out of charges preferred against the pharmacists of that city. Page 328 con- 
tains a series of resolutions adopted by the Maryland College of Pharmacy 
after the Committee of Medical Societies had been discharged. We have since 
received the following communication: 

Whereas, A preamble and resolutions have been received by the President 
of this Association, purporting to come from the Maryland College of Phar- 
macy, arraigning this Society in unfriendly terms for discharging its Committee 
appointed to confer with a like Committee from that College upon certain 
alleged grievances and differences existing between the two ptofessions of 
Medicine and Pharmacy; and 



44 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { k *jm™'mt**' 

Whereas. The College of Pharmacy has thought fit to publish said preamble 
and resolutions before sending to this Association an officially certified copy 
thereof, or waiting for a meeting of this Society to consider and reply to those 
resolutions, or to explain their action ; therefore 

Resolved, By the Medical and Surgical Society of Baltimore, that this action 
of the Maryland College of Pharmacy is unjust, ungenerous and undignified, 
evinces an unfriendly spirit towards this Society and the Medical profession 
at large, an eagerness to avail themselves of a trivial and technical excuse to 
evade the charges made against them, and furnishes additional evidence of the 
truth of those charges. 

Resolved, That the assumption contained in those resolutions, that this So- 
ciety withdraws its charges against the pharmaceutists by discharging its Com- 
mittee from their further consideration, is not warranted by that circumstance, 
and is untrue in fact. On the contrary, we repeat and urge them, singly and 
collectively, and maintain that the pharmaceutists are daily furnishing addi- 
tional evidence of their truth. 

Resolved, That the Secretary be ordered to send a copy of these resolutions, 
properly authenticated, to the Faculty of the Maryland College of Pharmacy, 
and also to the Philadelphia " Journal of Pharmacy," with the request that 
they be published. 

R. W. Mansfield, M. D., Cor. Secretary. 
Thomas B. Evans, M. D., President. 

In complying with the request of the Medical and Surgical Soicety of Bal- 
timore, to publish the foregoing preamble and resolutions, we desire to express 
our regret at their unfriendly spirit. Irregularities and abuses can only be cor- 
rected by harmonious action. The Medical and Surgical Society offers in the 
above no explanation why the subcommittee of the physicians did not meet the 
subcommittee of the pharmacists, or why their Committee was discharged ; 
but simply reiterates charges, which are admitted to apply to some. The ac- 
tion of the conference at the first meeting appeared to be so friendly and har- 
monious, that we sincerely trust the honorable members of both professions in 
the Monumental City will again endeavor to remedy all complaints by friendly 
and patient counsel. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Deutsche Miniatur-Pharmakopde. Ein praktisch.es Handund Hilfsbuch fur 
Aertze und Apotheker, von Dr. Max Biechele, Apotheker. Eichstatt und 
Stuttgart. Krull'sche Buchhandlung, 1873. 16o. 406 pages. Price in 
paper, 1 thaler. 

This is the German pharmacopoeia translated into the German language, and 
arranged in such a manner that the formulas are given in definite weights in- 
stead of in parts, with space sufficient to insert other larger or smaller weights 
as maybe necessary or convenient. It contains also directions for preparing 
many chemicals, formulas for which have not been admitted into the pharma- 
copoeia, and which nevertheless may be advantageously prepared by the phar- 
macist. In each case the yield is likewise given ; also directions for detecting 
the impurities which may possibly contaminate the preparations. The little 
volume appears to be a handy and practical laboratory companion, 

Anleitung zur Erkennung und genauen Prufung aller in der deutschen Phar- 
macopoe aufgenommenen Stoffe. Yon Dr. Max Biechele, Apotheker. 2 
Auflage. Eichstatt, 1873. Krull'sche Buchhandlung. 16 mo. pp. 237. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1874. J 



Catalogue of the Class. 



45 



Directions for the recognition and accurate examination of all articles con- 
tained in the German pharmacopoeia. 

The object of this little work is to explain the tests for identity and purity 
which are given in the pharmacopoeia. The quantitative determinations are 
usually given by the volumetric method ; where the gravimetric method i8 
preferable, the conrse to be pursued is briefly described. For articles of the 
•materia medica the description of the drugs are given as contained in the 
pharmacopoeia, with some additions where they appeared to be desirable. 

The German Pharmacopoeia translated into English by Mr. C. L. Loch man, 
which we noticed in our last number, will be sent by mail on remitting $2.25 
(not $2.50 as stated before; to the publishers, Messrs. David D Elder & Co., 
Philadelphia. The work will be a valuable addition to the library of all 
physicians and pharmacists. 

OBITUARY. 

Louis Jean Rudolph Agassiz the eminent naturalist, died at Boston on De- 
cember 14. He was born at Motiers, Canton of Freiburg, Switzerland, May 
28th, 1807, where his father labored as clergyman, his ancestors having emi- 
grated from France with the Huguenots near the close of the 17th century. At 
Zurich and Heidelberg he studied medicine, afterwards, in Munich, natural 
history and philosophy. A description of 116 species of fishes collected by 
Spix in Brazil, was published by him in 1829—1831. From 18r»3 to 1842 he 
published (with C. Vogt and E. Desor) a work on fossil fishes, from 1839 to 

1845, one on the fresh water fishes of Central Europe, and in 1844 one on 
British fossil fishes. In 1840 appeared his Etudes sur les glaciers, which was 
followed in 1847 by his Systeme glaciaire. He arrived in the United States in 

1846, became professor of zoology and geology at the Lawrence Scientific 
School at Cambridge, Mass., was in 1852 to 1857 in a similar capacity in Charles- 
ton, S. C, being in the meantime engaged in scientific labors in connection 
with the coast survey, and afterwards accepted the chair of zoology and 
geology at Harvard University, where he labored successfully until an attack 
of paralysis terminated his career. His journeys to Lake Superior, to Brazil, 
€tc, his contributions to the natural history of North America, and other 
works from his pen, are monuments which will always keep his name among 
those of the most faithful devotees to natural sciences. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

FOR THE FIFTY-THIRD SESSION, 1873-74. 
With a List of their Preceptors and Localities. 



MATRICULANTS. TOWN OR COl 

Acker, Louis K. Phillipsburg, 

Ackermann, David, Bangor, 

Allen, James A. Phillipsburg, 

Bakus, Edmund, Cincinnati, 

Baldwin, James H. Kewanee, 



STATE. PRECEPTOR. 

Pennsylvania. George R. Vernon. 

" R. Shoemaker. 

New Jersey. Dungan, Wheeler & Pape 

Ohio. Isaac W. Smith. 

Illinois. S. M. Hurd. 



46 



Catalogue of the Class. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm 
t Jan. 1, 1874. 



Banks, Wm. B. 

Bantly, Bartholomew, 

Barndollar, Harry, 

Barr, John Franeiseus, 

Barrere, George W. 

Barth, Alfred, 

Beekert, T. F. 

Beecher, Benjamin C. 

Beidler, Samuel M. 

Benseman, A 

Bibby, Walter E. 

Bicker, William B. 

Biddle, C. J. 

Blaine, David J. 

Blair, S. C. 

Blake, John •. 

Boisnot, F. S. 

Boisnot, H. 6. 

Botsford, Chipman, 

Bowens, A. 

Braddock. W. H. 

BrennaD, Henry M. 

Brown, Frank P. 

Brown, J. R. 

Bryan, Henry N. 

Buckingham. J. Harry, 

Buckman, T. L. 

Buck waiter, I. M. 

Budd : Frank M. 

Buzby, Augustus C. 

Chaninel, Wm. J. 

Cheetham, Thomas A. 
Clarke, L. G. 

Cline, Samuel P. 
Coffee, Isaac N. 
Conner, Jefferson S. 
Conrath, Frank, 
Cook, Thomas Penrose, 
Corbvn Theophilus N. 
Cox, William B. 
Crawford, W. F. 
Creen, Judge J. 
Davis, Samuel B. 
Davidson, Edward J. 
Davison, James, 
Dawson, E. S. Jr. 
Dilmore, William, 
Dittler, Frederick A. 
Dobson, D. A. 
Drueding, Henry, 
Dubbs, J. A. 
Elwell, Albert S. 
Evar s. Joseph C. 
Evans, J. H. 
Everhart, T. 
Eubanks, S. B. 
Farnsworth, Duke, 
Fiedler, A. 
Fielding, John, 
Fleck, J. J. 
Fleming, W. S. 
Fry, Wilbut W. 
Gettv, W. S. 
Gleim, F. H. E. 
Goess, George C. 
Golliday, Frank, 
Goodno, Charles, 
Graef, Paul, Jr. 
Green, Howard C. 
Groves John D. 
Gruths, William, 
Haeberle, Jacob, 
Haines, John W. 
Hand, Jacob H. 
Harrison, W. L. 
Hart, George H. J. 
Hartzell, Franklin T. 
Hattan, Edgar M. 
Hayes, J. Frank, 
Hazzard, Thomas H. 
Hazlett, Edward E. 
Henwood, C. H. 



Philadelphia, 

Milwaukee, 

Danville, 

Lewistown, 

Hillshoro', 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Juniata Co. 

Minersville, 

Philadelphia, 



Trenton, 

St. Johns, 
Indianapolis, 
Camden, 
Philadelphia, 

Cuthbert, 
Philadelphia, 



Chester, 

Jamesburg, 

Rancocas, 

Philadelphia, 

Dawson, 

Zanesville, 

Mount Holly, 

Blandville, 

N. Albany, 

Milwaukee, 

Philadelphia, 



Willianisport, 

Conshohocken, 

Philadelphia, 



Syracuse, 
Salem, 
Pittsburg, 
Philadelphia, 

Franklin, 

Bridgetorj, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Memphis, 

Lock Haven, 

Philadelphia, 

Chester, 

Findlay, 

Green Castle, 

Wilkesbarre. 

Georgetown, 

Lebanon, 

Philadelphia, 

Columbus, 

Philadelphia, 

Piqua, 

Philadelphia, 



West-field. 

Philadelphia, 

Petersburg, 

New Orleans, 

Allentown, 

Zanesville, 

Oxford, 

Philadelphia, 

Zanesville, 

Honesdale, 



Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

New Brunswick. 
Indiana. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 

Ohio. 

New Jersey. 

Kentucky. 

Indiana. 

Wisconsin. 

Pennsylvania. 



New York. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Tennessee. 
Pennsylvania. 



Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Dist. of Columbia. 
Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Virginia. 

Louisiana. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



Aschenbach & Miller. 

J. H. Tesch & Co. 

C L. Cumming. 

H. C. B 1 air's Sons. 

Charles Shivers. 

Henry Schmidt. 

J. F. Caldwell. 

Hansell & Bro. 

P. H. Horn. 

J. K. Burus. 

S. Rosenberger, M.D. 

E. Parrish & Son. 

Bullock * Crenshaw. 

H. W. Siddall. 

W. R, Warner & Co. 

A. L. Helmbold. 

Willard M. Rice, Jr. 

Wm. Weber. 

Hance, Bros. & White. 

E. A. Cobb. 

L. Oberholtzer. M.D. 

Martin Goldsmith. 

E. Janvier, M.D. 

P. R Holt. 

A. W. Duvall. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

D. L. Slackhouse. 

Valentine H. Smith & Co. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

Aschenbach & Miller. 

R. Shoemaker & Co. 

French, Richards & Co. 

Joseph Shaw. 

A. S. White. 

W. M. Coffee. 

W. C. Bakes. 

O. A. Thiele. 

Powers & Weightman. 

C. L. :■ berle. 

J. D. Marshall & Bros. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

James W. Harry. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
S. Campbell. 
Wm. E. Knight. 
R. Simpers. 

S. S. Bunting. 
A. W. Kredle. 

D. W. Blake. 
L. Gerhard. 
Henry Dubbs. 
James T. White. 
Frederick Brown. 
R. Simpson. 
James Kemble. 
S. H. Brown, M.D. 
Joh n^Wyeth & Bro. 
J. Wendel, Jr. 

M. H. Bickley. 

E. M. Roche. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 

G. Krause. 

Jos. L. Lemberger. 

Valentine H. Smith. 

Samuel T. Jones. 
Marshall & Edwards. 
Powers £ Weightman. 
M. F. Groves, M.D. 
Aschenbach & Miller. 

Wm. M. Wilson & Co. 
Kneeshaw. Norris & Co, 
N. F. Rives. 
Bullock & Crenshaw 
W. E. Barnes. 
A. B. Taylor. 
J. F. Hayes. 
T. H. Hazzard. 
T. A. Lancaster. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Jan. 1, 1874. J 



Catalogue of the Glass, 



Heckenberger, Wm. 
flerrman, Ernest, 
Henry, George S. 
Hildeburn, Charles R. 
Hillegass, Eugene Z. 
Hillegass, O. J. 
Hilton, T. C. 
Holliday, Wm. A. 
Hopp, Lewis 0. 
Huffnall, Andrew N. 
Hull, George S. 
Hulting, Frederick, 
Hunter, David, 
Hunter, M. M. 
Hunter, W. Birt, 
Hurst, Samuel B. 
Hutchinson, Harvey B. 
Jacob,, A. Wilson, 
Jacobs, George H. 
Jacoby, A. P. 
Jacoby, Reuben Z. 
Janvier, C. Pierre, 
Jardella, Jerome B. 
Johnson, George H. 
Johnston, Robert H. 
Jummel, Fi-ank R. 
Justice, Richard S. 
Keeler, J. P. 
Keenan, Augustus H. 
Keller, Albert P. 
Kilbride, John Jackson, 
Kimbrough, James M. 
King, Alexander, 
King, Edward R. 
Kingsbury, Howard, 
Kinnear, J. A. 
Kinney, M. G., Jr. 
Knox, R. C. 
Koch, Emil, 
Koch, Francis J. 
Kolp, J. L. 
Kram, George W. 
Kramer, J. D. W. 
Kramer, T. B. 
Kraus, Otto, 
Kruell, Frederick, 
Kuhn, Norman A. 
Landschutz, Peter, 
Latz, Frederick W. 
Lechler, H. P. 
Legge, George, 
Leibold, Louis P. 
Lescher, G. C. 
Levering, George W. 
Levy, David W. 
Lamb, A. L. 
McElroy, Bernard F. 
McFerren, J. D. 
McMullin, Albert, 
McRoberts, W. B. 
Maguet, Louis F. 
Manlove, H. C. 
Marshall, Joseph H. 
Maston, James A. 
Mattern, Wm. K. 
Mays, A. G. 
Means, Wm. B. 
Medbury, J. E. 
Merritt, J. Wayne, 
Messing, Jacob, Jr. 
Metz, Samuel A. 
Meyer, William, 
Miles, J. J. 
Miller, C. M. 
Mitchell, Wm. S. 
Mitsch, George J. 
Moore, John L. 
Morgan, T. C. 
Morrow, B. Rowland, 
Muthersbough, J. 
Newhard, Robert M. 
Nick, Frederick, 



Catasauqna, 

Philadelphia, 

Lebanon, 

Philadelphia, 

Pennsburg, 

Harrisburg, 

Kittanning, 

Columbus, 

Cleveland, 

Philadelphia, 

Chambersburgh, 

Rock Island, 

Philadelphia, 

Pendleton, 

Camden, 

Philadelphia, 

Trenton, 

Lewistown, 

Hannibal, 

Bethlehem, 

Quakertown, 

Philadelphia, 



Camden, 

N. Egypt, 

Mauch Chunk, 

Philadelphia, 

White Deer Mills, 

Meridian, 

Buffalo, 

Bordentown, 

Philadelphia, 

Little Rock, 

Philadelphia, 

Chicago, 

Philadelphia, 

Davenport, 

Philadelphia, 

Minersville, 

Washington, 

Philadelphia, 

Chicago, 

Salem, 

Philadelphia, 

Buffalo, 

Philadelphia, 

Indianola, 

Millersburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Ashland, 

Camden, 

Philadelphia, 

Chambersburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Stanford, 

Galliopolis, 

Dover, 

Philadelphia, 

Alexandria, 

Philadelphia, 

Williamsport, 

Lewistown, 

Hamilton, 

Woodbury, 

Elizabeth, 

Phillipsburg, 

Milwaukie, 

Vicksburg, 

Mansfield, 

McVeytown, 

St. Paul, 

North East, 

Great Barrington, 

Philadelphia, 

Lewistown, 

Lebanon, 

Erie, 



Pennsylvania. 



Georgia. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 
South Carolina. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Missouri. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Mississippi. 

New York. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Arkansas. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 

Iowa. 

Pennsylvania. 



Dist. of Columbia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 

Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Kentucky. 

Ohio. 

Delaware. 

Pennsylvania. 

Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 



New York. 
New Jersey. 



Wisconsin. 
Mississippi. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Minnesota. 

Maryland. 

Massachusetts. 

Pennsylvania. 



Aschenbach & Miller. 
H. Hutchison. 

D. S. Raber. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

Valentine H. Smith & Co. 

C. C. Hughes. 

J. E. Reichert. 

J. T. White. 

Alfred Mavell. 

T. A. Walker. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

John Bengston. 

T. Hunter, M.D. 

P. H. E. Sloan, M.D. 

L. M. Pratt, M.D. 

John C. Hurst. 

R. & J. Rickey. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

J. B. Brown. 

John Moffit. 

W. J. McClain. 

E. Janvier, M.D. 
J. B. Jardella. 
Hansell & Bros. 
J. Q. Miles. 

H. Edward Wendel. 
W R. Warner & Co. 
A. P. Blomer. 
A. R. Hortter. 
George W. Kennedy, 
W. C. Ebaugh, M.D. 
W. H. Bennett. 
W. A. Musson. 
P. F. Hyatt, M.D. 
Lenher A Spencer. 
George A. Hughes. 

F. Jacoby, Jr. 
J. L. Bispham. 
Louis Koch. 
J. Schlegel. 

C. H. Kolp. 
J. Vanbuskirk, M.D, 
Herman Gerhard. 
A. Kennedy. 
Samuel Gerhard. 
Charles J. Radish. 
R. P. Trimble. 
Jos. Landschutz. 
E. B. Garrigues & Co. 
Wm. L. Turner. 
C. A. Weidemann. 
E. P. Camp. 
N. A. Johnson. 
C. E. Davis. 

C. W. Seary, M.D. 

D. P. Pan coast, M.D. 
Thomas J. Husband, Jr. 
J. S. Nixon. 

A. M. Wilson. 

D. S. Jones. 

M. J. Cummings. 

J. B. Moore. 

S. D. Marshall, M.D. 

J. R. Stevenson, M.D. 

S. Rosenberger, M.D. 

W. F. Logan, M.D. 

T. Gordon, M.D. 

W. A. Musson. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

Wm. M. Patterson. 
Baumbach & Gerhardy. 
Hardaway & Co. 
S. E. R. Hassinger. 
L. A. Dix. 
Dreis & Mitsch. 
Alfred Tatem. 
S. Campbell. 
H. Hutchinson. 
Hance, Bros. & White. 
C. C. Thompson, M.D. 
W. Nick & Sons. 



48 



Catalogue of the Glass. 



( Am. Jouk. Pharm 
1 Jan. 1, 1874. 



•O'Neill, George, 
Oppermann, Hugo, 
Ouram, Charles, 
Paine, John T. 
Parsels, W. A. 
Patterson, J. L. 
Percy, D. G. 
Plurnmer, Edward, 
Poley, Warren H. 
Powell, Wra. R. 
Power, Frederick B. 
Price, John B. 
Railey, Irvin, 
Ramsey, Wra. H. 
Reed, Edward A. 
Reifsnider, H. D. 
Reimann, L. P. 
Rieuhamer, F. 
Richardson, O. B. 
Robhins, Wm. H. 
Roeder, J. E. 
Rogers, Joseph C. 
Rogers, W. B. 
Rowe, John M. 
Rowley, Isaac H. 
Royston, J. L. 
Savage, Frank S. 
Schirmer, W. G. 
Seal, J. T. 
Seeger, Joseph W. 
Seitz, Frederick, 
Shamalia, George M. 
Sher. P. P. 
Shoemaker, T. E. 
Sides, H. B. 
Sinnickson, J. W. 
Smith, Albert Henry, 
Smith, Clayton K. 
Smith, Rush B. 
Snvder, W. B. 
Sommers, Richard, 
Sparrow, Charles, 
Spence, Samuel B. 
Stewart, R. Reed, 
Stirling, S. R. 
Stockton, William W. 
Stoltz, Frederick, 
Stoner, E. Frank, 
Stoner, W. J. 
Street, Leonidas H. 
Stuart, Manilus H. 
Sussdorff, Frank L. 
Terrell, Thomas, 
Thayer, Edward M. 
Thorn, Henry P. 
Til ton, Francis M. 
Tomlin, Millard F. 
Tomlinson, T. C. 
Trabue, Wra. 
Voelcker, Rudolph, 
Walch, Robert H. 
Walker, Samuel E. 
Wallace, Ray n old, 
Ward, Walter, 
Warrington. C. W. 
Webber. J. Le Roy, 
Weber, Jeremiah, 
~Weiser, Wm. P. 
Wellcome. Henry S. 
Wert, John M. 
West, William H. 
Wheaton, Theodore C. 
Wilgus, John F. 
Williams, John L. 
Will?. Charles J. 
-Wilson, A. H. 
Wi'son, Alex. 
Wilson, Lewis H. 
Wltmer, John A. 
Yarnall, Benjamin D. 
Younglove, John M. 
Ziegler. J. Walter, 



Philadelphia, 



Phoenixville, 

Philadelphia, 

Millerstown, 

Frostburg, 

Brooklyn, 

Norristown, 

Seaforth, 

Hudson, 

Wilmington, 

Versailes, 

Reedsburg, 

Mendota, 

Springfield, 

Buffalo, 

Philadelphia, 

Brattleboro', 

Philadelphia, 

Hosensack, 

Frenchtown, 

Waynes bury, 

Tarboro, 

Philadelphia, 

Lancaster, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Glasgow, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Lambertsville 

Philadelphia, 



Norristown, 
North Wales, 
Camden, 
Leavenworth, 
Fond du Lac, 
Philadelphia, 

Mount Holly, 

Philadelphia, 

Lancaster, 

Harrisburg, 

Gloucester, 

Philadelphia, 

Salem, 

Philadelphia, 

Medford, 

Easton, 

Glassboro', 

Philadelphia, 

Louisville, 

New Braunfels, 

Philadelphia, 

Canton, 

Philadelphia, 

Moorestown, 

Springfield, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Chicago, 

Sellersville, 

Philadelphia, 

South' Seaville, 

Bordentown, 

Darby, 

Philadelphia. 
Rock Point, 
Philadelphia, 
Camden, 
Lancaster, 
Philadelphia, 
Bowling Green, 
Sunbury, 



Pennsylvania. 



Maryland. 

New York. 

Pennsylvania. 

Canada. 

New York. 

Delaware. 

Kentucky. 

Wisconsin. 

Illinois. 

Ohio. 

New York. 
Pennsylvania. 
Vermont. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

North Carolim 

Pennsylvania. 

Kentucky. 

Pennsylvania. 

Missouri. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Kansas. 
Wisconsin. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
North Carolina. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Kentucky. 
Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Massachusetts. 
Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 



Powers & Weightman. 
A. Oppermann. 

G. W. Ouram. 

J. O. K Robarts. 
Aquila Nebeker. 
T. M. Baldwin. 
C. Shivers. 

A. S. Leidy. 

F B. Poley, M.D. 
Ehrman Lehman. 
E. Parrish & Son. 
E. Bringhurst & Co. 
Logan Railey. 
Samuel Ramsey. 
Max A. F Haas. 

H. C. Blair's Sons. 
J. A. Heintzelman. 
Wm. Notson, M.D. 

I. N. Thorn & Co. 
Alonzo Robbins. 
R. Oppermann. 
R. W. Richie. 
Blachly & Rogers. 
E. H. Lee. 

Hance, Bros. & White. 
W. B. Thompson. 
J. R. Angney, M.D. 
M. C. Kreitzer, M.D. 
J. Roper. 

Roger Keys, M.D. 
Charles S. Super. 
Walter C. Stillwell, M.D. 
J. W. Dallam & Co. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
Samuel Gerhard. 
I. J. Grahame. 
H. A. Vogelbach. 
Jas. T. Shinn. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

B. K. Johnson, M.D. 
Thomas G. Rowan, M.D. 
Robert J. Brown. 
Kalk & Kent. 

E. C. Jones. 

J R. Angney, M.D. 
Isaac W. Smith. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. A. Braddock. 

Ed Tomlinson, M.D. 

D. Milligan. 

Wm D. Elliott & Co. 
P. D. Woodhouse. 

F. G. Thoman. 
Isaac W. Stokes. 
J. S. Erben. 
James G. Well8. 
S. Creadick, M.D. 

G. V. Eddy. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 

Jas. T. Walker. 

A. M. McCrea, M.D. 

G. Krause. 

J. W. Worthington. 

J. T. Webber. 

M. Combs. 

A. P. Brown. 

S. C. Wellcome & Co. 

H. A. Bower. 
Powers & Weightman. 
P. M. Way, M.D. 
George M. Carlslake. 
Joseph B. Shaw. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Daniel S. Jones. 
Powers & Weightman. 
D. S. Wiltberger. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
A. D. Yarnall. 
J. I. Younglove, M.D. 
F. Zerman, M.D. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



FEBRUARY, 18 7 4. 



PH ARM AC GNOSTIC AL AND CHEMICAL NOTES. 
By John M. Maisch. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 20, 1874. 

It is desirable occasionally to call attention to drugs of handsome 
appearance and excellent qualities, if it be for no other purpose than 
to let the profession know how perfect a drug may be preserved, even 
in commerce, so as to represent all its characteristics and show any 
admixture if such should be present. These considerations induce 
me to notice two drugs, Pomegranate bark and Chiretta, which I 
recently obtained from Messrs Cramer & Small, of this city. 

Pomegranate Bark usually occurs in our commerce in small frag- 
ments of quills, which rarely attain the diameter of a finger. The 
bark in question is in single and double quills, varying in length from 
two and a half to seven inches and from one-half to one inch in diameter. 
It has apparently been collected from the lower part of the trunk 
and the thicker roots, and agrees in all respects with the bark as 
usually seen in commerce and which is evidently collected from the 
smaller branches of the tree and root. Those quills, which are cov- 
ered with a rather thick pale brownish-grey cork, more or less covered 
with irregular longitudinally cleft ridges, appear to me to belong to 
the root, while the trunk bark appears to have a thinner cork with 
the fissured ridges in more regular longitudinal direction, and a color 
more decidedly grey, varied by patches of blackish brown. It will be re- 
membered that Dr. C. Harz stated* a few years ago that the commer- 
cial pomegranate bark is always the bark of the overground axis, 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1870, p 220. 
4 



50 Pharrnacognoslical and Chemical Notes. { k %^XmT^' 

but is sometimes mixed with the root bark in variable proportions. 
Both barks are said to be alike active as anthelmintics, but the medi- 
cinal reputation appears to be based mainly upon the effects of the 
bark of the trunk and branches. 

Qhiretta is, according to our pharmacopoeia, the entire plant of 
Agathotes Chirayto Don. As seen in commerce, it consists mainly of 
the roots and bare stems with a few fragments of the leaves and 
flowers or capsules still attached, while the far greater portion of 
these organs have been broken off. The specimen here shown is an 
original bundle, 32 inches in length, five inches in width and varying 
from one-half to one inch in thickness, thus presenting the form of 
an elongated parallelopiped in appearance ; its weight is about one 
pound. The stems are folded back on themselves, so as to show 
principally the paniculate infloresence, composed of numerous umbel- 
like cymes situated along the branches. The bundle is tied at both 
extremities and in the centre with split cane, and the plant has the 
peculiar bitter taste to an intense degree. 

A False Angustura Bark, which has been sold to a small extent in 
this city, was shown to me a short time ago. The small piece which 
I first saw was quite thin, covered with a greyish cork exhibiting 
patches of an orange shade, while the inner surface was of a dark 
brown, so as to present at first sight an appearance reminding of the 
bark of Strychnos nux vomica, which is usually designated as false 
angustura bark. The bark in question, however, is of such a fibrous 
texture that the idea of its probable identity with the strychnos bark 
is at once dispelled. The specimen here shown is in slightly curved 
pieces, seven inches and less in length, and one-eighth of an inch and 
less in thickness ; intermixed with some half quills and a few quills. 
It consists altogether of the inner bark or bast layer, the outer bark 
having been thrown off by the cork. The suberous layer shows nu- 
merous small warts more or less confluent laterally, so as to form 
elevated patches, but mainly uniting in the direction of the axis to 
short, very irregular, longitudinal ridges. The cork is very soft, al- 
most mealy, of a light brownish-grey color externally, and of a de- 
cided pale orange-rust-brown within. The surface layer being easily 
rubbed off, the orange tinted patches are easily explained ; their color, 
however, is never of the bright orange-red of the patches upon the 
strychnos bark. The inner bark consists of a dark brown parenchy- 
ma, in which coarse, light colored bast fibres are imbedded in inter- 



^FeH; ml™ } Pharmacognostical and Chemical Notes. 51 

rupted tangential rows. The inner surface of the bark is of a 
blackish-brown color, very coarsely striated from the- rather distant 
bast fibres, and often with patches of a soft wood closely adhering, 
which in some specimens has an almost copper-green tint. The bark 
breaks readily with a short but very distinct fibrous fracture, while 
the corky layer breaks much smoother, the bast fibres enclosed by it 
not protruding from the fracture to the same extent as those of the 
inner bark. The taste is purely bitter and devoid of aromatic 
properties. 

It will be observed that this false Angustura bark differs very mate- 
rially from both the true angustura and the strychnos bark. The 
former one of these two barks occurs in curved pieces, with a pale 
almost ochre colored cork, which is very friable and marked with 
suberous warts or by mainly longitudinal furrows. The inner surface 
is of a light brown-yellow, rather granular, not striate. The bark is 
very fragile and shows a smooth fracture in which are numerous white 
shining striae of crystals. 

The latter (strychnos bark) is covered with a warty light greyish 
or yellowish friable cork, with frequently very large orange-red 
patches ; fracture nearly smooth, dark brown, divided by a lighter 
colored line into two layers ; crystalline striae absent ; inner surface 
even, gray-brown to blackish-brown, finely striate. 

I have no means of ascertaining the origin of the false angustura 
bark, described above ; it most likely reached Philadelphia from New 
York. 

Trompatilla, a Remedy for Hydrophobia. — Under this name was 
handed to me, by a friend, a sample of a drug which had been received 
by him from a friend residing in Mexico, where the article is said to be 
successfully used for the prevention and treatment of hydrophobia, for 
which complaint it is freely given in the form of decoction. It is 
stated to be obtained from Bouvardia triphylla and consists of short 
segments of the stem and branches, varying from one-fourth to three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, terete and slightly bent. The bark 
is thin, fragile, brown and separates in a few pieces very readily from 
the wood, but adheres firmly to it in the largest number. The bark 
is covered with a comparatively thick layer of soft friable cork, 
which is rust-brown within, externally grey to blackish-brown and 
marked with numerous shallow longitudinal fissures. The wood is 
rather hard, but splits easily and straight in the direction of the axis ; 



52 Pharmacognostical and Chemical Notes. { A * 5wT*' 

it shows concentric, somewhat irregular, zones, resembling annual 
rings, and is radially very finely striate from the numerous very fine 
medullary rays. The duramen has a purplish-gray tint, the albur- 
num is yellowish-white. There is no perceptible odor to either wood 
or bark ; the former is tasteless, the latter has a slight bitterish taste* 
The central pith is scarcely a line in diameter and of a brownish to 
purplish-brown color. 

The genus Bouvardia belongs to the natural order of Rubiacese, 
tribe Cinchonaceae, subtribe Cinchoneae. De Candolle * enumerates 
eleven species, all shrubby plants and natives of Mexico, having the 
leaves either verticillate or opposite. The scars on the specimens in 
question are three or four in a whorl, indicating that the plant be- 
longs to the former section and is most likely B. triphylla^ Salisbury, 
The following description is translated from De Candolle (loc cit.) 

Bouvardia Jacquini, H. B. K., small branches triangular ; leaves 
somewhat rough, hairy beneath, smooth above, ternate, oblong, 
corymbs subtrichotomous ; calyx lobes one-fifth the length of the 
roughish corolla tube ; corolla red, the tube f inch long ; varies with 
the leaves pubescent and glabrous. 

The following synonyms are mentioned in the same place : Ixora 
Americana, Jacquin ; Ixora ternifolia, Car. ; Houstonia coccinea, An- 
drews ; Bouvardia triphylla, var. a., Salisbury, and Tlacoxochilt jas- 
miniflora, Hernandez. 

Picric Acid Mistaken for Santonin. A vial found in a closet in a 
drug store, was labelled santonin ; the contents were crystalline, of a 
yellow color, and of an intensely bitter taste, which prevented it from 
being used as santonin, for the variety colored yellow by light it 
might have been taken on a superficial examination. It was handed 
to me for identification, and the investigation was performed at the 
College laboratory by Mr. W. L. Harrison of Petersburg, Va. The 
absence of santonin and of an alkaloid, especially berberina, was 
proven by appropriate tests, and the freedom from inorganic matter 
was established by incineration. The following summary gives an 
account of Mr. Harrison's examination. 

The substance was in light yellow shining laminae, taste very bitter 
and somewhat sour ; it reddens litmus and melts, when slowly heated^ 
into a brownish yellow liquid, which immediately becomes crystalline 



*Prodromus, iv, p, 365. 



AM F^b U i;m4 RM '| Additional Notes on Pancreatin, 53 

on cooling. When slightly heated, it volatilizes unchanged ; at a 
higher temperature it takes fire, burning with a yellow, very smoky 
flame and evolving irritating and very bitter fumes. It is soluble in 
cold water, forming a solution of brighter color than the crystals 
themselves ; much more soluble in hot water, from which it crystallizes 
in thin long needles on cooling ; soluble in oil of vitriol particularly 
when heated, and precipitated from the solution in the original state 
upon addition of water. With aqueous solutions of the alkalies it 
gives bitter deep red solutions. Its aqueous solution, treated with 
excess of ferrous sulphate, then with excess of caustic alkali, gives a 
filtrate of a deep blood red color, darker than the preceding with 
alkalies alone. When sulphuretted hydrogen is passed to saturation 
into a saturated alcoholic solution previously neutralized by ammonia, 
the liquid assumes an intense blood red color. These reactions and 
characteristics all correspond with those for picric acid. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON PANCREATIN. 

By Richard Y. Mattison. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 20th. 

Numerous inquiries regarding saccharated pancreatin, its doses, 
uses, &c, having been instituted since the publication of my last 
paper* upon the subject, induces me to present a few further remarks 
upon this valuable and highly interesting substance. This is a fine 
white powder, almost tasteless, or with the slightly sweet taste of lac- 
tin. When mixed with water it is perfectly soluble, dissolving in be- 
tween five and six parts of that liquid, and forming a perfect emul- 
sion when mixed with liquid fats and a small quantity of water. 

I would respectfully suggest the following formula for the proper 
exhibition of cod-liver oil in combination with pancreatin : 

R. Pancreatini Sacchar., . . . ^j, 

Aquae, .... f^iv, 

Sacchari Albi, .... ^vij, 

Olei Morrhuse, . . . Oiss, 

" Gaultherise, . . . gtt. xx, 

" Amygd. Amar. . . gtt. v. 

M. 

*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1873, Dec, p. 531. 



54 Additional Notes on Pancreatin. { A Feb'i'iw™ 

Rub the saccharated pancreatin with the sugar and water, in a mor- 
tar, until a thick syrup is formed ; to this add the cod-liver oil, in 
which the essential oils have been dissolved. This forms a perfect 
emulsion, without difficulty. It separates, of course, upon standing, 
but can easily be shaken together again, forming an emulsion with 
slight agitation. This is certainly to be preferred to the thick muci- 
laginous emulsions made with gum arabic or tragacanth, which are 
usually so distasteful to patients, because of their being so thick. 

By the above formula a preparation can be furnished containing 
seventy-five (75) per cent, of oil, in the condition in which the oil, as 
usually prescribed, enters the duodenum, thus rendering its absorption 
and assimilation by the lacteals comparatively easy, the molecular 
formation of the oil being completely broken up. To make the emul- 
sion whiter a little lime water may be substituted, omitting an equiv- 
alent quantity of water, a partial saponification rendering the emul- 
sion more permanent and more elegant in appearance. 

The easy assimilation of this preparation having been experimen- 
tally demonstrated by several of our eminent medical practitioners, 
it stands unrivalled in a therapeutical point of view as a standard 
pharmaceutical preparation of cod-liver oil. 

The action of pancreatin upon albumen having frequently been 
stated, experiments were instituted in order to more closely examine 
this action. Accordingly, ten grains saccharated pancreatin were 
dissolved in one fluidounce of water, with the addition of six drops 
of hydrochloric acid. To this thirty grains of coagulated albumen 
were added, and the whole kept at a temperature of 100° F., being 
occasionally agitated. At the end of six hours about twenty-five 
grains were dissolved, thus showing the correctness of the usually 
received statement, and at the same time showing its great inferiority 
to saccharated pepsin, which under similar circumstances would have 
dissolved from 120 to 180 grains. 

The action of pancreatin upon starch was next observed, and a 
drachm of Bermuda arrowroot was mixed with a solution of ten grs. 
of saccharated pancreatin in one fluidounce of water, and kept at the 
temperature of 100° F. for several hours. At the expiration of this 
time the mixture was filtered and the filtrate tested for glucose, abun- 
dant evidence of the presence of this substance being afforded by 
Trommer's and Fehling's tests. That this glucose was the product 
of the action of pancreatin upon starch was demonstrated by testing 



AM Feb U tmr M '} Morphia Strength of Tincture of Opium. 55 

the arrowroot, which gave a negative result, and by a comparative test 
with the solution of glucose obtained by the above action of the pan- 
creatin upon the arrowroot. Fifty minims of this solution, containing 
less than one grain of lactin, reduced the cupric solution much more 
readily than a similar solution containing ten grains of lactin, the 
purity of both specimens of milk sugar having been ascertained be- 
fore using. 

Although the strength of saccharated pancreatin is given as i( ten 
grains emulsify two fluid-drachms of cod- liver oil," yet when ten grs. 
were dissolved in one fluid-drachm of water, and one fluidounce of oil 
added, perfect emulsification was effected in a very few minutes. 

The experiment of digesting the pancreas in cod-liver oil was tried, 
and with this is presented samples thereof. 

The bottle labled No. 1 consists of a portion of cod-liver oil, in 
which a pancreas was digested with frequent agitation. As will be 
found upon inspection, the oil is much changed, having the appear- 
ance and smell of a badly oxidized oil. This change was very rapid 
from the moment of the introduction of the pancreas. 

The bottle labled No. 2 consists of a portion of the same oil in which 
a pancreas was digested under precisely similar circumstances, with the 
exception of the addition of half a fluidounce of hydrochloric acid to 
the mixture. This sample will be found presenting the appearance of 
a fine oil, free from any indication of rancidity. When to this pan- 
creatized oil a portion of water is added a perfect emulsion is formed, 
to which more oil may be readily added without disturbing the emul- 
sion. It is, however, deemed inferior to the emulsion of oil prepared 
according to the directions given, in which such good evidence is af- 
forded of the superiority of saccharated pancreatin. 

Philadelphia, 1st month, 1874. 



THE MORPHIA STRENGTH OF TINCTURE OF OPIUM. 
By George W. Kennedy. 
Tincture opium of our Pharmacopoeia, when made of proper strength, 
should represent in each gallon the active ingred ents of ten troy 
ounces of the powdered drug ; as opium varies in morphia strength, 
it is evident that the tincture must likewise vary ; powdered opium is 
not used by apothecaries generally, but the opium as it is found in 
the market.* There is a serious objection to it as found in commerce, 

* The Pharmacopoeia directs the opium to be dried and in moderately fine 
powder. — Ed. 



56 Morphia Strength of Tincture of Opium. { AM Feb UE i,i87 A 4 RM ' 

owing to the large per cent, of moisture it sometimes contains. I have 
found it to be adulterated with bullets and sand, which is something 
every apothecary is acquainted with, and there are many other things 
used for the same object, but these two came under my observation 
and are therefore noticed here. From one pound of opium I picked 
out two bullets weighing one and a half ounces, and about half an 
ounce of small gravel stones. Opium costing nine or ten dollars per 
pound, would make lead and gravel very expensive, especially when 
you expect to get opium instead of bullets and sand. 

I am not altogether in favor of making the tincture from the pow- 
dered drug, as that too contains a greater or less proportion of 
moisture, and will certainly cause the tincture and all of the opium 
preparations to vary much in morphia strength. I have exposed 
powdered opium to a temperature of 100° F., and kept it at that 
temperature until it ceased loosing weight, and was surprised to find 
the three different packages which I examined, losing 7*50, 9-10, and 
8*20 per cent, of moisture. It has been a question with me, ever 
since I knew anything about the drug business, whether powdered 
opium as found in the market was free from adulteration. If the 
opium as found in lump is so much adulterated, it appears to me the 
powdered would be also ; bullets and large stones could be easily 
picked out before pounding, but small gravel stones, cow manure, 
starch, and many other things could not ; but still, careful wholesale 
dealers could, to a great extent, place a very good article of powdered 
opium in the market, when others would be only too glad to have any- 
thing ground up and sold as pure powdered opium, the adulteration of 
the powdered drug being more difficult to detect than it would be 
previous to powdering. The proper way to make tincture of opium, in 
my opinion, would be to make by assay, each fluid-ounce represent 
four grains of morphia, which would require the opium to contain 
10*6 per cent, of morphia ; then we would have preparations reliable 
and uniform in strength, and physicians would not be disappointed in 
the effects of the medicine, which no doubt is very often the case ; but 
still it matters not with some apothecaries, whether the opium con- 
tains ten per cent, of morphia or two, so they have something that 
resembles laudanum, and enough of the odor to show that there is 
some opium in the preparation. This puts me in mind of an incident 
which happened when I was an apprentice, and inexperienced in the 
profession. My preceptor was a man who was very eager to make 



A Fe J b°.T;i P 8?4 RM '} Morphia Strength of Tincture of Opium. 57 

money, a complaint we are all troubled with more or less, and one 
which the healing art may exhaust their whole catalogue of medicines 
and not succeed in curing ; he made laudanum in this way : boil three 
ounces of lump opium in three quarts of water, with some powdered 
extract of liquorice, add one quart of alcohol, let stand a few days 
and filter ; this he would call laudanum. The dregs were saved in 
accordance with his directions, and after collecting together the dregs 
of a few gallons of the tincture, he would order us boys to make 
another gallon of laudanum, so called, out of that. He frequently 
told his young clerks that there was a large per cent, of narcotina 
left in the dregs and it would not do to waste it by throwing them 
away, as its medicinal properties were similar to morphia and nearly 
equal in strength. I merely make this statement here to show what 
was sold in some shops as laudanum. I hope we have no apothecaries 
selling such laudanum in these days. 

In order to satisfy my curiosity to know what was sold in some of 
the shops, I purchased two ounces from ten different stores; below 
will be found the result of my examination, showing the yield of 
morphia and narcotina in each fluid-ounce. The method adopted of 
assaying was that of Staples' process, which is the best adapted for the 
tincture. 

The tincture was first evaporated in a capsule, by means of a water 
bath, to one-half, to get rid of the alcohol ; it was then allowed to 
stand so as to get rid of a blackish resinous substance which is solu- 
ble in alcohol and insoluble in water ; the aqueous solution was then 
poured off, and the black deposit was washed with water and filtered, 
along with the first solution, into a wide mouth bottle, an equal bulk 
of alcohol was added to the clear liquor in the vial, and then water of 
ammonia mixed with alcohol. The mixture was next agitated, the 
bottle corked tightly and set aside for three days. By this time the 
morphia will be found crystallized in the vial ; the crystals were then 
detached from the bottle, the liquor agitated and poured upon a tared 
filter. There is always a small quantity of morphia left in the vial and 
that can be readily washed out with a small quantity of diluted alco- 
hol, which served also to wash the morphia and filter ; the morphia 
was then dried by a low heat, and weighed upon the filter. In order 
to prove whether the first weighing was correct or not, the crystals 
being easily removed from the filter, were weighed the second time, 
and no difference between the two weighings was observed. To 



58 Syrup of Wild Cherry Barks. { AM F e J b 0lJ ?;i P 8 H 7r M 

ascertain the quantity of narcotina present, the morphia was treated 
first with chloroform, and then with ether ; after drying, the loss in 
weight would show the quantity present. In the table lelow will be 
found how much laudanum varied in morphia strength, as dispensed 
from different shops ; I might say here that three of the purchases 
were made from houses that are known to sell cheap, and the others 
from reputable sources. Our dispensatory says that opium shall not 
contain less than seven per cent, of morphia, which would require the 
tincture to contain at least 2-62 grains to the fluid ounce.* 



Quantity of Morphia Quantity of Narcotina 

in one fluid ounce. in one fluid ounce. 

1 3.20 .... 0.30 

2 . 3.25 .... 0.85 

3 2.90 .... 0.75 

4 . 1.60 .... 0.35 

5 2.80 .... 0.65 

6 . 2.65 .... 0.20 

7 1.50 .... 0.25 

8 . 1.65 .... 0.33 

9 3.30 .... 0.80 
10 . . . . 2.65 .... 0.60 



Pottsville, Pa., Jan. 14, 1874. 



SYRUP OF WILD CHERRY BARK. 

The following two communications on the above subject have been 
received by the editor : 

I have used for some time the following formula for syrup of wild 
cherry, and think it preferable to any other : 

Take of Wild Cherry Bark, in moderately fine powder, ^x, 

Bower's Glycerin, .... f^viii, 

Granulated Sugar, . ... . ftniiss, 

Water (Distilled), . . . . q. s. 

* The Pharmacopoeia of 1860 required commercial opium to contain at least 
7 per cent, of morphia. Allowing the opium to contain 20 per cent, of moisture, 
tincture of opium of the old Pharmacopoeia should have contained not less 
than 3"28 grains of morphia in the fluid ounce. The requirements of the new 
Pharmacopoeia for dry opium are 10 per cent, of morphia when worked by the 
officinal process, or 3 75 grains of morphia for one fluid ounce of the tincture. 
Morphia is not entirely insoluble in diluted alcohol and in ether containing 
alcohol ; chloroform dissolves morphia in very appreciable quantity. — Ed. 



A v£X'unt M '} Vaseline. . 59 

Mix the glycerin with one pint of water ; moisten the bark thor- 
oughly, and let it stand in a close glass vessel for 24 hours ; transfer 
to a glass percolator, pour on the remainder of the menstruum, and 
then water until two pints of percolate are obtained. Add the sugar 
to the percolate, agitating occasionally until dissolved. Three pounds 
of sugar in winter are sufficient. 

This syrup keeps well, and gives more of the characteristic odor 
and taste of syrup of wild cherry than when made according ta 
U. S. P. 

Wm. H. Walling. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 13, 1874. 



Having formerly experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining a 
good syrup of wild cherry, I have been using the following formula 
for a year or more, and find it very satisfactory : 

Ext. Pruni Virginianae, . . . f^v, 

Sacchari Albi, .... Ibii avd. 
Aquae, ..... ^xi. 
Make a concentrated syrup with the sugar and water, and when 
cool add the fluid extract and sufficient water to bring the measure to 
two pints. M. H. E. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1874. 

Note by the Editor. — Regarding the last formula, we have to re- 
mark that neither the fluid extract of wild cherry of the former nor 
of the present Pharmacopoeia agrees in composition with the syrup. 
The fluid extract of 1860 bears a closer resemblance to it than that of 
1870 ; it is, however, of but about one-half the strength of the latter. 



VASELINE. 
By Adolph W. Miller, M. D., Ph. D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 20, 1874. 
Although this* is declared to be a full, clear and exact description, 
which will enable those skilled in the art to make vaseline, it never- 
theless savors strongly of mystification, on account of its ambiguous 
terms and indefinite language. 

In the first place, the residuum of petroleum is directed to be again 
subjected to distillation, either in the usual manner or in a vacuum 

*See Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting this number. 



60 Pharmacy in Southern Illinois, { k % S e™\ V \m"' 

apparatus. It is not stated, however, what proportion is to be dis- 
tilled off, at what temperature the distillation is to be interrupted, or 
what is to be the gravity of the distillate. On the contrary, the spe- 
cification directs the application of sufficient heat to the residuum 
" to vaporize all the oil down to the residuum,'' the same term being 
employed to express two different substances. 

The second step of the process is the filtration of the residue left 
in the still through prepared bone-black, for the purpose of decoloriz- 
ing the product. This object seems to be but imperfectly accom- 
plished, notwithstanding the patent steam filter and the patented 
method of preparing bone-black, as the color is stated to vary from 
a pure white to a deep claret. 

The patentee lays great stress on the vacuum process, and he is no 
doubt correct in so doing. When making use of this, I would sug- 
gest that the most favorable point for interrupting the distillation 
will be just as soon as the distillate is free from odor, and nearly so 
from taste. 

The consistency of vaseline is evidently of very little moment, 
as, by the patentee's own admission, it may vary from 20° to 34° 
Beaume ; the melting point is given as ranging from 85° to 110° 
Fahrenheit. These variations being quite considerable, it would 
seem that the word vaseline is intended by the patentee as a generic 
term for all heavy petroleum products purified in the above manner, 
rather than as a specific designation for a body of definite composi- 
tion. 

Vaseline is claimed not to contain paraffin. This appears to be so 
self-evident a prevarication that it would scarcely merit a refutation. 
No one disputes the presence of paraffin in the coal oil residuum ; 
there is no provision in the patentee's specification for its removal or 
decomposition ; hence, what becomes of it ? 



PHARMACY IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 
By A. G. F. Streit, Ph. D. 
Abstract from the Annual Report of the Secretary of the St. Olair Pharma- 
ceutical Association of Southern Illinois. 

I. Foundation of the Association. — We all know well enough that 
the science and art of pharmacy, from its earliest establishment on 
this continent up to the present time, is not and has never been what 
it should be and what it is considered to be in the older European 



Am. Jour. Phaem. ) 
Feb. 1, 1874. J 



Pharmacy in Southern Illinois. 



61 



States. It is consequently sunk to the level of the other commercial 
trades in this country. The causes of this sad and deplorable degra- 
dation of our noble profession in America are numerous, among which 
I will only mention the principal ones : 

1st. The neglect of the pharmacist to respect his profession (lack 
of scientific self-respect), not only as a commercial but also especially 
as a scientific one ; caused by the great deficiency in scientific educa- 
tion of many apothecaries. 

2d. The erroneous ideas of our American people concerning ethics 
of trade and pecuniary compensation, especially as relating to the 
pharmaceutical profession. 

3d. The most injurious, oppressive and overwhelming influence of 
the patent medicine system, which in no country of the civilized 
world has attained such dimensions as in the United States. 

Want of intelligence and of scientific (pharmaceutical) education 
renders a large class of pharmacists unable to comprehend the great 
importance of pharmacy and its mission and standing among the 
other sciences, as well as the venerability which it should enjoy in the 
eyes of the public : they consider it to be a mere commercial business 
and totally disregard its scientific mission. This and the ruinous in- 
fluence of the patent medicine trade are the principal inimical causes 
and powers which endanger the commercial and scientific elevation of 
pharmacy, and which therefore have diminished and endangered the 
scientific and commercial worth of our noble profession. 

Hard will be the struggle against these powers — ignorance and 
quackery of every description — but nevertheless it is a holy struggle, 
to be accepted in the interest and for the welfare of pharmacy, and 
which undoubtedly must be taken up, at least by all well-minded 
members of the profession. 

The existence of these dangerous evils, further the evidence that 
the influence of the same was growing stronger from year to year, 
endangering the life and the vitality of our profession, were sufficient 
to open the eyes of the thoughtful and honest pharmacists in our sec- 
tion of the country, and to exhibit the dangers arising from the per- 
manence of the status quo ; and in the year 1871 the earnest desire 
was expressed by many apothecaries of Belleville and the surrounding 
country to organize a pharmaceutical association for the southern por- 
tion of the State of Illinois. 

But this desire remained only a project, and nothing could be accom- 



62 



Pharmacy in Southern Illinois. 



/Am. Jour. Phakm. 
t Feb. 1, 1874. 



plished in said year. Such was the condition of pharmacy up to the 
year 1873, when early in February the aspects for a union of phar- 
macists were getting more favorable. 

After several preliminary conversations, a committee on organiza- 
tion was formed, an agreement of organization drawn up and at once 
signed by all the apothecaries of Belleville then members of said com- 
mittee. 

A circular was then issued by this committee, and sent to all the 
colleagues in the surrounding country, making them acquainted with 
the purpose of the proposed association, and calling them together to 
participate in its organization. The purposes and the necessity of 
such a society were not duly and earnestly enough considered and 
understood by the larger portion of the colleagues to whom these cir- 
culars were sent. 

Of about 50 circulars sent off only a few were answered in the affir- 
mative, and even of those few who answered them, two withdrew after 
the organization was accomplished and the necessary pecuniary assist- 
ance called for. 

Nevertheless this may be considered a most fortunate occurrence, 
which need not be deplored. It is the best proof of their incapacity ? 
lack of manliness, and of indifference towards the welfare of the pro- 
fession, its elevation and future progress. Such elements, indeed, 
can never benefit an association ; they generally prove to be of an 
unsteady and quarrelsome nature, endangering the peace, prosperity 
and future existence of a body. 

After the completion of the necessary preliminary labor, the meet- 
ing of organization was held April 23d, and the name of the St. Clair 
Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois was adopted in honor 
of the county in which it originated. 

After the adoption of the constitution and by-laws, the following 
officers were elected : President, N. T. Baker ; Vice-President, Wm. 
Feickert ; Secretary, A. Gr. F. Streit ; Treasurer, A. Rudolph. 

Associations are often formed with a view to pecuniary gain or for 
social purpose, and therefore the membership of such organizations 
increases faster than of scientific bodies. This idea of receiving 
direct pecuniary benefit is likewise prevalent among many apotheca- 
ries, and therefore they refrain from joining scientific bodies. Ano_ 
ther reason is the great deficiency of their pharmaceutical, scientific, 
sometimes even general, education, not enabling them to converse in- 
telligently with other colleagues on scientific subjects. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Peb. l, 1874. j 



Pharmacy in Southern Illinois. 



63 



II. Operations of the Association during the First Fiscal Year. — 
The Association was chartered May 20th, 1873, and the charter trans- 
mitted to the Secretary by the Hon. George H. Harlow, Secretary of 
State, soon afterwards. A proper seal was procured. A second cir- 
cular was then issued by the Association, and sent to all the apothe- 
caries of the southern portion of the State, declaring as northern 
boundary, inclusive, the counties Pike, Scott, Morgan, Sangamon, 
Macon, Piatt, Champaign and Vermillion, and explaining therein the 
necessity of a union of pharmacists, making them also acquainted 
with the objects of the Association, and inviting them to join it in 
membership. Over 500 copies of this circular were sent off, but only 
few answered, a most deplorable proof of the want of interest for the 
welfare of the profession, and also of the insufficient pharmaceutical 
and general education of a large class of apothecaries in this section 
of the country. 

Since July the Secretary entered into correspondence with various 
pharmaceutical societies of the United States, England, France, Ger- 
many and Switzerland. 

The diploma of membership was then executed and distributed to 
the members. 

Scientific deliberations could not be held, all meetings being occu- 
pied with business transactions such as generally arise immediately 
after the organization of a body. It is hoped that next year much 
more will be accomplished in the scientific department. 

The meetings, excepting that of organization, were held at the 
Secretary's office. Should the Association increase sufficiently in 
membership, it is contemplated to engage another locality, 

III. Future Aim and Operations of the Association. — The future 
aim of the Association is considered to be the foundation of a college 
of pharmacy, to be located in the city of Belleville. Although the 
Association is not prepared at present to carry out this project, it will 
nevertheless not harm to consider it as a future probability, when 
time and circumstances will be more favorable to the execution there- 
of. The founders of the Association have well and earnestly consid- 
ered all these matters at the organization of the body ; they did not 
shut their eyes to the great difficulties connected with the establish- 
ment of a college ; but, notwithstanding, they did not hesitate to in- 
troduce this future object in the statutes, in order to call the atten- 



64 Gleanings from the European Journals. { A %eb™', i87£ M ' 

tion of the public at large and the profession in special to this final 
aim. 

It is most certain that the erection of a college of pharmacy in this 
section of the country is only a question of time, and when the proper 
time will have arrived the Association will be prepared and able to 
protect and assist the undertaking. 

For the execution of all these designs the strongest and strictest 
union of all the apothecaries of Southern Illinois is undoubtedly 
necessary. Scientific and commercial jealousy amongst the members 
of our profession should never exist, as this may be considered the 
root of all the evils mentioned before, and which have endangered 
the scientific, commercial and social standing of the profession, and 
have led to its degradation in the eyes of the public. For the reason 
that we have not been united, the public has seen our weak points, 
has trampled and imposed upon us by disrespecting our profession, 
and in not acknowledging the important and difficult duties laid upon 
it. Let us, therefore, change these things, while they lie within the- 
reach of our power, and before it may be too late ; let us not shut the 
eyes to the great dangers arising from a permanence of such evils. 
Let us labor earnestly and honestly, like men. Let us look at the 
condition of the profession in the European States, its high and hon- 
orable standing in the community, and, although we cannot have 
everything here as it is there (viewing the political and social differ- 
ences of those States), let us at least adopt here what is adaptable to 
American ideas and views. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Sugar in Leaves. — M. A. Petit has, on a former occasion, stated 
that the leaves of the grape vine contain from 20 to 30 grams of glu- 
cose, and 13 to 16 grams of tartaric acid per kilogram. The author 
now states that the greatest portion of the acid is in the state of 
cream of tartar, about one-third only being uncombined, and that the 
sugar consists of cane and invert sugar. On treating the liquid re- 
peatedly with animal charcoal, it is readily obtained colorless and 
free from tannin ; for one kilogram of leaves the author obtained then 
9-20 grm. cane sugar and 26*55 grm. glucose ; by another experiment 
15*80 grm. cane sugar and 17*49 grm. glucose. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1874. J 



Gleanings from the European Journals. 



65 



The leaves of the cherry and peach likewise contain a mixture of 
the two sugars ; from one kilogram of the latter 33 grams of cane 
sugar and 12 grams of glucose were obtained. — Journ. de Pharm. et 
de Ohim., 1874, Jan., 41. 

Qaryophyllic acid, C 20 H 32 O 6 (0 = 16). — This new acid is obtained 
by gradually adding caryophyllin to fuming nitric acid, kept cool by 
immersing the vessel in water until crystals begin to separate. After 
cooling, the crystals are drained, and then purified by dissolving them 
in ammonia and precipitating by hydrochloric acid, and subsequently 
by repeated solution in alcohol and precipitation by water. It crys- 
tallizes in white needles, is readily soluble in alcohol, ether and acetic 
acid, but nearly insoluble in water. Its solutions in alkalies are of a 
yellow color and foam like soap water. It is at first tasteless, after- 
wards bitter. The amorphous sodium salt has the composition C 20 H 30 
Pharm., 1873, Nov., 392—397. 



Na 2 6 . — Arehiv d 



Analysis of Extract of Meat. — Professor Reichardt has recently 
again analyzed the extract of meat prepared by Buschenthal & Co., 
of Montevideo, on which he reported in 1870.* For comparison we 
give his results in the following table, No. 1 being his analysis of 
1870, No. 2 of 1873, and No. 3 his analysis of the Fray-Bentos ex- 
tract : 

I. 

Soluble in 80 p. c. alcohol, . 80 76— 81-24 p.c. 
Amount of water (loss at 110°C). 16 —17 



Fat and albumen, 
Soluble in ether, 
Nitrogen, 
Ashes, 

The ashes contained 



in 1870 
in 1873 



None. 
0-20 

9-56— 9-99 " 
21*36 

Phosphoric acid. 
6-1 

5- 92 

6- 09 



II. 

80*15 p.c. 
15-92 " 
None. 
019 " 
9-47 " 
21-3—21-37 p. 
Potassa. 
9-0 
8-87 
8-89 



III. 
81-5 p. c. 
16 
None. 

? 

9-51 ' k 
c. — 
Soda. 
2-3 
2-46 
2-10 



This extract, therefore, retains its character for purity. — Ibid., 
399—402. 



Adulteration of Lycopodium. — M. Paul Cazeneuve states (Reper- 
toire de Pharmacie, N. S., i, 630) that he has been supplied with a 



* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1870, p. 320. 
5 



66 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM Feb U i,'i P sH. RiC * 

quantity of pine pollen in the place of lycopodium. Having had his 
suspicions aroused by the yellower color, and smaller degree of mo- 
bility and fineness, he examined it under the microscope, and recog- 
nized in it the characters given as those of pollen of conifers, and 
especially of pine pollen, this latter being always constituted by two 
lateral cells near to a central cell, which is ruptured by the pollenic 
contents for fecundation. How this pollen is collected is matter for 
conjecture, but it may be obtained at a lower price than lycopodium, 
and M. Cazeneuve thinks it to be a substance worthy of further in- 
vestigation. He has found that in the rolling of pills and plasters 
and the healing of chaps, etc., it presents the same advantages as 
lycopodium. It is nearly neutral ; the tegumentary membrane has 
the cellulose nature of other pollens ; it contains a little resinous 
matter, and the pine odor is faintly perceptible in a large quantity. 
The proportion of mineral matter is very small. One gram of pollen, 
dried in a water-bath, gave, when incinerated, 45 milligrams of white 
ash, composed of phosphates of potash and lime, and traces of sul- 
phates and chlorides. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Bee. 20, 1873. 

Action of Lead upon Water. — M. Dumas describes a former ex- 
periment in which five bottles containing leaden shot were partially 
filled with the following waters respectively : Distilled water, rain 
water, Seine water, Ourcq water and well water. It was found that 
the one containing distilled water showed in a very short time traces 
of lead in solution, whilst the waters charged more or less with cal- 
careous salts contained none. The rapidity with which pure water 
acts upon lead is surprising, and the effect produced by traces of lime 
in preventing this reaction is not less so. It is impossible not to 
be reminded of Schlcesing's observations upon clay, which, in pure 
water, remains indefinitely suspended, but which is precipitated by 
the slightest trace of lime salts. The author thinks that pure water 
is an agent not yet perfectly known, and that its properties differ 
from those of common water more than is suspected. In the conver- 
sation which followed, M. Elie de Beaumont remarked that Schlce- 
sing's observations explained fully the clear and sparkling character 
of calcareous waters.— -Chem. News, Dec. 19, 1873, from Comp. rend. 
Heb. des Seances de V Acad, des Sci., Nov. 10, 1873. 



AM Fe J b°Ti P 8H RM } On the Detection of Ammonia. 67 



ON THE DETECTION OF AMMONIA.* 
By G. C. Wittstein. 

Scientific journals have recently often mentioned Nessler's reagent 
for ammonia, which consists in a strongly alkaline solution of mercu- 
ric iodide in aqueous iodide of potassium. It is asserted to surpass 
in delicacy all other tests for this volatile alkali; my experience, how- 
ever, does not coincide with these statements. 

The well-known behavior of a solution of corrosive sublimate to 
ammonia was first recommended by Einbrodtf for the qualitative de- 
tection of ammonia, who likewise determined the necessary cautels. 
It had been supposed, up to that time, that the white precipitate, 
which is thus formed, was soluble in 600 parts of water, and not ex- 
pecting a sufficient delicacy of the new test, I made some experi- 
ments,! which, however, proved that one-half of a millionth of free 
ammonia could thereby be detected, and that, consequently, white 
precipitate is totally insoluble in water. I then concluded my report 
with the following remarks : " There may be cases in which this 
delicate reagent for free ammonia will be unsuccessful. If, for in- 
stance, the liquid contains an iodide, the solution of corrosive subli- 
mate will produce a yellowish precipitate, which disappears on agita- 
tion, without producing the reaction of ammonia, even though this 
compound may be perceptible to the smell. Continuing the addition 
of the corrosive sublimate, a permanent red precipitate of iodide of 
mercury occurs ; the chloride of mercury, therefore, is decomposed 
by the iodide before it is acted upon by the ammonia, and the latter 
may, for this reason, be still recognized by its odor or by a glass rod 
moistened with acetic acid." 

This observation may, I believe, now be more precisely explained 
as follows : the double iodide of potassium and mercury which is at 
first formed, is subsequently decomposed by the free ammonia, and 
iodide of mercury is separated as a red or yellowish red precipitate, 
from a concentrated solution, or in a very finely divided condition, so 
that only a more or less intense coloration takes place. 

From the above observation and its explanation, it seems evident 
that Nessler's is by far less delicate than Einbrodt's test, and this 

* Translated from Archiv d. Pharm., 1873, Nov., 397—399. 
f Journal f. praktische Chemie, 1852, lvii, 180. 
% Wittstein's Yierteljahresschrift, 1853, ii, 111. 



68 



Preparation of Koumys. 



5 Am. Jour. Pharn. 
\ Feb. 1, 1874. 



conclusion is confirmed by the following experiment : Take two beaker 
glasses, each containing 100 c. c. of water, add to No. 1 successively 
one drop each of solutions of chloride of ammonium, caustic potassa, 
and corrosive sublimate, and to No. 2 one drop of solution of chloride 
of ammonium and five drops of Nessler's test. A white opalescence 
will be plainly observed in No. 1 as soon as the solution of corrosive 
sublimate has become well mixed with the liquid, while No. 2 will 
show neither turbidity nor coloration, even though the addition of 
Nessler's reagent be continued. The latter seems therefore to be 
superfluous as a test for ammonia. 



PREPARATION OF KOUMYS. 
H. & N. Schultze, of Berlin, give the following formula: Unskim- 
med cows' milk is mixed with a sufficient amount of sugar of milk to 
produce in the course of the subsequent fermentation in closed vessels 
a carbonic acid gas pressure of four atmospheres. Fermentation is 
induced by the addition of brewers' yeast, which has been thoroughly 
washed. The operation is commenced in open tanks, in which the 
mixture must be frequently stirred. One-half of the casein, which 
is separated, is to be skimmed off. While the fermentation is actively 
progressing, the preparation is drawn off into champagne-bottles, the 
corks of which must be securely tied down by string or wire. They 
must then be removed to a cool locality, so that the fermentation can 
be properly completed. Three varieties of koumys are prepared, 
which differ in the amount of carbonic acid gas with which they are 
impregnated ; they result from varying the proportion of sugar of 
milk, which is originally added. 

C. Schwalbe makes koumys, from condensed milk, in the following 
manner : 100 c.c. are dissolved in a small amount of cold water ; 1 
gram of lactic acid and J gram of rum are added, and the mix- 
ture is diluted with sufficient water to make it measure 1000 to 2500 
c.c. This preparation is put into a Liebig's bottle and charged with 
carbonic acid gas. The bottle is to be kept in a warm room, and to be 
examined after three or four days. When there is an active evolution 
of froth, and when the curd is of a fine, granular consistence, the 
koumys is in the proper condition. It can then be kept for about 
eight days. — PMla. Med. Times, Jan. 3, 1874, from Deutsche Indus- 
triezeitung, p. 438, Chemisches Gentralblatt, p. 568. 

Adolph W. Miller, M. D., Ph. D. 



AM Feb U i; m4 RM '} Examination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 69 

AN EXAMINATION OF SOME SAMPLES OF HYDROCYANIC 

ACID.* 
By A. Towerzey. 

Some little time since, at the suggestion of Mr. Schacht, I submitted 
to a careful examination the hydrocyanic acid we were then using in 
his dispensary. As we half suspected, it proved to be distinctly 
below the standard strength. 

The necessity of being very accurate, compelled me to make re- 
peated experiments ; and anxious for a variety of samples I applied 
to several chemists in the neighborhood, who very kindly acceded to 
my requests, and gave me the opportunity of more extended ex- 
perience. 

The results I am thus able to show will perhaps be interesting to 
the association, although I am well aware that this subject has fre- 
quently been treated by more competent observers. I may especially 
call to your recollection a communication by Dr. Tilden, published in 
the Pharmaceutical Journal of July 29th, 1871 ; also a paper read 
by Mr. Abraham before the Liverpool Chemists' Association on the 
8th of May, 1873; and likewise Mr.' Siebold's report on the "Purity 
of Commercial Specimens of Officinal Acids," which will be found 
amongst the transactions of the last meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Conference ; and I trust these gentlemen will forgive my saying that 
my results tend to corroborate theirs. 

It is not necessary to say one word here concerning the preparation 
of hydrocyanic acid ; indeed, the exact process does not seem to be of 
much importance, provided the solution contains 2 per cent, of real 
acid. 

The Pharmacopoeia gives two tests for estimating its strength. The 
cyanogen may either be precipitated and weighed as dry cyanide of 
silver or tested volumetrically with a standard solution of nitrate of 
silver. This latter was the method we preferred to adopt, and, in 
practice, found it convenient to employ a nitrate of silver solution of 
such strength that 40 c.c. would show 1 per cent, in 4 grammes of 
sample." (I say we, because throughout these experiments I was 
kindly assisted by Mr. Schacht.) 

Briefly then, we dissolved 3-15 grams of dried nitrate of silver 



* Read at a meeting of the Bristol Pharmaceutical Association, December 
12, 1873. 



70 Examination of Hydrocyanic Acid. {%l™x,m£™' 

in one litre of distilled water ; 4 grams of each sample were care- 
fully weighed in a balance capable of turning to one-tenth of a milli- 
gram, with all the expedition possible (a most important matter), 
and mixed with rather more than sufficient solution of caustic potash 
to convert all the HON into KCN ; our silver solution, contained in a 
burette, was then run in until the last drop produced a permanent 
faint opalescence in the liquid after stirring. The number of c.c. of 
silver solution required to produce this effect divided by 40 gave at 
once the percentage. 

Our experiments, conducted I may say, with every precaution to 
avoid error, and repeated more than once, indeed, several times in 
every case, upon twelve samples of hydrocyanic acid, gave the fol- 
lowing average results : — 

So-called B. P. Acid. 
No. 1 1-92. 

" 2 1-52. 

"3 v 1-36. 

" 4 1-32. 

"5 . . . . . .* 1-262. 

" 6 . . 1-22. 

"7 1-165. 

"8 1-16. 

" 9 ...... 0-26. 

Acid of " Scheele's " strength. 

" 10 3-62. 

"11 . . . . . . . 4-02. 

"12 1-3. 

The history, as far as we know, of these samples will serve to show 
how unfortunately unstable is this important remedy, and to indicate 
the necessity for special care in its management. 

No. 1 was obtained from a wholesale house of deservedly good 
reputation, and examined directly it arrived. 

Nos. 4 and 6 were samples of the same acid examined in the one 
case when the bottle was first opened, and in the other when the con- 
tents had suffered from the frequent removal of the stopper incidental 
to the dispensary. 

Nos. 3 and 5 were kindly sent me by a friend, who appended the 
following remarks : — No. 3 " from a 40 oz. bottle, from which over 
35 ozs. have been from time to time removed/' No. 5. " First re- 



A Feb 0U i; i874 RM '} Examination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 71 

moval from a 40 oz. bottle, which has been in stock several months, 
during which time, however, the stopper had not been withdrawn." 
" Both samples have been carefully preserved in bottles encased in 
blue paper, and kept in a cupboard in a cool underground cellar." 

Nos. 2, 7, 8, and 9 were portions of the contents of dispensing 
bottles kindly given me by friends who share with us the desire for a 
more perfect preparation. 

Of the three samples of " Scheele's acid," 

No. 10 had been in stock for several months, during which time the 
stopper had been frequently removed. 

No. 11 was a fresh sample, obtained expressly for examination, 
and 

No. 12 was an acid of unknown birth. Its owner regarded it as a 
curiosity, and, like most curiosities, it is only fit to be kept on a shelf. 

Here, then, gentlemen, are nine samples of hydrocyanic acid, B.P., 
taken from various sources, and representing very fairly, I should 
say, the condition in which this medicine is generally met with. 

It will be seen at a glance that no two samples are alike, and all, 
with one exception, considerably below the standard. That such 
should be the case must be regarded as a matter of grave importance ; 
and the question so frequently asked before I ask once again — Can 
this variation in so important a remedy be obviated ? There is no 
doubt it arises chiefly from the extreme volatility of the substance 
itself. This was brought home to us most convincingly during the 
conduct of our experiments. HCy is much more volatile than water, 
hence the slightest exposure does something to weaken the sample. 
I feel bound therefore to answer that I fear nothing can entirely pre- 
vent this unfortunate variation in commercial hydrocyanic acid. But 
I think at the same time that more may be done than is always done 
to limit this variation, and I hazard the opinion that a difference so 
great as that here shown ought not to exist in any neighborhood. 

In the management of this chemical it is of the utmost importance 
that every chemist should test for himself the strength of his solution ; 
without so doing he can know absolutely nothing of the real strength 
of the article sent him. But starting with an acid of full strength 
and keeping it under the most favorable circumstances, he may then 
have fair reason to expect success in his endeavors to render this 
powerful agent something like a reliable remedy in the hands of the 
medical man. 



72 Examination of Hydrocyanic Acid. { AM FiSi f SSP fc 

The method we have recently adopted is to purchase acid of 
Scheele's strength and reduce it to 2 per cent. Mixing some ten or 
twelve ounces at a time we keep this quantity in well-fitting stopped 
bottles (1 oz. capacity) protected from the light and in a cool place. 
One ounce only is brought into the dispensary at a time, and is re- 
newed every foi*tnight provided it lasts so long. This insures a fre- 
quent supply of fresh stock. Whether this plan will answer all our 
expectations I am not yet able to say ; still, after all, this is but an 
endeavor to make the best of a bad job. The object to be sought for 
is, I venture to think, some other cyanide that may be proved to be 
equal to the cyanide of hydrogen in medicinal value and superior to it 
in chemical constancy. The most promising substance we have yet 
examined is the double cyanide of zinc and potassium. It is a per- 
fectly definite crystalline body, having the composition, K 2 Zn r/ Cy 4 . 
The crystals contain no water, and are so stable that they may be 
even fused without change. In its solution, moreover, the cyanogen 
appears to be very securely fixed, as the following experiment may 
serve to show. A sample containing (by calculation) 2 per cent, of 
cyanogen, was tested and found to yield exactly 2 per cent. A pint 
of air was then driven through the solution in small bubbles, and 
being again tested, it was found to be of precisely the same strength. 
A sample of B. P. acid was then treated, with this result — that 
whereas in the first case it was shown to be of exactly 2 per cent., 
after the transmission of the pint of air its per centage was reduced 
to 1*7. But although the cyanogen in this double cyanide is non- vola- 
tile, and to that extent more constant than in hydrocyanic aeid, yet 
it is easily evolved by even the weakest acids, such, for instance, as 
may be presumed to exist in the stomach. In point of fact, hydro- 
cyanic acid itself would be produced directly the remedy was swal- 
lowed. The crystals are prepared very easily by dissolving cyanide 
of zinc in aqueous solution of cyanide of potassium, in the proportion 
of one equivalent of the former to two of the latter ; upon evaporation 
this yields beautiful octahedral crystals. 

A solution corresponding with the strength of the B. P. acid is 
made with 2 grams of the salt, and 42-82 grams of water. 

As to the medicinal value of this solution, I am, of course, not 
able to speak, but I scarcely think it could in any great degree differ 
from that of hydrocyanic acid. — Pharm Journ. [London)!) ec. 27, 1873. 



Am. Jouk. Phaem. 1 
Feb. 1, 1874. / 



Ammonio- Citrate of Iron. 



7S 



AMMONIO-CITRATE OF IRON. 

By Charles Umney. 

The variation in appearance of animonio- citrate of iron, as met 
with in trade, must have been noticed by every observant pharmacist. 

Since the time of its introduction into medicine by Beral, now about 
thirty years since, most manufacturers have adopted, notwithstanding 
the various officinal formulae that have been published, one or other 
of the following nethods for its production 

(a) . By dissolving metallic iron (nails) in a solution of citric acid 
by the aid of heat to the complete saturation of the acid. 

(b) . By adding hydrated ferric oxide to citric acid dissolved in about 
twice its weight of water, assisting its solution by the heat of a water- 
bath until the oxide is no longer dissolved, and is visibly in excess. 

Solution of ammonia in both cases being added after filtration, to 
produce the double salt. By either method the result is very similar, 
the amount of anhydrous ferric oxide resulting from a calcination of 
the salt with free exposure to air from 30 to 31 per cent., and the ap- 
pearance of the scaled product nearly or quite identical. 

A review of the various formulas that have been published in the 
London and British Pharmacopoeias will serve not only to show the 
relative amounts of ferric oxide directed to be added to the citric acid, 
but also to indicate (when the examination of commercial specimens 
is brought forward) that obsolete processes are followed by manufac- 
turers. 

As this iron salt is almost universally used, it will be interesting 
at the same time to note the formulae of the French Codex and the 
United States and German Pharmacopoeias. 

London Pharmacopoeia, 1851. (First Officinal.) 
Sulphate of Iron, . . . . 12 oz. Troy. 

Carbonate of Soda, .... 12 J oz. 

Citric Acid, . . . . . 6 oz. 

Solution Ammonia, ^-960) . . . . 9 fl. oz. 

British Pharmacopeia, 1864. 
Solution of Persulphate of Iron (1441) . 8 fl. oz. 

Citric Acid, . . . . 5 oz. (Avoir.) 

Sol. Ammonia, (.960) . . . 14 fl. oz. 



74 



Arnrnonio- Citrate of Iron. 



f Am. Jour. Phaem. 
t Feb. 1, 1874. 



8 fl. oz. 
4 oz. (Avoir. 
19J fl. oz. 



British Pharmacopoeia, 1867. 
Solution of Persulphate of Iron (1-441) 
Citric Acid, .... 
Sol. Ammonia, (-959) 

United States Pharmacopoeia, 1873. 
Citric Acid, . . . 5 oz. 360 grains (Troy). 

Sol. Persulphate of Iron (1-320) . 16 fl. oz. 
Sol. Ammonia, . (-960) . 20 fl. oz. 

French Codex, 1866. 
Acid Citric, ..... 
Hydrated Peroxide of Iron, 
Sol. Ammonia, . . . . . 

Add such a quantity of hydrated ferric oxide as will correspond to 
53 parts of anhydrous oxide iron. 

Pharmacopoeia Germanica, 1872. 
Citric Acid, . . . . .8 parts. 

Oxide of Iron, . . . . q. s. 

Then add Citric Acid, . . .1 part. 

Sol. Ammon. . . . . q. s. to saturation. 

The following table, deduced from these formulae, will show at a 
glance the relative amounts of anhydrous ferric oxide to the same 
amount of citric acid : — 



100 parts, 
q. s. 

18 parts. 



Lond. Pharm., 
Brit. Pharm., 

u 

U. S. Pharm., 
French Codex 
Pharm. Ger., 



1851 
1864 
1871 
1873 

1872 



Citric Acid. Ferric Oxide 



100 parts. 



57-3 
33-4 
41-8 
40-0 
53-0 
? 



Added as ferrous salt. 
Added as ferric salt. 



The London and British Pharmacopoeias describe the amount of 
ferric oxide resulting from incineration with free exposure to air, but 
the Codex and German and American Pharmacopoeias do not state 
the amount of ferric oxide perfect specimens of their respective salts 
should contain. 



Am Jodb. Pharm. > 
Feb. 1, 1874. j 



Arnmonio- Citrate of Iron. 



75 



Pharm. Lond., 1851 . . 34 per cent. Fe 2 3 . 

Brit. Pharm., 1864 . . 26-5 " 

1867 . . 27-0 

U. S. " 1873 ? 

French Codex, . . ? " 

Pharm. Germ., 1872 ? 
Most of the recent formulae have one feature in common, viz., the 
complete saturation of the acid by the oxide of iron, but the quanti- 
ties ordered by each work with this object in view are very dispro- 
portionate. 

The British Pharmacopoeia, 1867, says, " dissolve the citric acid in 
weight ounces of distilled water, and having applied the heat of a water- 
bath, add the oxide of iron, and stir them together until the whole, or 
nearly the whole, of the oxide has dissolved." 

It is presumed that complete saturation is intended by the expres- 
sion " until nearly the whole of the oxide has been dissolved" and that 
the amount of oxide produced by the precipitation of the persulphate 
of iron ordered is in slight excess of the quantity required for such 
saturation. 

Be this as it may, upon referring to the Codex we find an amount 
of hydrated oxide ordered which shall be equal to 53 parts of anhy- 
drous oxide, whereas the British Pharmacopoeia, 1867, orders an 
equivalent of 42 parts only. 

Practically I have found that the French Codex formula is much 
more like the basis of ammonio-citrate of iron of the best makers than 
is the British Pharm. formula, although fifty parts (half its weight) 
would more accurately represent the amount of ferric oxide (added as 
hydrated oxide) required to saturate 100 parts of citric acid than 
Would fifty -three parts, as named by the Codex. 

A comparison of the formulae of the British Pharmacopoeias of 
1864 and 1867, as to the amount of ferric oxide added to the acid, 
and the amount stated to be left by calcination is most conflicting ; 
for instance, the 1864 Pharmacopoeia shows that for 33*4 parts ferric 
oxide to 100 citric acid, as much as 26-5 per cent, is left upon calci- 
nation, whereas that of 1867 indicates that from 41*8 parts added to 
the same amount of citric acid, 27 per cent, is left by calcination. 

The mean of three analyses of ammonio-citrate of iron (B. P. 1867) 
gave ferric oxide by calcination 27*4 per cent., proving the accuracy 
of the present officinal test and the fallacy of the 1864 Pharmacopoeia. 



76 Preparation of Biniodide of Mercury, etc. ' 



Feb. 1, 1874. 



Of coarse it may so happen that ohe British Pharmacopoeia does 
not intend that the acid shall be saturated with oxide, and has merely 
framed its formula with other objects in view. 

If it were so contemplated I think a great improvement in the for- 
mula would have been made if a salt had been recognized that would 
have sealed easily, and represented the best specimens as met with 
in trade. 

An examination of the ammonio-citrate of the leading London 
manufacturers indicates that at the present time uniformity is the 
exception rather than the rule ; that the British Pharmacopoeia scales 
are not to be met with ; that the preparation of the London Pharma- 
copoeia, or a modification of it, is still used ; and that the complete 
saturation process is in some cases followed. 

London Pharmaeopceia, 1851, . . 34*0 (determined). 
British Pharmacopoeia, 1867, . .27*4 " 
Manufacturing Process (saturation) 30-7 w ' 
Trade specimens, ... (1) 26*0 

. (2) 24-1 
(3) 30-1 
. (4) 30-0 
(5) 33-4 
. (6) 33-3 
(7) 29-4 

As uniformity in all substances used in medicine is of vital import- 
ance I would suggest that at the earliest convenient date the use of 
ferric oxide sufficient to the complete saturation of the acid by the ' 
aid of a water-bath heat be recognized, and that the formula of the 
British Pharmacopoeia be amended by substituting nine and a half 
fluid ounces of the persulphate of iron solution for the present quan- 
tity of eight fluid ounces, or as much hydrated ferric oxide to one 
hundred parts of citric acid as shall be equivalent to fifty parts (49*6) 
of anhydrous ferric oxide. 

Laboratory, 40, Alder sg ate street, E. C. 

— Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Dec. 13, 1873. 



ON VARIOUS METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BIN- 
IODIDE OF MERCURY. 
By E. B. Shuttleworth. 
In devising or selecting a formula for the preparation of any com- 
pound there are three considerations which are essential to a correct 
and satisfactory conclusion. These are, that the contemplated prod- 



i;f874 RM '} Preparation of Biniodide of Mercury, etc. 17 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb 



uct be obtained (a) of the best quality ; (6) at the lowest cost : (c) 
with the least trouble. As a general rule, the relative importance of 
these conditions is indicated by the order in which they are given ; 
quality is, or should be, the great essential, while cost and conveni- 
ence are of secondary consequence. Too often, however, this order 
is reversed, and all considerations are made subordinate to that of 
cost; but, in no case, can this be justifiable; it is only when the mat- 
ter of quality is satisfactorily settled that we are at liberty to decide 
in favor of that process which promises to be the most economical. 
The question of economy is, however, to the pharmacist, a most im- 
portant one, and, in cases of scarcity of material or high prices, merits 
his best attention. 

A case in point is that of the red iodide of mercury — a compound 
which is almost invariably prepared by the pharmacist. The recent 
inflation in the price of iodide of potassium, and the high figure which 
it at present maintains, demand the utmost economy in its use. In 
view of this it may be opportune to review the various processes which 
have been devised for the preparation of the biniodide of mercury, so 
that we may be able to obtain the best results with the least possible 
expenditure of materials. 

The first process which might be noticed is that in which the binio- 
dide is formed by a direct union of the elements composing it. Mer- 
cury and iodide are triturated, or agitated together, a little alcohol 
being added to control the reaction. In inexperienced hands this 
process yields an imperfect product ; is exceedingly wasteful and 
troublesome, and may be so dismissed. 

A better process is that of the British Pharmacopoeia, 4 parts of 
perchloride of mercury, dissolved in 60 parts of boiling water, are 
mixed with 5 parts of iodide of potassium, in 20 parts of boiling water. 
The iodide is, theoretically and practically, one-tenth of one part in 
excess of that actually required for the decomposition. Its object is 
to prevent contamination of the product with the mercuric salt. This 
excess appears useless, first, because, with any ordinary care, the 
operator can ascertain the moment the decomposition is complete ; 
and, again, if any slight excess of mercuric salt happened to be pre- 
sent, it would certainly be removed in the subsequent copious wash- 
ings to which the biniodide is subjected. This excess is not only 
wasteful as far as the iodide of potassium is concerned, but of the 
biniodide also, as the latter salt is soluble in the former. The use of 



78 Preparation of Biniodide of Mercury, etc. { A Fe J b° u i,' K" 1 

boiling water is unnecessary, as the quantity ordered would, if cold, 
dissolve the salts readily. The precipitate from a hot solution is more 
granular than that from one which is cold, and for the preparation of 
ointments it will be conceded that the finer and softer salt is to be- 
preferred. 

In the process of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia the excess of iodide is 
the same as that of the B. P., but cold water is applied for solution. 

The most satisfactory and economical results I have obtained from 
the decomposition of the salts alluded to, have been by employing 4 
parts of the mercuric salt, in powder, dissolved in 64 parts of cold 
water, adding a sufficient quantity of solution of iodide of potassium 
(4*9 parts in 10 parts of water). The yield will be 6 '7 parts of a 
salt sufficiently dry to be pulverulent. This is very little short of the 
theoretical yield ; 271 parts HgCl 2 require for decomposition 332 
parts KI, and should produce 454 parts (6*701) Hgl 2 . 

Another method which may be easily and economically pursued is. 
that in which iodide of iron is used instead of iodide of potassium. 
The relative prices of iodine and iodide of potassium are generally as. 
21 to 1 ( <>, and 254 parts iodine are equal to 332 of iodide of potas- 
sium. If, therefore, we mix 3*75 parts of iodine with 4 parts of cold 
water and sufficient iron wire to saturate, allowing the mixture to 
stand for several hours, heating towards the close of the reaction, we 
shall obtain a solution of iodide of iron equivalent in iodine strength 
to the quantity of iodide of potassium required to decompore 4 parts 
of perchloride of mercury. The yield will be about 6*7 parts, and 
the quality of the product is equal to that produced in any other way, 
but the precautions of using the iron solution as soon as possible, and 
of washing the precipitate as soon as deposited, must be observed ;.. 
otherwise the product might be contaminated with a basic ferric chlo- 
ride, which in time is thrown down. It will be seen that this method 
is as economical as could well be devised ; the operator getting the 
profits of the manufacturer of iodide of potassium, minus the labor 
of the former in making the iodide of iron. 

The last process which we shall notice is that devised by Mr. Wil- 
liams, described in the " Chicago Pharmacist." In this, the use of a 
large quantity of water, for the solution of the mercuric salt, is obvi- 
ated by employing a concentrated solution of chloride of ammonium,, 
in which the mercuric salt dissolves readily. Four parts of perchlo- 
ride of mercury are dissolved in four parts of water to which 2 parts. 



AM Fe J b OU ?;r87l RM '} Preparation of Carbolized Resin Cloth. 79 

of chloride of ammonium have been added, 5 parts of iodide of pot- 
assium are dissolved in 5 parts of water, and the solutions are mixed. 
It will be seen that, in this way, 9 parts of water suffice for solution, 
while, otherwise, at least 70 would be required. This is a great con- 
venience, especially when large quantities are operated upon ; but, 
according to trials which I have made, the method is not economical, 
on account of the biniodide being soluble in the solution of chloride 
of ammonium. By draining the newly formed salt, as soon as depo- 
sited, the loss may be rendered smaller than if water were at once 
added to the mixture ; but the product will not exceed 6*150 parts 
against 6*701, the theoretical yield, or 6-700, the yield by the method 
with simple water. In large operations, some of this dissolved binio- 
dide may be recovered by evaporating to dryness the drainings and 
first washings, washing away the deposited chloride of ammonium, 
and thus leaving the more insoluble biniodide. The operation must be 
performed quickly, or the biniodide will also dissolve. Williams' 
method cannot be recommended except where expedition and conve- 
nience are paramount considerations to that of cost. The product is 
of a darker color and more granular than by other methods, and 
somewhat resembles that prepared by the old Edinburgh process, in 
which the compound formed by a direct union of mercury and iodine 
is dissolved and crystallized from a solution of chloride of sodium. 

A word in regard to Williams' method for purifying the green 
iodide of mercury. I have lately tried this plan and found it to work 
very satisfactorily, being equally efficient, quite as convenient, more 
expeditious, and much more economical than the process with alcohol. 
The washing may be best performed by repeated agitation and decan- 
tation, using fresh solution of chloride of sodium. — Canadian Pharm. 
Journ.y Dec, 1873. 



PREPARATION OF OARBOLIZED RESIN CLOTH.* 
By Edward Lund, F.R.C.S. 
The author having found some difficulty in preparing the antiseptic 
carbolic gauze recommended by Professor Lister (see Pharm. Journ. 
[3] vol. iii., p. 41) in the way indicated by him, has sought to modify 
the process by taking advantage of the property possessed by car- 
bolic acid, and first pointed out by Professor Lister, that it can be 



* British Medical Journal, Dec. 6, p. 654. 



SO Preparation of Garbolized Resin Cloth. { AM - 



Feb. 1, 1874. 



combined with resin and resinous matters generally with great facili- 
ty, and that when so combined nearly all its irritating acrid proper- 
ties are neutralized, while the resulting compound retains the power 
of evolving an antiseptic vapor at the temperature of the body. It is 
well known that to touch the mucous membrane, or even the skin of 
the lips, with pure carbolic acid, occasions pain and excoriation, but 
the author found, in experimenting on a mixture of one part of car- 
bolic acid and five parts of resin, that all the acridity was destroyed, 
the acid being still present, but stored up and rendered harmless by 
the new combination. He ; therefore, came to the conclusion that 
this property allowed of the easy preparation, without the aid of heat, 
of a valuable application for antiseptic purposes in surgery ; all that 
would be required was the saturation of a very thin calico gauze with 
a mixture of resin and acid dissolved in methylated spirit, and drying 
it quickly after pressure had been applied to it. But the compound 
of resin and acid thus left on the threads of the calico after evapora- 
tion was found to be too brittle and adhesive for a wound covering, 
and therefore to impart flexibility castor oil was added, as being the 
only accessible fixed oil entirely soluble in spirits of wine. The au- 
thor finds that some samples of castor oil, in consequence of adultera- 
tion, are not entirely soluble in alcohol, but he is content to use an 
oil that will unite with twice its bulk of rectified spirit. Mr. Lund 
thus describes the proportion of the ingredients and the preparation 
of the antiseptic cloth : 

" Carbolic Acid Crystals melted, . . 2 fluid ounces. 

Castor Oil, 2 " ti 

Purified Resin, by weight, . . .16 ounces. 
Methylated Spirit, . . . .40 fluid ounces. 
Mix. 

" To dissolve these ingredients easily, we must add them together 
in a certain order. To the resin, liquefied by heat and removed from 
the fire, add one-third part of the spirit ; when these are well mixed, 
put in another third of the spirit, in which the oil has been previous- 
ly dissolved ; and, lastly, the acid in the remaining portion of the 
spirit must be slowly added to complete the mixture. The whole 
must be agitated until all the constituents are thoroughly incorporate d 
and afterwards passed through a muslin filter to get rid of any extra- 
neous matters. If this plan be not adopted, the resin will concrete 
into a mass at the bottom of the vessel, and it will be extremely diffi- 



A Peb!T;ml RM '} Preparation of Garbolized Resin Cloth. 81 

cult afterwards to get it perfectly mixed. When thus prepared, the 
solution is of a dark color, clear and free from any deposit ; and it 
can be kept unchanged, in a well corked bottle, for a long time. It 
is, in fact, a kind of thick varnish. To make the resin cloth, as I 
term it, for the sake of distinguishing it from the cere-cloth dressing 
for wounds, which I described in a paper read at the Leeds meeting 
of the British Medical Association in 1869, it is needful to select a 
very thin, cheap, porous calico or calico-muslin, known in the trade 
as ' mulls,' which costs at wholesale price about four shillings per 
piece of twenty yards. This, divided into strips, each about nine 
inches wide and six yards long, is reduced to a convenient form for 
general use. The calico should be unbleached and free from stiffen- 
ing, and each of the strips should be carefully folded up, so as just to 
lie flatly in the press, as I am about to explain. 

" An ordinary square tincture press may be used to press the cloth^ 
or such a press as is sold for copying letters, to which a tin box has 
been adapted, so that the plates of the press can work in it ; and into 
this box the folded calico is placed, the solution being poured over 
each successive layer, so as to wet perfectly every part of it. There 
should be an aperture at the bottom of the box, with a tap by which 
the superfluous fluid can be removed, collected and used a second 
time. The press being brought into action, the pile of calico should 
be squeezed as dry as possible, all the fluid drained off, the resin-cloth 
taken out, laid over a few lines of string in a warm room with a good 
ventilation ; and in an hour or two, when all traces of smell of the 
methylated spirit have departed, the cloth may be rolled up and kept 
in tin cases ready for use. 

" It is difficult for me to state the exact cost of resin-cloth made 
by this process, for I have not yet bought the materials for its pre- 
paration at such prices as could be had if it were to be manufactured 
in large quantities ; but, allowing for some slight reduction, where six 
or eight twenty-yard pieces of calico are bought at a time, and the 
solution made by the gallon, I find it comes to a fraction less than 
threepence per yard of average width of 44 inches. In using it as a 
dressing for wounds, I deal with it precisely as I would do with Mr. 
Lister's antiseptic gauze, for which it must be taken as a cheap and 
ready substitute. I generally apply ten folds of it over the face of a 
Wound, as in an amputation, and perhaps six folds higher up the limb 
for some distance, and I cover it with the macintosh hat-lining, so as 

6 



82 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, { AH FeK m™" 

to distribute the serous discharges through the breadth of the resin- 
cloth thus covered. I have never found it to irritate the skin in any 
degree beyond what the oiled silk (protective), liberally used, could 
control ; except once, when, in the hurry of preparing the resin-cloth, 
I had neglected to dry it thoroughly, and it was applied, still moist 
with the methylated spirit, the naphtha in it seeming to be the chief 
cause of the skin irritation. But if this precaution be observed, I 
believe this resin-cloth will be found a very useful addendum to our 
means of treating wounds and abscesses on antiseptic principles." — 
Pharm. Journ., Pec. 20, 1873. 



The regular monthly meeting was held January 20th, 1874. On motion, 
Peter Williamson was elected President, and the minutes of last meeting 
were read and approved. Among the members from a distance present was 
Mr. Chas. A. Heinitsh, of Lancaster, Pa. 

Mr. C. A. Weidemann, on behalf of Mr. Geo. R. Mariner, presented for the 
College Library a volume, entitled " The Modern Practice of the London Hos- 
pitals, Dublin, 1772." 

The reading of papers being next in order, Dr. A. W. Miller had the speci- 
fication read which forms part of letters patentTNo. 127,568, dated June 4, 
1872, and issued to Robert A. Chesebrough, of New York, and then read an 
article on Vaseline, which will be found in another place in the Journal. 

Richard Y. Mattison read a paper on Saccharated Pancreatin and the Emul- 
sion produced by the use of it and Cod Liver Oil, which will be found elsewhere 
in this number. 

A. P. Brown, of Camden, stated that he had used saccharated pancreatin, 
and that physicians whom he had supplied with it had used it successfully. At 
the suggestion of one of his medical friends, he had treated the Parotid gland 
by a process similar to that used for extracting pancreatin, and obtained a 
product which possessed in a degree the properties of pancreatin. 

Prof. Maisch presented specimens and read some pharmacognostical notes 
on Cort. Granati, Chiretta, Trompatilla (a new remedy from Mexico, and said 
to be successfully used in the treatment of hydrophobia), a new false Angustura, 
Bouvardia triphylla, and a report of an examination of a substance presented 
to him, which proved to be carbazotic acid. 

Dr. W. H. Pile stated that he had made some phosphoretted resin accord- 
ing to the formula published by A. W. Gerrard, in Pharmaceutical Journal, 
December 6th, 1873, and republished in Am. Journal of Pharmacy, January, 
1874. He confirmed the statements made by the author, recommended the 
preparation, and laid particular stress on the directions to conform to the tem- 
peratures given in the process. 



a \ F im m } Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 83 



Am. Jour. Phaem 

Feb 



Edwin McC. Boring presented samples of Castile soap, and said that he had 
successfully cut very hard soap by previously heating the bars in an ordinary 
oven to between 150 and 200° F., care being taken not to leave them in long 
enough to make them too soft. 

Prof. Maisch called the attention of the meeting to the circular issued by 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, containing the report of the Com- 
mittee on Elixirs, John F. Hancock, Chairman ; and he urged the adoption of the 
formulas in order to secure uniformity. An extract of the report, giving the 
formulas, will be found below: 

Compound[Powder of Cochineal. 

Take of Cochineal in Powder, .... 120 grains. 

Alum, in powder, .... 120 grains. 

Carbonate of Potassium, . . . 120 grains. 

ftitartrate of Potassium, . . . 240 grains. 

Mix. Keep in well-stoppered vial. 

Compound Tincture of Cochineal. 
Take of Compound Powder of Cochineal, . . 120 grains. 

Diluted Alcohol, . . . . 2 fl. ounces. 

Slightly warm the diluted alcohol and mix with the powder, macerate in a stop- 
pered vial for twelve hours, and filter for use. This is permanent, and imparts 
a beautiful red color to elixirs and solutions which have no acid properties. 

Spirit of Orange. 

Take of Oil of Sweet Orange, . . .1 fluid ounce. 

Stronger Alcohol, . . • 16 fluid ounces. 

Mix. This is made in proportions to conform with the spirits of the U. S. P., 
and is a pleasant and convenient form of orange flavor. 

Simple Elixir. 

Take of Spirit of Orange, . . . £ fluid ounce. 

Stronger Alcohol, . . . .4 fluid ounces. 

Cinnamon Water, ... 6 fluid ounces. 

Syrup, . . . . .6 fluid ounces. 

Mix. 

This is a turbid mixture. For many purposes it is not necessary to filter be- 
fore using, but generally it should be clear, particularly when used 'for physi- 
cian's prescriptions, and in making some elixirs. Filtering paper pulp, made 
by beating scraps of chemically pure filtering paper in a mortar, in the propor- 
tion of sixty grains of paper to half fluid ounce of water, added to sixteen fluid 
ounces of the elixir, agitated briskly for a few moments, and filtered, renders 
the elixir perfectly limpid. The paper is free from the chemical objections 
urged against carbonate of magnesium, chalk, etc., which are frequently used 
as clarifying agents. 

The very pleasant taste and odor of this elixir, its freedom from color and 
chemical impurities, commends it for general use as a medicating vehicle. 

Red Elixir. 

Take of Comp. Tincture of Cochineal, . • £ fluid ounce. 

Simple Elixir, . . . .16 fluid ounces. 

Mix. 

This is sometimes preferred as a simple elixir because of its beautiful color. 
Elixir of Calisaya Bark. 
Take of Tinct. Cinchona, U. S. P., 1870, . 22 fluidrachms. 

Simple Elixir, . sufficient to make 16 fluid ounces. 

Mix and filter. This contains the virtues of two grains of Calisaya bark in 
one fluidrachm. 



84 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meetings. {^fS;?™" 

Elixir of Calisaya Baric with Iron. 
Take of Elixir of Calisaya Bark, ... 15 fluid ounces. 
Warm Distilled Water, . , .1 fluid ounce. 

Citrate of Iron, soluble, . . . 128 grains. 

Dissolve the iron in the warm water and add the elixir. Filter if necessary. 
Each fluidrachm of the unfiltered elixir contains one grain of the iron salt, and 
the virtues of nearly two grains of Calisaya bark. 

Compound Elixir of Cinchona. 
Take of Compound Tinct. Cinchona, U. S. P., 1870, 22 fluidrachms. 

Simple Elixir, . sufficient to make 16 fluid ounces. 

Mix and filter. If not required for immediate use, this and also the Calisaya 
elixir should stand for about twelve hours before filtering. 

Compound Elixir of Cinchona with Iron. 
Take of Compound Elixir of Cinchona, . . 15 fluid ounces. 

| Warm Distilled Water, . . 1 fluid ounce. 

Citrate of Iron, soluble, . . . 120 grains. 

Mix. Proceed as for Elixir of Calisaya with Iron. 

Elixir of Citrate of Iron. 
Take of Citrate of Iron, soluble, . . . 256 grains. 

Warm Distilled Water, . . .1 fluid ounce. 

Simple Elixir, .... 15 fluid ounces. 

Dissolve the iron in the warm water and mix with the simple elixir. Filter. 

Elixir of Pyrophosphate of Iron. 
Take of Pyrophosphate of Iron, . . . 256 grains. 

Warm Distilled Water, . . 1 fluid ounce. 

Simple Elixir, . . . . .15 fluid ounces. 

Make according to directions for Elixir of Citrate Of Iron. 
This is the same medicinal strength as Prof. Diehl's formula. 

Elixir of Citrate of Bismuth. 
Take of Citrate of Bismuth and Ammonium, . 256 grains. 

Warm Distilled Water, . . . 4 fluid ounces. 

Water of Ammoni* (drop by drop), . sufficient. 
Simple Elixir, sufficient to make 16 fl. oz. of finished elixir. 
This is the same bismuth strength as Prof. Diehl's formula, viz., two grains 
of citrate of bismuth and ammonium in each fluidrachm. 

Elixir of Pepsin. 
Take of Saccharated Pepsin, Scheffer's formula, 256 grains. 

Sherry Wine, . . . .14 fluid ounces. 

Simple Syrup, .... 2 fluid ounces. 

Fluid Extract of Ginger, . . .25 drops. 

Dissolve the pepsin in the wine, mix the fluid extract of ginger with the 
syrup, and mix altogether. Filter if necessary. Contains two grains of pepsin 
to the fluidrachm. 

Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonium. 
Take of Valerianate of Ammonium in crystals, 256 grains. 

Compound Tinct. of Cochineal, . . £ fluid ounce. 

Simple Elixir, .... 15^ fluid ounces. 
Dissolve the valeriauate of ammonium in two ounces of the simple elixir, and 
carefully add water of ammonia until the solution is exactly neutral to test- 
paper. Mix with the balance of simple elixir, and then add the compound 
tincture of cochineal. 

This isthe formula of Professor C. Lewis Diehl, with the exception of the 



Al Pen, i87 A £ M * } Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 8 5 

simple elixir. Notwithstanding this preparation contains a larger quantity 
than usual of the valerianate of ammonium (two grains of the salt iu each flui- 
drachm), yet its unpleasant taste and odor is effectually masked by the frag- 
rance of the simple elixir. 

Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonium with Quinia. 
Take of Sulphate of Quinia, . . . 128 grains. 

Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonium, . 16 fluid ounces. 
Mix. Filter if necessary. Sulphate of quinia is soluble in elixir of valerian- 
ate of ammonium to twice the quantity here ordered. 

Compound Elixir of Sumbul. 
Take of Tincture of Sumbul (Brit. Ph. 1867) * 4 fluid ounces. 

Syrup, . . . . . .4 fluid ounces. 

Compound Tincture of Cochineal, . £ fluid ounce. 

Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonium, . 8 fluid ounces. 

Mix. 

The elixir is slightly turbid, owing to the resin of the sumbul, which, if fil- 
tered out, must lessen its medicinal powers. This is given as a type of extem- 
poraneous elixirs, which should not be filtered, but dispensed with the direc- 
tion, "Shake the vial before pouring out each 



Elixir Pyrophosphate of Iron, Quinia and Strychnia. 
(C. Lewis Diehl's Formula.) 
He says : " This requires particular manipulation, which precludes the use 
of simple elixirs. 

" The following formula, the result of concert experiments of my friend, Mr. 
E. Scheffer, and myself, has been used by me since autumn, 1869, and I can 
recommend it as uniformly successful, when the manipulations are carefully 
conducted : 

Take of Sulphate of Quinia, ... 60 grains. 



Strychnia, 
Citric Acid, 
Stronger Alcohol, . 
Spirit of Orange, 
Syrup, 

Pyrophosphate of Iron, 
Distilled Water, 
Water of Ammonia. 



1 grain. 

5 grains. 
3 fluid ounces. 

80 minims. 

6 fluid ounces. 
£ troy ounce. 

7 fluid ounces, 
suf. quantity. 



" Triturate the sulphate of quinia, strychnia and citric acid together, until 
minutely divided, then add the alcohol and spirit of orange. Warm the syrup 
slightly (to about L50° F.), and add to the turbid mixture, when, upon stirring, 
the mixture becomes clear. To this add the pyrophosphate of iron, previously 
dissolved in the distilled water, and finally, carefully add water of ammonia, 
drop by drop, until the elixir is perfectly neutral to test-paper ; filter. The 
finished preparation has a greenish-yellow color, a pleasant flavor of orange, 
and is permanent." 

Bitter Wine of Iron. 
(James T. Shinn's Formula, slightly modified.) 
We have had several years' experience with the following formula, and it has 
given entire satisfaction to prescriber, dispenser and consumer. 

Take of Sulphate of Cinchonia, . . ; 45 grains. 

Sulphate of Quinia, ... 15 grains. 



*This is made by macerating and displacing two and a half ounces avoirdupois of powdered 
sumbul with proof spirit, so as to obtain one imperial pint (19 fluid ounces and 1% fluidrachms 
U. 8. measure) of tincture.— Ed. 



Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meetings. {^ e b?i 



Am. Jour. Ph arm. 
187 4. 



Citric Acid, . . . . .60 grains. 

Citrate of Iron, soluble, . . 240 grains. 

Concent. Tinct. Fresh Sweet Orange peel, 3 fluid ounces. 

Distilled Water, . .' 3 fluid ounces. 

Sherry Wine, .... 8 fluid ounces. 

Syrup, ..... 2 fluid ounces. 

Dissolve the sulphates and citric acid in two ounces of the water, and the 
iron in the remaining ounce of water ; mix the two solutions> and add the other 
ingredients, previously well mixed together. 

The only change from the original formula is in the kind and quantity of 
orange flavor, for which we claim an improvement. See Proceedings of Amer. 
Pharmaceutical Association, 1864, p. 234. 

Elixir of Gentian with Iron. 
Take of Extract of Gentian, . . . 128 grains. 

Citrate of Iron, soluble, . . 128 grains. 

Distilled Water, .... 1 fluid ounce. 
Simple Elixir, .... 15 fluid ounces. 

Dissolve the extract and iron in the water, warmed, and add the simple* 
elixir ; filter. 

Elixir of Bromide of Potassium. 

Take of Bromide of Potassium, . . . 640 grains. 

Red Elixir, .... 16 fluid ounces. 

Mix. 

This contains five grains of the salt in each fluidrachm, and is given as* 
type. The red elixir does not seem to answer for the elixir bromide of calcium- 
caramel is a more suitable coloring substance for the calcium elixir. We pre- 
fer the simple elixir in this case, and to use no coloring substance. 



Syrup of Licorice Eoot.l 

Take of select Licorice Eoot, in moderately coarse powder, 4 troy ounces. 

Diluted Alcohol, . . . sufficient quantity. 

Sugar, . . . . . .12 troy ounces. 

Moisten and pack in a conical percolator; macerate for 12 hours, percolate 
to exhaustion. Place the tincture over a water-bath until reduced to ten fluid 
ounces, filter, and then add the sugar ; lastly, sufficient distilled water to make 
sixteen fluid ounces of finished syrup. 

The syrup of licorice root, when carefully prepared, is more effectual and, 
more convenient for masking the bitterness of quinia, than is the very popular 
" compound elixir of taraxacum," and being free from the stimulating influence 
of alcohol, which is present in the elixir, is well adapted for children. The 
proper proportions will be one grain of quinia (any salt of it) to the fluidrachm ; 
and if those for whom quinia is ordered will take the precaution to chew a, 
small quantity of licorice root previous to taking the quinia mixed with the 
syrup of licorice, in the proportions here recommended, scarcely any bitterness 
will be observed. As a matter of course, acids mixed with quinia and licorice 
syrup will immediately develop the bitter taste. 

It has of late become fashionable to use glycerin as an antiseptic and solv- 
ent in elixirs, as well as other compounds of pharmacy, but our aversion to the- 
general use of glycerin for internal administration, for various reasons, has pre- 
vented its introduction in our formulas. 

The results of our investigations of liquid pepsin preparations will not war- 
rant the introduction of more than the one formula, which is really a wine of 
pepsin, and has been found useful in many cases. 



AM Feb.T'i P 87ir M '} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 87 

Mr. A. P. Brown stated that he had made some of these elixirs, and found 
them to answer their intended purposes well ; the simple and red elixirs can be 
used as vehicles, and may be diluted with water without becoming turbid. 

No further business coming before the meeting, it then adjourned. 

Joseph P. Remington, Registrar. 



Ilraamttal Colleges attir %%mm\mL 



New York College of Pharmacy. — At the conversational meeting held 
January 8th, Dr. L. Feuchtwanger delivered a lecture on Alumina and its 
Products. 



New Hampshire Pharmaceutical Association. About 50 pharmacists 

assembled at Concord on Jan. 22, with the view of organizing a State pharma- 
ceutical association. The officers of the meeting were Dr. Ch. A. Tufts, of 
Dover, President; C. F. P. Hildreth, of Suncook, Vice-President; G. F. Un- 
derbill, of Concord, Secretary, and H. B. Foster, of Concord, Treasurer. 



The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association will hold its annual meeting 
on Wednesday, Feb. 11th, 1874, at Kepler Hall, Jersey City, at 10 o'clock 
A. M., and have at the same time an exhibition of pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions, appliances, &c, which promises to be of much interest, several New 
York wholesale houses having agreed to lend their assistance. It is also pro- 
posed to have an evening session, to which the public will be invited. The 
Association wili, we understand, again endeavor to have a pharmaceutical law 
passed by the State Legislature. 

Camden Pharmaceutical Association. — Our friends in New Jersey are very 
active. Besides the Association, embracing the pharmacists and druggists of 
the entire State, there are now two local pharmaceutical associations, one in 
the City of Nev/ark, the other in the City of Camden, the latter having been 
organized Nov. 28th last, with the following officers : Thos. G. Rowand, Pre- 
sident ; Simeon Ringel, Vice-President ; A. P. Brown, Secretary, and Jas. A. 
Armstrong, M.D., Treasurer. In the matter of pharmaceutical organizations, 
the State of New Jersey is now ahead of all other States of the Union, and 
with the activity displayed by them, their objects will doubtless be crowned 
with success. 



M aryland College of Pharmacy. — At the regular meeting, held Jan. 8th, 
1874, the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: First Vice-Pre- 
sident, Joseph Roberts, Ph. D. ; Second Vice-President, A. P. Sharp; and 
Messrs. F. Hassencamp and N. Hynson Jennings, members of Examining 
Board. The several standing committees were appointed, and a special com- 
mittee to take into consideration the feasibility of building a suitable hall for 
the College, and to petition the Legislature for aid thereunto. 



88 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. {^^1, mT' 

A special meeting was appointed for Wednesday, Jan. 14th, to take action 
on report of Committee on Revision of By-Laws, &c. 

J. Newport Potts, Rep. M. C. P. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At the annual meeting, held Jan. 13th, 
the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, J. F. 
Judge ; Recording Secretary, Jos. N. Feemster ; Corresponding Secretary, 
Chas. H. Van Slyck ; Treasurer, W. H. Negley ; Board of Trustees, F. L. 
Eaton, J. D. Wells, T. L. A. Grere, Chas. Schmidt. The members of the 
Board holding over are Chas. Faust, Otto Taxis, John G. Fratz and A. J. 
Tally. 

Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were read and adopted. President 
J. F. Judge delivered a short address, congratulating the College on its suc- 
cess during the past year, the increase in the number of members and its satisfac- 
tory financial condition. The first course of lectures since the reorganization of 
the College was the session of 1871-72. It was attended by 32 students, most of 
whom were residents of this city. The second course, session of 1872-73, fol- 
lowed, with 51 students, a fair proportion of whom came from a distance, many 
from different points in Ohio ; some from Illinois, Indiana and West Virginia, 
and one from Canada. Ten students of this course received the degree of 
" Graduate in Pharmacy." The present course is attended by 70 students. 
The increase in the number of students shows that the College is in a very 
healthy and prosperous condition. There are six lectures each week, delivered 
by gentlemen of long and practical experience, and give general satisfaction 
to the class. The following are the members of the faculty for the present 
year: J. F. Judge, M.D., Professor of Chemistry; E. S. Wayne, M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Botany; W. B. Chapman, M.D., Professor of 
Pharmacy. The bill regulating the practice of pharmacy, which passed the 
Legislature last spring, has been promptly complied with ; every retail druggist 
engaged in the business when the law went into effect has been registered, and 
many persons desiring to engage in business for themselves have appeared be- 
fore the Examining Board. A large number of clerks have also been examined, 
most of whom passed very creditably. 

A large number of donations of books, chemicals, etc., have been made to 
. the College during the past year ; many by our own members and friends of 
the College here, and quite a number from Philadelphia, St. Louis and other 
places; and though our friends have been very liberal, there still is room, and 
we hope for a continuance of the same. Any donations to the library or cabi- 
net will be thankfully received, and may be sent at our expense, per express, 
addressed to any of the officers of the Association. 

Chas. H. Yan Slyck, Cor. Secretary. 



Saginaw Yalley Pharmaceutical Association. — At the annual meeting of 
the Saginaw Yalley Association, held in East Saginaw, January 14th, 1874, the 
following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Dr. S. S. Garrigues ; Yice-President, L. Simoneau ; Secretary, 



%^ m i,mT'} Editorial. 89 

J. F. Street, Bay City ; Finance Committee — A. A. Dunk, East Saginaw, E, 
Aldridge, Bay City. 

After the election of officers the subject of legislation connected with phar- 
macy came under general discussion. 



Editorial Department. 



Nostrum Quackery. — The "Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal" for Au- 
gust, 1873, contains, under the above caption, an article which has evidently 
been written by one who has studied the subject with care, and approaches the 
question, not from the standpoint of partiality, but by searching for the causes 
in order to find a remedy for an evil which is spreading and increasing all over 
the world, and which the most stringent prohibitory laws of continental Europe 
have failed to suppress. The article in question is so free from the passionate 
condemnations which may be met with in many medical journals, and at 
the same time bears such strong evidence of its writer's full acquaintance with 
all sides of the complicated question, that we had hoped it would have 
received the attention of most medical journals, and thus originated a discussion 
from which the most beneficial results might have been expected. Thus far 
our hope has been disappointed. 

In reproducing the article here, we believe that it will be read with that 
interest which the candor and frankness pervading it deserves : 

Nostrum quackery has been so often the theme of essay and dissertation, we 
can scarcely hope to say anything new upon the subject, and yet it is of so 
much interest to the profession, and so nearly touches our daily occupation, 
that we may venture to throw out a few random thoughts for what they may 
be worth. 

When we walk into our drug-stores and glance over their shelving, we are 
confronted everywhere with an army of nostrums which are evidently displayed 
for a purpose — they certainly mean business. If we should possess so far the 
confidence of the proprietors as to be permitted to inspect the ledger, we would 
probably find that the sales of these so-called remedies yield a large percentage 
of the profits of the business. 

It is useless to blink the fact that these preparations, whether for weal or 
for woe, supply a great public want; the people will have them, in spite of all 
we may do or say. 

It is notoriously true that all efforts thus far made by the medical profes- 
sion to suppress the great and growing evil have most signally failed. Why is 
this ? 

There are many reasons which might be assigned, but for the present we 
shall confine our attention to two : 1. Nostrums supply a want which the com- 
munity feel, and for which they are willing to pay their money; 2. The oppo- 
sition of the medical profession to the sale of quack preparations is set down 
to selfish greed, and has not yet been divested of the appearance, at least, of 
self-seeking. 

Until we of the profession are willing to place ourselves in a position of 
pecuniary disinterestedness, and, at the same time, to acknowledge and supply 
the want of the public for household remedies, we may as well 'bate our breath 
in the matter. 



90 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Phark . 
\ Feb. 1, 1874. 



It is fairly objected to the present system of nostrum quackery that it is 
dangerous to the health and lives of the people, because the composition in 
constituents and quantities of its preparations is withheld from the profession 
and the public. If alarming symptoms ensue, there is no means of determin- 
ing the agency of the medicine in the case. If serious illness follows, the 
attending physician is left in the dark as to the medicines which have actually 
been taken in the compound, and their probable influence upon the symptoms 
present. 

These remedies are dangerous, because of the difficulty of effecting perfect 
combination of materials when operating upon a large scale, as witness the case- 
of poisoning by " Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup," at San Francisco and at 
St. Louis. They are dangerous, because of the liability to error incurred in 
the employment of cheap and unskilled labor for many of the details of manu- 
facture in very large establishments. 

They are objectionable, because there is no recourse to be had upon the 
manufacturer in a distant State, in the event of death or injury resulting. 

In the way of remedy for these acknowledged evils, we suggest that the med- 
ical profession recognize the want of household remedies by publishing autho- 
ritative formula?, for the use of pharmacists, who may compound them at their 
counters and keep them on hand for the ready and convenient supply of all the 
real wants of families and of individuals in this direction. 

Let vendors of patent and proprietary medicines and nostrums be required 
by law to fully and distinctly set forth upon their labels the names and quanti- 
ties employed of all the materials used in the compound, together with a work- 
ing formula; and let suitable penalties be attached to all fraud and deception 
with reference to the compound. 

Moreover, let physicians encourage the establishment of small pharmacies in 
skilled hands, from which all nostrums which do not conform to the above requi- 
sitions are rigidly excluded ; and when this is impracticable, let them attach 
dispensing apartments to their own offices. B. 

We have but little to add to the foregoing at present; but we desire to state 
that we know of not a few drug-stores where one is not confronted everywhere 
with an array of nostrums; but we also know of others where gorgeous show 
cards are displayed in every nook and corner, and where handbills advertising 
all sorts of nostrums are freely distributed, practices which should be discoun- 
tenanced. The preparation of household remedies by authorized formulas has 
been proposed years ago, without having met with the requisite support ; we 
believe this course to be the only rational one calculated to be an entering 
wedge for the suppression of nostrum quackery. 

A great deal might be said about the proposition to publish upon the labels 
of proprietary medicines the full working formulas. The proposition might be 
qualified to exclude all drugs which, if an overdose of the medicine be taken, 
would endanger the life or health of the patient, as in the cases above alluded 
to, or which are likely to create a morbid appetite for the ingredients, if con- 
tinually used, like the stomach bitters, many so-called elixirs, &c. 

Regarding the alternative proposition in the concluding sentence of the 
above article, we trust it may be long before the cure of one evil will be 
attempted by creating another. 

In an editorial contained in the " Medical and Surgical Reporter" of Aug. 
30, the true way to suppress quackery, in and out of the profession, is regarded 
to be by educating the people on medical subjects, and the establishment of a 
society in England is cited whose object is to supply this information to the 



Am. Jour . Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1874. $ 



Editorial. 



91 



public by the distribution of gratuitous tracts on sanitary subjects. It is doubt- 
less correct that the public needs correct information on hygiene and kindred 
subjects, which to the adult population can be supplied by pamphlets written 
in a plain and attractive style, and by popular lectures delivered by those who 
understand the art of expressing leading scientific principles in a plain and 
simple language, devoid of technicalities ; but it seems to us that the introduc- 
tion of this topic into at least the more advanced classes of our public schools 
could not but have the most beneficial results in the future. 



Selling of Liquor by Apothecaries. — The readers of the "Journal" are aware 
that we are not an advocate of the selling of liquor as a beverage by apothecaries ; 
but that we desire to have it restricted for medicinal purposes only. We have 
been taught to look upon Spiritus frumenti, Spiritus vini gallici, Vinum xeri- 
cum, &c, as remedial agents, when prescribed by a physician, and likewise 
that the pharmacist is not responsible for mistakes or misuses by the patient 
of the prescribed medicine, provided the prescription has been accurately com- 
pounded and correctly labelled, and the dose ordered is not excessive. In this, 
however, it seems we have been mistaken. President Judge John Dean, of 
the 24th judicial district of Pennsylvania, which is composed of the counties 
of Huntingdon, Blair and Cambria, last fall sentenced several apothecaries of 
Tyrone for selling liquor without a license, and then made the following remarks,, 
which we take from one of our cotemporaries : 

Druggists are authorized to sell liquor for medical purposes, subject, however, 
to the risk of indictment. A physician's prescription is not of itself a safeguard 
for the druggist. If the latter, even on the prescription of a regular physician^ 
sells liquor to persons of known intemperate habits, or to those who are known 
to use liquor as a beverage, he is liable to indictment, and, if found guilty, ivi J l 
be punished to the extent of the law. In short, in the opinion of the Court, a 
druggist who sells liquor for any purpose whatever, or upon the prescription of 
the most eminent physician of the country, does so at his own risk. 

We know nothing of the merits of the case or cases in question ; but, with 
all due deference to the legal attainments of the learned judge, we would 
respectfully submit, that if the opinion of the Court be the law of the land, 
then it would be high time for pharmacists to critically examine every prescrip- 
tion, and to refuse to put up such as in their opinion might injure the patient, 
directly or indirectly, notwithstanding they have, until now, generally supposed 
that, from education and experience, the physician is better qualified than the 
pharmacist for the selection of the proper remedies in each special case. The 
confusion which would result from such a course, the dangers to which patients 
would be exposed, the uncertainty of the attending physician regarding the 
effects of the medicines furnished upon his prescriptions, and the abuses gene- 
rally to which such a course would lead, are evils patent to all and so great 
that, as heretofore, the responsibility of prescribing the proper remedies must 
of necessity be left with the physician, while the accountableness of the phar- 
macist must be confined to the conscientious execution of the physician's order 
and the quality of the remedies furnished. 



92 



Editorial. 



("Am. Jour. Phaem. 
1 Feb. 1, 1874. 



The Stamp Tax. — The Committee of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, con. 
sisting of Messrs. Edward H. Hance and Alexander H. Jones, who had a hear- 
ing before the Committee of Ways and Means, as we informed our readers on 
page 43 of our last number, have reported on their visit and published the peti- 
tion handed to Congress asking for the repeal of the stamp tax on medicinal 
preparations, and accompanied by a copy of the December number of the 
"American Journal of Pharmacy," as embodying upon pages 564 — 574 the 
views of all the pharmaceutical colleges and associations heard from until that 
time. The Committee state in their report : 

It is to be remembered that, just at this time, suggestions were made look- 
ing toward increased taxation. The views of the Secretary of the Treasury 
and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue indicated a necessity for more rev- 
enue, and measures to increase the tax on whiskey and tobacco, to restore 
Schedule B, and to re-impose the duty upon tea and coffee, were discussed in 
official circles. 

The instructions to ask for a total repeal, however, were strictly carried out, 
and the petitions asking for such repeal presented ; but it was thought proper 
to state to the two Committees of Congress that if all could not be had, a part 
might satisfy the trade. 

The Committee also refer to a letter, dated January 6th, from a member of 

Congress, stating : 

Commissioner Douglass has not yet had an interview with the Committee. 

The only expression I have heard has been one of respect for the weight of 
the petitioners, representing as they do all the States and Territories, and of 
the suggestions made by yourself and Mr. Hance. My judgment is that there 
is a general desire in the Committee to obviate the difficulty, if it can be done 
without opening a wide door to fraud, as I personally believe it can. 

Also another letter, dated Washington, Jan. 10th, 1874, stating: 

I am happy in being able to say that I believe the Committee of Ways and 
Means will embody a revision of that part of the Stamp Law, the modification 
of which is desired by the druggists, in their first Revenue Bill. 

The following is an extract from a letter of Hon. W. R. Morrison, of Illi- 
nois, who writes to the St. Clair Pharmaceutical Association : 

Petitions of a like character have been numerously presented during the 
present session of Congress. A delegation from Philadelphia, and perhaps 
from other cities, have been here and have had a hearing before the Commit- 
tee, and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue is to be heard during the pre- 
sent week. It seems to be more the construction of the law (by the Commis- 
sioner) than the law itself which creates the hardships complained of. There 
seem to be very many interested beside yourselves, hence I think relief prob- 
able. 

I shall be glad to further your interests to the best of my ability. 



Pancreatin. — The "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal " for December 
11, 1873, contains a paper by Dr. Horace Dobell, entitled " Pancreatin and its 
Usefulness," which is in answer to one by Dr. E. H. Hoskin, published in the 
same journal in June last, and entitled u Pancreatin and its Uselessness." It 



AM Feb C T, f 8 H 74 BM ' } Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 93 

appears that the latter has been mainly experimenting with the pancreatic pre- 
parations of Dr. Hawley, while the former, who proposed the medicinal use of 
pancreatic juice (see Amer. Journ. Pharmacy, 1866, p. 143) some eight or nine 
years ago, has employed it ever since, and his views are therefore entitled to 
high consideration. The preparations preferred by Dr. Dobell are those of 
Messrs. Savory & Moore, made by processes which we believe have never been 
published. 

That pancreatic juice forms an emulsion with fat was observed forty years 
ago by Eberle, and Valentin discovered in 1847 that the same liquid readily 
transforms starch into glucose. 01. Bernard, C. Schmidt and others subse- 
quently showed that the pancreatic liquid, when in contact with fats, decom- 
poses the latter into glycerin and the fatty acids; the precipitate obtained by 
alcohol in pancreatic juice was found to be not only soluble again in water, but 
to possess in a high degree the properties mentioned before, of converting 
starch into sugar and of decomposing fats. Vanden Corput afterwards used 
this alcoholic precipitate under the name of pancreatin, and recommended it 
in the form of emulsion, aqueous solution, powder, &c, generally combining it 
with alkaline carbonates or bicarbonates. 

The process recommended by R. Y. Mattison, in the December number of 
this journal, for the preparation of the emulsifying principle, is based upon its 
insolubility in concentrated solutions of chloride of sodium. 

The only two processes, with which we are acquainted, for obtaining pancre- 
atin in a probably not chemically pure, but at least in a concentrated condition, 
are so easily executed that we take occasion to suggest to our readers its pre- 
paration by both methods, with the view of having their efficacy and relative 
merit thoroughly tested by intelligent physicians, and then to report the results. 
This seems to us to be the proper way of saving a remedial agent of apparent 
merit from probable neglect, and at the same time supplanting with prepara- 
tions of established composition others which, no matter how meritorious they 
otherwise may be, are made by processes kept secret, thus preventing or at 
least retarding desirable improvements. The experiments we think should be 
made with the pancreas of the various herbivorous and omnivorous domesti- 
cated animals, and the physician should be made acquainted with the kind em- 
ployed by him. 



EEVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Medical Lexicon — a Dictionary of Medical Science ; containing a concise ex- 
planation of the various subjects and terms of anatomy, physiology, pathol- 
ogy, hygiene, therapeutics, medical chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacy, sur- 
gery, obstetrics, medical jurisprudence and dentistry; notices of climate 
and of mineral waters; formulae for officinal, empirical and dietetic prepara- 
tions ; with the accentuation and etymology of the terms, and the French 
and other synonyms. By Robley Dunglison, M.D., LL.D. A new edition, 
enlarged and thoroughly revised by Richard J. Dunglison, M. D„ Philadel- 
phia: Henry 0. Lea, 1874. Large 8vo, pp. 1131. Price: cloth, $6.50; 
leather, raised bands, $7.50. 

As a standard work of reference, as one of the best, if not the very best 



94 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^ebtifisS^ 1 ' 

medical dictionary ia the English language, Dunglison's work has been well 
known for about forty years, and needs no words of praise on our part to 
recommend it to the members of the medical and likewise of the pharmaceu- 
tical profession. The latter especially are in need of such a work which gives 
ready and reliable information on thousands of subjects and terms which they 
are liable to encounter in pursuing their daily avocation, but with which they 
cannot be expected to be familiar. The work before us fully supplies this 
want. 

The title indicates the scope of the work, which is very extensive, embracing 
such a multitude of subjects and so many branches of science, that it is ex. 
ceedingly difficult and next to impossible for one man to be equally posted in 
all and to keep up with the rapid progress made in the various departments; 
hence it is possible that, notwithstanding the most diligent research, old views 
may be retained occasionally or new facts overlooked or misconceived. In 
carefully going over the pages, we have observed but few cases of the kind, 
and mostly such of little importance. The origin of sumbul root has now been 
determined ; it is yielded by Sumbulus moschatus. Rheum palmatum, undula- 
tum and compactum do not yield the officinal rhubarb, the Pharmacopoeia 
notwithstanding; it is most likely a new species, Eh. officinale, and, instead of 
a root, appears to be the ascending axis. Russian, or so-called Turkey rhu- 
barb has long since disappeared from the market, and is now only met with in 
cabinets. The so-called Levant wormseed consists of the flower buds, not of 
the broken peduncles, of Artemisia cina. We should have preferred to find 
the chestnuts described under Castanea, instead of under Fagus ; the leaves 
used for whooping cough are obtained from Castanea vesca, not from 0. pumila. 
Yiridia and veratroidia are names proposed for two alkaloids found in Veratrum 
viride; they do n©t occur in Sabadilla, and cannot, therefore, contaminate the 
officinal veratria. Pepsin is now obtained in this country by SchefFer's process, 
by precipitation with chloride of sodium, and is better than when made by the 
old process wth lead salt. 

The revision of the present edition was commenced by the author of the 
work, and completed, after his decease, by his son, who has successfully endeav- 
ored to carry out the author's plan, to bring the volume up to the present time, 
and to retain for it the position of a work of satisfactory reference, which it 
has enjoyed for so long a time. Over 6000 new subjects and terms have been 
introduced, and, although the capacity of the page has been enlarged, the vol- 
ume has been increased by one hundred pages. 



The Tennessee Pharmacol Gazette. An eclectic monthly of practical phar- 
macy. Published by authority of the Tennessee College of Pharmacy and 
the Tennessee Pharmaceutical Association. Edited by Professors Benjamin 
Lillard and Thomas Black. Nashville. Monthly. Price, $1.25. 

We heartily welcome this new pharmaceutical periodical, and trust that it 
may have a successful career. Judging of the large number of pharmacists 
and druggists in the United States, the pharmaceutical literature of the coun- 
try has ample room for improvement and extension, not only in bringing out 
what is usually termed practical information, but also such which aims at rais- 



AM Fib U i',i8 H 74 RM "} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 95 

ing pharmacy to the dignity of a profession, to something more than the com- 
pounding of drugs, of the nature of which frequently little is understood. 

The first number, before us, is mainly occupied with the Proceedings of the 
Tennessee Pharmaceutical Association, whose organ it is, by short extracts, 
editorials, &c. 



Galvano- Therapeutics. A revised reprint of a report made to the Illinois 
State Medical Society, for 1873, by David Prince, M.D., of Jacksonville, 
111. Philadelphia, 1873 : Lindsay & Blakiston. 8vo, pp. 64. 

This little work contains a great deal of information to the busy practi- 
tioner, and has evidently been prepared with much care, and with the material 
at hand well digested. 



Proceedings of the Nebraska State Medical Society at its Fifth Annual Session, 
held in Nebraska City, Neb., June 3d and tth, 1873. Omaha, Neb., 1873. 
8vo, pp. 55. 

The pamphlet contains the minutes of the Society, together with reports of 
some of the sections* 



The Technologist, or Industrial Monthly, A practical journal for manufactur- 
ers, mechanics, builders, inventors, engineers and architects. Issued by the 
Industrial Publication Company, 176 Broadway, New York. Vol. V, 1874. 
4to, 28 pages. Monthly. Price, $1.50 per year. 

The number before us is filled with interesting matter, of the kind indicated 
in the title. The types are clear, the illustrations numerous and attractive, 
including two full-page engravings of a fan-blower, handsomely printed in col- 
ors, and the descriptions of apparatus and processes, the current notes and edi- 
torials are simple and practical. 



A Universal Formulary : containing the methods of preparing and administer- 
ing officinal and other medicines — the whole adapted to physicians and phar- 
maceutists. By R. Eglesfeld Griffith, M.D. Third edition; carefully revised 
and much enlarged by John M. Maisch, Phar. D., Professor of Materia Med- 
ica and Botany in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Philadelphia : 
Henry C. Lea, 1874. With illustrations. Price : in muslin, $4.50 ; in leather, 
$5.50. 

The work of preparing a new edition of this well-named Universal Formu- 
lary has been entrusted to Professor Maisch. Many changes were made neces- 
sary by the appearance of the new edition of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and by 
the alterations in the British and German Pharmacopoeias. The Formulary 
proper has been increased by one hundred and twelve pages; eighty-three new 
subjects have been introduced, among which may be mentioned : 

Acidum Carbolicum, Iodoformum, 

Ammonii Yalerianas, Potassii Permanganas, 

Calcii Hypophosphis, Triticum Repens, 

Ferri Pyrophosphas, Ammonii Bromidum, 

Physostigma, Cadmii Iodidum, 

Sodii Sulphis, Ferri et Quiniae Citras, 



96 



Obituary. 



{Am. Jour. Phabm. 
Feb. 1, 1874. 



Ammonii Benzoas, Pepsinum, 
Bismuthi et Ammonii Citras, Santoninum, 
Chloral, Zinci Sulphocarbolas. 

Some of the old and little-used recipes have been dismissed, and where the 
authorities have seen fit to alter the titles of some of the articles, it was neces- 
sary to revise them and classify under their proper names. 

The book as it now appears is a large octavo, of 800 pages, printed on good 
paper and in clear type. 

The feature which at once attracts the practical eye in the Formulary itself 
is the admirable manner in which useful information is condensed in the form 
of head notes to the subjects. The tables also form important points of value, 
prominent among which may be mentioned — Equivalents in Troy and Avoir- 
dupois Weights, Hydrometrical Equivalents, and Pharmaceutical Names. The 
chapter on Officinal Preparations and Directions is full of profitable sugges- 
tions, collated from the best works. 

The labor of revising about 5000 formulas is not a small one, and it would 
not be surprising if a few errors or omissions should creep, in. One that occurs 
to us just now, and which existed in the former editions, is that sometimes in a 
compound recipe the formula of one of the preparations which enters into it is 
not given in the book, and is not readily found in the books generally at com. 
mand. As an example we instance syrup of mallows, on pages 253 and 271. 
And in the Index of Diseases and Eemedies, cod-liver oil is omitted under the 
head Phthisis. 

The young practitioner will find the work invaluable in suggesting eligible 
modes of administering many remedies, and the scope is so large that in most 
instances a choice to suit special cases can easily be made. The pharmacist 
will find that it well fills a niche in his library amongst his well-worn and tried 
friends, whether he wishes to make either the veteran preparations, or particu- 
larly if he receives an unexpected call for Saviard's Lotion, Yicat's Anodyne 
Mixture, or Stahl's Pills, or something out of the usual way. 

J. P. Remington. 



OBITUARY. 

S. W. Butler, M.D., for many years editor of the "Medical and Surgical 
Reporter," died in this city January 6th, after a lingering attack of phthisis 
pulmonalis, in the fifty-first year of his life. The deceased was born at May- 
nard, East Tennessee, where his father labored as physician and missionary 
among the Cherokee Indians. "When he graduated, in 1850, at the University 
of Pennsylvania, the subject of his thesis was Hydrangea arborescens, the 
value of which in calculous complaints has since been attested by many prac- 
titioners. For about twenty-three years, since 1854 as its proprietor, he has 
been connected with the " Medical and Surgical Reporter," which in 1858 he 
removed from Burlington, N. J., to Philadelphia, and at which he labored,, 
until within a short period before his death, for the last seven years having 
been assisted by Dr. D. G. Brinton. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 1874. 



RIOINUS COMMUNIS. 
Analysis of the leaves of the plant. 
By E. S. Wayne. 

)v |Having observed a crystalline deposit in the fluid extract of the 
leaves of the Ricinus communis, which preparation I have made for 
several years past from the leaves of the plants grown in this vicin- 
ity, and which has been used by several of our physicians as a galac- 
topoietic agent with satisfactory effect, and having a desire to know 
what this substance was, induced me to make the following analysis 
of it, and to extend my researches further. 

This crystalline deposit above mentioned had the appearance of a 
mass of colorless prismatic crystals, imbedded, more or less, in a 
mass of chlorophyll, which had also separated from the fluid extract. 
A portion of the deposit was removed for examination, and was 
treated with alcohol ; the crystals were lefc undissolved. Water was 
then tried as a solvent, in which they dissolved, and the solution upon 
concentrating deposited long prismatic crystals, which were found, 
upon examination, to be nitrate of potassium. 

This fall, in making another quantity of the fluid extract, which re- 
quired filtration to^separate a quantity of chlorophyll deposited, I no- 
ticed that the greenish mass on the filter was glistening with crystals, 
and, upon treating some with water, obtained from it a large quan- 
tity of nitrate of potassium. 

The presence of it in this mass was evidence that the salt existed 
as such in the leaves of the plant, which was also shown to hi the 
case during the combustion of leaves and stem?, they burning with 
scintillation and decrepitation almost like nitre paper. 

Becoming interested in the subject, I was tempted to extend my 
researches, and accordingly submitted the leaves to a careful analysis 
for the presence of a proximate principle, and the analvsH of tho ash 

7 



08 



Ricimis Communis. 



J Am. Jour. P 
I Mar. 1,18 



of the plant. Analysis of the leaves failed to show the presence of 
any substance having the properties of an alkaloid, but proved that 
they did contain a proximate principle, crystallizing in square prisms 
and tables. 

This substance was obtained by the following process : The pow- 
dered leaves were exhausted by percolation with dilute alcohol, and 
the percolate evaporated in a water-bath to expel the alcohol and 
separate chlorophyll and resin ; these were separated by filtering. The 
filtrate was of a dark brown color. To it was added moist hydrated 
oxide of lead, and the mixture repeatedly shaken during the day; by 
this treatment the tannic acid present and a large portion of the col- 
oring matter was removed. The solution filtered from the oxide of 
lead was of a pale amber color ; this was then evaporated to a syrupy 
consistence. About one ounce of extract was left, which was ex- 
hausted with eight ounces of alcohol, and the alcoholic solution set 
aside for spontaneous evaporation.* As the alcohol evaporated, a, 
crystalline substance commenced to form, and from the extract above 
mentioned, from one pound avoirdupois of the leaves, about 60 grains 
of the substance was obtained of a pale yellow color, which was dis- 
solved in alcohol, and the solution treated with purified animal charcoal* 
The solution left to spontaneous evaporation deposited the substance 
in colorless crystals, prismatic and tabular in form. 

The portion of the extract insoluble in alcohol was tested for glu- 
cose, but none found present. 

The crystalline substance was then submitted to the following tests : 

Concent, sulphuric acid : No change cold or by heating ; by heat 
it dissolved to a colorless solution, which, upon being diluted with 
water, deposited it again as a white pulverent mass. 

Nitric acid : No change. 

Hydrochloric acid : No change. 

Sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium : After standing some 
time a green color. 

The hydrochloric acid solution, upon the addition of solution of 
chloride mercury, formed a white precipitate. 

Heated with potash, ammonia was given off. 

Heated upon platina foil it fuses, and, upon further heating, it ig- 
nites and burns with a sooty flame. 

Heated in a glass tube, it fuses, volatilizes and condenses in a crys- 
talline form in the cool portion of the tube. 



Am. Jour . Pharm. > 
Mar. 1, 1874. S 



Ricinus Communis 



99 



The fused mass, upon cooling, forms a mass having a radiated 
crystalline appearance. It is soluble in alcohol and water. 

Taste bitter, resembling that of wild cherry bark when chewed. 

From the above behavior with reagents and its crystalline form, it is 
evident that the substance obtained from the leaves is identical with 
that obtained by Prof. Tuson from castor seeds, and named by him 
Ricinin.* 

From experiments made with the substance from the leaves, it is 
evident that it has no claims to be called an alkaloid, as it has no 
action on litmus paper, and solution of iodohydrargyrate of potas- 
sium gives no precipitate with it. Yet it contains nitrogen, as proven 
by the production of ammonia when heated with potash. 

All of the tests made with the substance from the leaves compare 
with those of Ricinin from seeds. 

The analysis of the plant is an interesting one, showing that a pe- 
culiar proximate principle exists in all parts of it, the same as found 
in the seeds. Also that the leaves contain a large percentage of ni- 
trate of potassium, and in this respect equal to that of tobacco. 

An analysis of the ash of the leaves shows that they are very rich, 
both in alkalies and phosphoric acid. 

500 grains of the leaves were incinerated, which required some 
manipulation, as the ash was found to be readily fusible, and perfect 
combustion consequently impossible ; but by charring the mass only, 
and then dissolving out the soluble portion with water, combustion was 
accomplished. 120 grains of ash — 21 per cent., was obtained, the 



analysis of which gave the following results : — 

Lime, ...... 33-40 

Magnesia, ..... 6*20 

Potash, ...... 27-15 

Soda, ...... 2-12 

Peroxide of iron, ..... .70 

Phosphoric acid, .... 6-68 

Sulphuric acid, ..... 2*90 

Chlorine, ..... 1-63 

Carbonic acid, ..... 16-20 

Silica and sand, .... 2'41 

Loss, ...... -61 



* American Journal of Pharmacy, 18(54, p. 423. 100 00 



100 Jervia in Veratrum Yiride. { AM Mi?™;S^ M * 

From the above, when the size of the plant, its luxuriant growth, 
etc., are taken into consideration, the culture of it must be a very 
exhausting one upon the soil, the fertility of which must be rapidly 
decreased by the drain of potash and phosphoric acid. Whether it 
is the custom to restore to it the stalks and leaves after the crop of 
seed has been gathered, I do not know ; but they should be, and thus 
by their decay restore these again to it: or that they be burnt and the 
ash scattered broadcast upon the land from which the plants have 
been taken. 

Cincinnati, February, 1874. 



JERVIA IN VERATRUM VIRIDE. 
By Chas. L. Mitchell. 

Since the discovery and isolation of two alkaloids in Veratrum 
viride by Mr. Charles Bullock in 1865, no additional researches seem 
to have been made. Simon obtained jervia from Veratrum album 
some ten or fifteen years ago, but notwithstanding the fact that 
Veratrum viride is so similar in almost every respect, up to this date I 
can find no record of any attempt having been made to prove the 
presence of jervia in the latter root. 

While recently preparing specimens of the Veratrum viride alka- 
loids according to the process given by Mr. Bullock, my attention 
was drawn to the circumstance, that when the precipitate produced in 
the acetic solution by sodium carbonate was treated with warm di- 
luted sulphuric acid, a considerable amount of a granular, whitish 
powder separated on cooling. I at first supposed it was sulphate of 
calcium, but a closer examination revealed the fact that it was of 
organic composition, and after several different trials, I succeeded in 
proving it to be an alkaloid identical with the jervia of Simon. It 
may be obtained in its pure form by the following process : 

Veratrum viride finely powdered is thoroughly exhausted with 
stronger alcohol, the tincture distilled to a small bulk, acidulated with 
acetic acid and precipitated in water. The resin is then separated by 
filtration from the aqueous solution of the alkaloids and the filtrate 
concentrated by evaporation and rendered strongly alkaline with so- 
lution of carbonate of sodium. The precipitate thus obtained is 



A Var U T,i8n RM '} Jerviain Veratrum Viride. 101 

drained, dried, boiled with strong alcohol until nothing more is taken 
up, the alcoholic solution evaporated to dryness and digested in very 
dilute sulphuric acid. 

The granular powder which deposits on cooling is sulphate of jervia. 
This is separated, well washed and drained, and then boiled for some 
time with a strong solution of carbonate of sodium. By this treat- 
ment the sulphate of jervia at first formed is decomposed, the jervia 
separating as a granular powder, which is washed until free from al- 
kali, dissolved in acetic acid, precipitated with ammonia, well washed 
and dried. 

Jervia thus obtained is a light, white powder, capable of crystal- 
lizing from an alcoholic solution, tasteless, inodorous and of a feebly 
alkaline reaction. It is insoluble in water, but very soluble in boiling 
alcohol, from which it is almost entirely deposited, on cooling, in white 
flakes. It is freely soluble in chloroform, but is only slightly soluble 
in benzin. With acetic and phosphoric acids it forms very soluble 
salts ; with sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids it yields salts, 
sparingly soluble in alcohol and water, and precipitated from the more 
soluble acetate and phosphate. 

Potassa, soda and ammonia precipitate jervia from its solutions in 
white, rather gelatinous flakes, insoluble in an excess of the precipitant. 
With reagents it gives the following reactions : Perchloride of gold, 
curdy, yellow precipitate ; sulphocyanide of potassium, white precipi- 
tate ; bichloride of platinum, granular, yellow precipitate ; iodohy- 
drargyrate of potassium, curdy, white precipitate. 

The most characteristic test for jervia is its reaction with sulphuric 
acid. When a minute fragment of it is moistened on a glass slide 
with a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid it immediately changes, 
first to a straw yellow and then gradually to a green color. This 
reaction is quite delicate. 

Concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids dissolve jervi i to a col- 
orless solution, which when boiled becomes of a straw color ; when 
heated it melts to a clear oil ; at a little above 400° Fahrenheit turns 
brown ; and when the temperature is raised still higher, it burns with 
a smoky flame. 

Thinking that it would be well to compare this alkaloid with the 
jervia from Veratrum album, I subjected some of the latter, which I 
had previously prepared, to the same tests, with precisely the same 
results. I do not feel as yet able to state exactly the proportion in 



] 02 Lacto-Phospliate of Lime, etc. wif"* 

which jervia exists in Veratrum viride, but am pursuing a series of 
investigations on both this and Veratrum album, the results of which 
I trust shortly to be able to make public. 
February 11, 1874. 



LACTO-PHOSPHATE OF LIME AND COD LIVER OIL. 
By C. G. Polk. 

The cry of "Eureka," which has ascended so loudly over the new 
hobby, lacto-phosphate of lime and cod liver oil, it seems has almost 
led the enthusiastic members of the medical profession to hope that 
the great specific for all the ills to which flesh is heir had at last been 
found. The long high-sounding name seems to invest it w r ith solemn 
import, and leads us to regard it with respect and confidence. It 
seemed to be the very thing for a proprietary medicine and conse- 
quently it did not take very long to secure it a copyright. 

The errors of the combination, outside of the quackery into which 
it has been run, however, immediately concerns us, and to point them 
out I am prompted to indite this. 

In the first place the syrup of lacto-phosphate of lime will not com- 
bine without the addition of adjuvants with cod liver oil and form a 
homogeneous mixture. To secure a perfect admixture, other sub- 
stances must be introduced, and these usually are acacia, tragacanth, 
and alkalies. Against such a compound, when freshly made, there is 
perhaps no pharmaceutical objection. The relative amounts of cod 
liver oil and lacto-phosphate of lime are, however, not so uniformly 
required under the varying phases of disease, age, sex, and tempera- 
ment, as to enable the pharmaceutical chemist to prepare a prepara- 
tion uniformly adapted to every case or one as well adapted to secure 
the best remedial effect of the agents as when proportioned by an in- 
telligent physician to meet each individual case. This can be done 
by using an emulsion of cod liver ; the one suggested by Mr. Rice is a 
good formula, to which the syrup lacto-phosphate of lime may be 
added in whatever amount desired. Thus we would ever get the 
article fresh, free from rancidity if good oil is used, and have an 
article preferable to much of that now dispensed. The more I have ex- 
amined the syrup of the lacto-phosphate of lime and cod liver oil, the 
more I have become convinced that the preparation is an unfortunate 
one. Cod liver oil rapidly becomes rancid and unfit for administra- 



flM M J a r U T,'m4 Rfll } Notes on Some North American Drugs. 103 

tion in the presence of the phosphate, lacto-phosphate, and hypophos- 
phite salts of lime. It seems to me that it would be a much better 
plan to use the oil and lacto-phosphate alternately, than to mix them 
together ; I always do, and often find the result very gratifying. 
Lacto-phosphate of lime, it seems to me, is more especially adapted to 
the period of convalescence from acute diseases than chronic ones. 
As is well known, during the progress of fevers and inflammations, 
the waste of the phosphate of lime is great and requires a resupply, 
which is nicely afforded by the lacto-phosphate. But in such cases 
the cod liver oil is not by any means indicated. In scrofulous dis- 
eases of children, the class in which the syrup of the lacto-phosphate 
of lime and cod liver oil has been very extensively used, and in which 
no doubt it has given good results, a better preparation would be ob- 
tained by extemporaneous combination. As a rule, fixed medical 
formulas combining several ingredients are objectionable. Dover 
Powder is an established fact, and the combination of iron, quinia, 
and strychnia in Easton's syrup is a splendid preparation, incapable 
of extemporaneous formation as required in the usual routine of 
pharmacy. A few more instances perhaps might be cited, but the 
rule still holds good. Lactic acid, it is well known, plays an im- 
portant part in rheumatism ; what result may then accrue from the 
-continued use of the lacto-phosphate of lime in chronic diseases? 



NOTES ON SOME NORTH AMERICAN DRUGS. 
By John M. Maisch. 

Cranesbill appears to be used very extensively in some sections of 
the country, while in others it is comparatively unknown — at least as 
a domestic remedy. In July, 1872, I received a plant from the re- 
gion of the Blue Ridge in the State of Virginia, which proved to be 
G-eranium maculatum, Lin. The letter accompanying it stated that 
it (whether the rhizome alone or the entire plant, was not mentioned) 
has a great celebrity there as a cure for dysentery, diarrhoea and all 
kinds of bowel complaints. It seems probable, however, that the her- 
baceous portion of the plant is not employed for the purposes men- 
tioned, since it has merely a faintly bitter taste and is nearly de- 
void of astringency. 

Antidote to Snake Poison. — In August last the root and radical 
leaves of a plant were received from Mr. T, D. Reed, of Meridian, 
Miss., which, the letter stated, "is said to be a specific for snake- 



104 Notes on Some North American Drugs. { A Va°r U i', 



Pharm 
1874. 



bite, and, in fact, the country people use no other antidote in cases 
of snake bite." Unfortunately, the letter gives no information what- 
ever in regard to the part employed for the purposes stated, or to the 
manner in which it is used. The plants sent contain neither stem 
nor flowers, but from the black color of the dried plants and the char- 
acter of the leaves, were at once referred to the genus Gerardia, and 
by comparison with herbarium specimens were recognized as Gerar- 
dia (Dasystoma, Benth.) quercifolia, Pursh. It belongs to the sub- 
genus Dasystomn, which comprises perennial plants with rather large 
yellow flowers, with the leaves, particularly the lower ones, more or 
less pinnatifid or cut toothed, and opposite on the stem, the floral 
leaves being often alternate ; it is very difficult to preserve the green 
color of the plants, all the species readily turning black on drying. 
The genus belongs to the order of Scrophulariaceoe. 

The species in question resembles and is closely allied to Gfer, 
flava, Lin., and integrifolia, Gray, and is distinguished from both by 
the plant being smooth and glaucous, the lower leaves being usually 
twice pinnatifid, and by the peduncles attaining about the length of 
the calyx, they being shorter in the other two species named. 

Most probably the subterraneous portion is the part employed, and 
it is not unlikely that, like several other so-called snake roots, the 
black color which it assumes on drying may have first attracted atten- 
tion to it for the purpose named. It consists of a short and rather thin 
upright rhizome, sending off from eight to twelve rootlets, which are 
about six inches or more in length, nearly simple, when dry slightly 
furrowed longitudinally and readily breaking transversely. The frac- 
ture is even, somewhat granular, exhibits a thick cortical portion of a 
dark gray color, surrounding a thin ligneous centre, of a yellowish 
color and a rather irregular shape. As far as can be judged from the 
taste, the root probably contains a principle analogous to saponin. 

Verbena bracteosa, Mich. — Branches of this plant were received 
last August from Mr. Buntin, of Terre Haute, Ind., who states that 
it is used there by physicians in the form of infusion, with marked 
success, in the treatment of scrofulous affections, particularly in scro- 
fulous sore eyes, and that its alterative properties are claimed by some, 
to be more potent than those of iodide of potassium. The plant is 
abundant in the neighborhood of Terre Haute, and the specimen re- 
ceived agrees in every respect with the specimens in the College her- 
barium coming from Kentucky. 



A \t™i, mT' } Notes on Some North American Drgs. 105 

The plant is procumbent and widely spreading, with its stems 
branching to the length of from 12 to 18 inches. It is covered with 
spreading whitish hairs, the leaves are narrowed at the base into a 
short petiole, broadly lanceolate in outline, deeply cut-toothed, or the 
lower pinnatifid and the teeth rather acute. The small blue or pur- 
plish flowers are collected in dense spikes terminating the branches,, 
the numerous bracts being longer than the flowers, lance-linear in 
shape or the lower deeply three-cleft. Its hoariness and its dense 
long bracted and squarrous spikes are quite characteristic for this 
species, which possesses a gradually developed but lasting bitterness. 

I have not been informed of the strength or dose in which the in- 
fusion is given. The plant appears to merit some attention, particu- 
larly with the view of isolating the bitter principle and determining 
its value as an alterative. 

California Opium. — I have received from Mr. J. H. Flint, of 
Marysville, Cal., a handsome specimen of opium, in regard to which 
the following information was given : 

" The opium was raised in Sutter county on the Sacramento River> 
about fifteen miles from this city. The expense attending the culti- 
vation of poppy, and the collection of opium, does not warrant the 
outlay of sufficient capital to produce large quantities, although the 
soil and climate are admirably adapted to that purpose. I obtained 
7f per cent, of morphia from a specimen recently collected. It yielded 
52 per cent, of soluble matter to boiling water, and lost 17 per cent, 
of moisture after drying at 212° F. What I have used seems to an- 
swer quite as well as the imported article." 

From this statement it appears that the opium was assayed in its 
crude undried state ; if an allowance is made for the 17 per cent, of 
moisture, Mr. Flint's assay would give (100—17) : 100 : : 7 -75 : 9-34 
per cent, morphia in dry opium, or nearly the strength of opium as 
directed by the pharmacopoeia. The high price of labor in California, 
it may be supposed, renders the cultivation of the poppy solely for 
the production of opium, unprofitable ; but the seeds contain a larg« 
percentage of a bland fixed oil, and after its expression are valuable 
as feed for cattle ; poppy culture may, therefore, notwithstanding the 
drawback of high wages, not prove unprofitable. 

The opium received was more homogeneous in texture than Smyrna, 
opium, of a good strong narcotic odor, and unexceptionable in its. 
physical properties. 



106 Pancreatic Emulsions of Solid Fats. { An £™i,wT' 

Oregon Balsam of Fir. — Under this name an oleo-resin has ap- 
peared in our commerce during the last year, which is rather suspi- 
cious in appearance. As far as could be ascertained, it comes from 
New York, and the writer has not been able to trace it beyond that 
city. It is a thick liquid, perfectly transparent, of a bright brownish 
color and a distinct terebinthinate and aromatic odor. On rubbing a 
little of it between the fingers, different odors become quite evident, 
the last one remaining being that of nutmegs. It has the appearance 
of being merely a solution of common rosin in oil of turpentine flav- 
ored perhaps with a little of the oil of Eucalyptus globulus and a 
somewhat larger quantity of the volatile oil of nutmegs. Is such an 
article known on our Pacific coast, and if so, what is its source and 
how is it obtained ? 

Adulterated Serpentaria. — Recently a rhizome with its rootlets was 
handed to me, with the statement that several bundles of it had been 
found in a bale of serpentaria obtained from a Western State. The 
adulteration was promptly recognized as the underground portion of 
Cypripedium pubescens, Lin. (not 0. parviflorum)*. This differs so 
considerably from Aristolochia serptentaria and reticulata, that the 
former can never be mistaken for the latter, and the adulteration can 
therefore be practised successfully only when Virginia snake root is 
sold in bulk. The rhizome of the latter is quite thin, rarely exceed- 
ing one-tenth inch in diameter, the remnants of the over-ground stems 
are invariably projecting as short branches from the rhizome, which 
terminate by a scarcely concave scar. The rhizome of Cypripedium 
is much coarser, the stems die off to the rhizome, leaving large deeply 
cup-shaped scars, the older ones penetrating deeply into the rhizome. 
Oypripedium, moreover, is a monocotyledonous plant, while serpen- 
taria is dicotyledonous and the difference in the characteristic dispo- 
sition of the ligneous bundles is quite evident. 



PANCREATIC EMULSIONS OF SOLID FATS. 
By Richard V. Mattison. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, Feb. 17th. 
Emulsions may be divided into those of solid and liquid fats. Since 
the publication of my former papers upon the subject of Pancreatin 
(see Amer. Journ. Pharm., Dec, 1873, and Feb., 1874), and indeed 

*For a description of these rhizomes refer to Amer. Jour, of Pharm. 1872, p. 297. 



*Mi!tmT M } Pancreatic Emulsions of Solid Fats. 107 

before th^y were written, I have spent much time in endeavoring to 
prepare a perfect emulsion of solid fat which would keep without be- 
coming oxidized and at the same time form a preparation which would 
mot offend the most delicate palate. This I think is accomplished in 
the present preparation, here exhibited. 

The great superiority of solid fat over cod-liver oil consists princi- 
pally in the fact that the former is a body rich in stearin, while cod- 
liver oil is chiefly olein. In the normal diet a person partakes prin- 
cipally of food rich in the former, hence it is that a similar body must 
be presented for assimilation. Cod-liver oil usually assimilates more 
rapidly than other fats, and if it can be continued in any case for 
some time, rapid improvement generally takes place. To this there 
as the objection that olein cannot replace stearin in the animal sys- 
tem, and the work is not thorough. Again, fats containing much 
olein are certainly partially assimilated through venous absorption, 
and this is a reason why patients so soon tire of the oil. The portal 
■system becomes choked up, cathartics are necessary, and even the 
igood effect produced is frequently lost by the course rendered neces- 
sary by these circumstances. This becomes of interest to pharma- 
cists, first, from it being to our interest, in a pecuniary way, to devise 
something better than cod-liver oil, and, second, as an aid to the phy- 
sician, pharmacy should select such agents as a clear, sound theory 
suggests, and, by scientific manipulation, so combine them and mould 
th em that they may he of the most potent remedies in the hand of 
<her sister Medicine. 

Thus pharmacy, to prevent the loss of fat which is frequently occa- 
sioned by the choking up of the portal system through the adminis- 
tration of too much olein, selects a solid fat which is only absorbed 
by the lacteals, and thus the amount of fat necessary for perfect nu- 
trition can be administered in the natural manner. The fat formed 
fey the assimilation of this emulsion is of a firmness not readily at- 
tainable by the administration of cod-liver oil or other similar ele- 
ments of nutrition. The administration of cod-liver oil in connection 
with the emulsion of solid fat, however, probably answers more effi- 
ciently than either alone. 

The emulsion of solid fat is best prepared in the following manner: 

Take of the fresh pancreas of the pig, one hundred pounds ; lard, 
purified, eighty pounds; water, six gallons. 

Dissect off all the fat and other extraneous matter from the pan- 



108 Pancreatic Emulsions of Solid Fats. 

creas, and comminute finely. A sausage cutter, driven by steam, is. 
one of the most complete pieces of machinery for this purpose. After 
coming from the cutter it is allowed to drop with the fatinto a cylindrical 
hopper driven by the same power. Into this hopper the six gallons of 
water are allowed to trickle slowly until a perfect emulsion is formed. 
From the hopper the emulsion is transferred to the press, in which a, 
strong twilled flannel bag is placed, which should be of two thick- 
nesses of material, and the emulsion is thus rapidly separated from 
the membraneous areolar tissue of the pancreas. 

To this emulsion ether is added, and the mixture allowed to remain 
at rest, with occasional agitation, for a period of about forty-eight 
hours. For the above quantity from two hundred and fifty to two- 
hundred and seventy-five pounds of ether are required. At the end 
of this time the mixture separates into two layers or strata, viz., an 
etherial solution of pancreatized fat at the top, and an aqueous solu- 
tion of the impurities of the lard, &c, at the bottom. This mixture* 
is allowed to stand in a large cedar vat, which has glass plates in- 
serted in the side to allow the operator to observe the point of sepa- 
ration between the etherial and watery stratum. Into the side of this 
vat r which should be tall and narrow at the top, like a precipitation 
jar, a number of wooden spigots are inserted, through which the ethe- 
rial solution of pancreatized fat is drawn off into a filtering apparatus,, 
so arranged as to prevent the escape of the ether. (If allowed to- 
stand long enough, a considerable portion will need no filtration.) 
This filtered etherial solution is transferred to a suitable still, and 
the ether distilled off with gentle heat. This is the most trouble- 
some part of the process, as it requires a considerable length of time 
to free the fat from the last traces of ether, unless the temperature 
is raised, which results in the decomposition of the emulsified fat. 

The pancreatin seems to split up in some manner by heat, leaving; 
the fat in the same condition as it was before, or at least its emul- 
sifying power is very much impaired. At the same time there is a, 
peculiar sulphurous odor developed, reminding one of the presence of 
onions or garlic, or a trace of allyl sulphide or sulphhydrate. 

After the fat has been freed from ether with due regard to the tem- 
perature, it is removed from the still, and to every fifty parts of this 
fat seventy-five parts of distilled water and twenty-five parts of alco- 



A Va°r U T,mr } Pancreatic Emulsions of Solid Fats. 109 

hoi are added, both being added very carefully ; when all the water 
and alcohol has been taken up, enough oil of cloves is added to impart 
a pleasant flavor. 

From my experiments made before the publication of my first ar- 
ticle in the "Journal," Dec, 1873, I was led to suppose that, con- 
trary to the views of eminent physiologists, pancreatin has no power 
of decomposing fat. These views were expressed at that time, and 
the following facts elucidated by the practical management of the 
above process will serve as further illustrative of the facts there men- 
tioned. 

The first is that the pancreatized fat obtained by evaporation of the 
^therial strata before mentioned, when acted upon by plumbic oxide, 
yields lead, plaster and glycerin. This certainly shows that the fatty 
acids are still held in combination with the oxide of glyceryl, although 
the fat be pancreatized and emulsified. 

Second, the aqueous solution left after the decantation of the ethe- 
rial strata contains no glycerin. This proves the absence of even 
partial saponification upon the mixing of the fat in the first instance 
with the pancreas. 

A sample of the emulsion of solid fat, prepared as above, was pre- 
sented our late esteemed Prof. Procter, who regarded it with much favor, 
and spoke at length upon it in connection with the sample of pancre- 
atic emulsion of cod-liver oil which is here exhibited, both of which 
samples were exhibited to the class upon the occasion above referred 
to, which was the evening of his death. 

The emulsion prepared by this process should have an acid reaction 
to litmus paper, and should not separate upon standing. Much care 
is necessary in the manipulation to prevent this. 

When added to a small quantity of water, and stirred until com- 
plete mixture is effected, the whole has the appearance of milk, and 
any quantity of water may be added without disturbing in the least 
the appearance of the emulsion. This I now show you, and you will 
notice how perfectly the fat is emulsified. 

A superior method of administering the emulsion is to add it, little 
by little, to milk; to those persons having an antipathy to milk it is 
easily given in a mixture of arrowroot and water. This proves an 
excellent method, as the pancreatic emulsion, as well as the pancreatin 
itself, has a decided action upon amylaceous matter, changing it to 



110 



Aqua pinna momi, U, S. P. 



< Am. JouR.PfMRMo. 
t Mar' L, l&U. 



glucose; hence it can be easily seen how important the administra- 
tion of this in connection with arrowroot is in cases of marasmus and 
other infantile diseases arising from defective nutrition. 

In this I intended to present a formula for pancreatic emulsion of* 
cod-liver oil which would not separate upon standing, but remain per- 
fectly emulsified. Want of time has prevented this, my experiments, 
in this not having thus far proved perfectly satisfactory. 

Throughout all my experiments I have been greatly assisted by 
both my partners, to whom I acknowledge my indebtedness, and to- 
much information and pleasure derived through a careful perusal of" 
the most prominent medical periodicals for several years back. 1 
would refer the reader for much useful information to the back num- 
bers of the Lancet, Practitioner, Medical Press and Circular, British 
Medical Journal, Che?nical News, Chemist and Druggist, and manp 
American reprints. 

Philadelphia, 2 mo., 1874. 



AQUA CINNAMOMI, U. S. P. 
By Edmund Backhaus. 
The Pharmacopoeia directs for preparing this water to take of 
Oil of Cinnamon, . . half a fluid drachm,. 

Carbonate of Magnesium, . sixty grains, 

Distilled Water, . . . two pints. 

Rub the oil first with the carbonate of magnesium, and then witk 
the water, gradually added, and filter through paper. 

Made according to this process, no doubt many pharmacists, as my- 
self, have derived unsatisfactory results. 

At first the filtered water is of a beautiful light canary yellow 
color, but on standing for a short period it invariably deposits the- 
cinnamic acid contained therein, which makes it a very unsightly 
preparation. 

In order to procure a more satisfactory result I w T as induced to- 
make several experiments. My first was to rub up the oil with cal- 
cined magnesia, thinking, perhaps, that the carbonic acid of the mag- 
nesia had some effect on the oil ; this, however, was found not to be- 
the case. 

My next was to make the water in the usual way> then to pass car- 



A M £r.Xi8n M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. Ill 

bonic acid gas through the filtrate for a few minutes; the result being 
a beautifully clear solution, the canary yellow color having disappeared, 
but in odor and taste the water remained unchanged. 

The product of this last experiment has been standing on the shelf 
for a long time, unaltered. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Ferrated Cod Liver Oil* was prepared by Julius Muller by dissolv- 
ing one part of sublimed ferric chloride in one hundred parts of cod 
liver oil, which thereby acquired a deep violet, almost black, color, and. 
rapidly became rancid, while the iron compound was reduced to fer- 
rous salt. 

A handsome ferrated oil, however, is obtained by triturating one 
part of benzoate of iron with light cod liver oil until one hundred parts 
of the latter have been added, agitating the mixture occasionally dur- 
ing several days, and filtering. The clear filtrate is of a yellowish 
brown color, and contains nearly one per cent, of ferric benzoate.. 
This salt must be prepared for the above purpose from benzoic acid 
obtained from benzoin; the commercial salt usually has a urinous 
odor, and imparts to cod liver oil a disagreeable odor and taste. — Ar- 
chiv d, Pliar., Dec. 1873, p. 534. 

Impurities in Medical Qhemieals. — Dr. R. Goddefroy in Zeitschr. 
d. Oesterr. Apotb. Ver 1874, p. 15, gives a list of chemicals which 
are usually found in Austrian commerce in an impure condition. Ox- 
ide of mercury contains carbonate of calcium ; hydrate of aluminum 
contains basic sulphate of aluminum, and tartar emetic, golden sul- 
phur, precipitated sulphur, phosphate of sodium, sulphate of copper, 
ammonia water, iodide of potassium, corrosive sublimate, caustic po- 
tassa, etc , are often not sufficiently pure. 

Remedy for Frostbites. — Berthold recommended about twenty years 
agof tannin for this purpose. Rhien recommends the addition of 
iodine as follows : 30 grams of tannin are dissolved in 200 cc. of wa- 
ter, and 3 grams of iodine in 50 grams of alcohol ; the solutions are 
mixed and the mixture diluted to 1J litre. The mixture is placedi 

*See also American Journal of Pharmacy, 1861, p. 317. 
t See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1856. p. 180. 



112 



Pills of Sulphate of Quinia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar. 1, 1874. 



upon a slow fire, and the affected part immersed until the liquid be- 
comes too hot ; the part is then allowed to dry near the fire. The 
application is made once daily, a complete cure being effected after 
four or five days. — Wittsteins Viertelj. Sehrift., 1873, 602. 



PILLS OF SULPHATE OF QUINIA. 
By William Delker. 

Pharmacists are often requested by physicians to make quinia pills 
as small as they possibly can, and, after trying a number of experi- 
ments, I have found that glycerin is the best excipient. It makes a 
very good mass, and does not increase the bulk of the pills. I have 
been using it for a number of years, and it has always given general 
satisfaction. The following is the proportion of glycerin to be used : 

1^. Quiniae Sulph., . . . grs. xxiv, 

Glycerinae, .... gtt. viii. 
M. ft. pil. no. xii. 

I drop the glycerin from a one-ounce prescription vial. 

Note by the Editor. — Glycerin has been suggested as an ex- 
cipient for quinia pills by Dr. T. E. Jenkins, in " Amer. Journal of 
Pharmacy," 1869, p. 119; and mixed with honey, by W. P. Creecy, 
in the same volume, page 7. 



ON A NEW ALLOTROPIC MODIFICATION OF PHOSPHORUS. 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston. 

In connection with Prof. Elihu Thompson, of the Artisans' Night 
School, the author has undertaken an extensive series of experiments, 
resulting, it is believed, in the discovery of a new allotropic modifica- 
tion of phosphorus. 

It has long been known that when phosphorus is boiled in strong 
potassium hydrate, and then allowed to cool slowly, it retains its 
liquid state for some little time, but that if shaken, or touched by a 
sharp point, instantly solidifies. 

We believe that in the cases heretofore observed, the property of 
retaining the liquid state may be owing to the admixture with the 
ordinary phosphorus of an allotropic modification, having the proper- 



A Mar OT i R ; ml**' } New AUotropic Modification of Phosphorus. 113 

ty of retaining its liquid state indefinitely. Hence, if this modifica- 
tion be obtained sufficiently pure, it would probably exhibit proper- 
ties strikingly distinct from the common variety. We have therefore 
instituted a series of experiments, with the following results. 

Good phosphorus was taken and boiled repeatedly in strong solu- 
tion of potassium hydrate, water being occasionally added to replace 
that lost by evaporation. Care was taken by cautious stirring to pre- 
vent the phosphorus from being carried to the surface, by bubbles of 
the disengaged gas. When the operation had continued for five or 
ten minutes, the liquid phosphorus was carefully washed by replacing 
the alkaline solution by a stream of running water. In this way, all 
the hypo-phosphites were removed as well as the liquid and gaseous 
hydrides of phosphorus. The purified liquid phosphorus is now in a 
condition which we believe to be a new and hitherto unnoticed allo- 
tropic modification. It has the following properties : 

1st. That of retaining for an apparently indefinite time its liquid 
-condition, even when exposed to temperatures very considerably be- 
low the melting point of ordinary phosphorus. A carefully prepared 
specimen has been kept by the authors for upwards of four months, 
and is still, at the date of this publication, in the liquid condition. 
The specimen in question is preserved beneath a water surface in a 
small test tube. Its weight is about one-eighth of an ounce. The test 
tube is tied by a string and suspended in a position where it is free from 
jars or sudden shaking. The room in which it is preserved has been for 
weeks without a fire, the temperature having often reached a point 
probably near 40° F., and yet the liquefaction has not been dis- 
turbed. There is every reason to believe that this specimen in com- 
mon with others experimented upon, will instantly solidify on being 
touched. 

A small specimen placed in a test tube and covered by a water sur- 
face, was exposed to artificial cold, produced by the rapid evaporation 
of ether. It solidified at about 38° F. Under more favorable con- 
ditions, and with larger masses, it is probable that the temperature 
could be reduced still lower. 

2d. Another respect in which this liquid differs from the ordinary 
variety is its nori-oxidation on exposure to the air. 

3d. It does not shine in the dark. This follows from the preceding 
property. Several specimens showed no appreciable light when ex- 

8 



114 New Allotropic Modification of Phosphorus. { A V£ TO i,u7 A £*" 

posed to direct contact with air in a dark room. We regard this very 
unusual property as suggestive of an allotropic state. 

Apparently two modifications of solid phosphorus result from the 
solidification of the liquid variety. One is tough and waxy, like or- 
dinary phosphorus ; the other brittle and crystalline in texture. The 
best liquid specimens in solidifying, always gave the second variety — 
indifferent ones, the first. We therefore regard that producing the 
second, as the true liquid modification. 

Rough experiments were made in order to ascertain whether the 
liquid modification underwent any change of volume by solidification. 
For this purpose a specimen was placed in a test tube filled with wa- 
ter, and a small capillary tube also filled, passed down into the vessel, 
and attached to it by a well-fitted cork. Any appreciable change in 
the volume of the phosphorus would cause a rise of the water in the 
capillary tube. We expected to find a slight change, but none was 
observable. This result was probably owing to the expansion occa- 
sioned by the heat emitted on solidification, exactly balancing the 
contraction caused by the passage from the liquid to the solid state. 
No sudden movement of the capillary column was noticed on the in- 
stant of solidification. 

In order to see whether the liquid state was due to hydrogen in com- 
bination with the phosphorus, we placed small pieces of the solid va- 
riety in a tube, whose ends were afterwards drawn out into capillaries,, 
and then, passing hydrogen from a small generator through the tube, 
melting the phosphorus. A liquid resulted, possessing different 
properties from that formed by boiling in potassium hydrate. It 
was quite mobile, of an amber color, and on solidifying, produced the 
waxy material. 

A fact, not perhaps well known, was noticed during the conduct of 
the experiment. A colorless gas was evolved from the free end of 
the tube which was spontaneously inflammable in air. The heat of 
this flame was, however, so slight as to render it incapable of igniting 
the hydrogen issuing with it. 

To test the effect of the boiling point upon the production of the 
allotropic modification, specimens were prepared by long boiling in 
saturated solution of chloride of zinc. We were unsuccessful in ob- 
taining the liquid modification. A high boiling point cannot, there- 
fore, be assigned as the entire cause of the change. 

The substance in question may be merely a very pure phosphorus, 



Am mS u .i, i8 H 74 RM ' } Medicinal Exhibition of Phosphorus, 115 

yet its liquid condition and non-oxidation can scarcely be ascribed 
to this circumstance. We therefore consider that the existence of a 
hitherto unknown liquid modification of the element phosphorus is ren- 
dered highly probable. The distinct properties it possesses, apart 
from the ordinary substance, are much more clearly marked than 
those upon which the elastic modification of sulphur is based. 

It may be mentioned incidentally that the brittle crystalline mass, 
produced on the passage of the liquid modification to the solid state^ 
differs from the waxy variety of ordinary phosphorus. It oxidizes so 
rapidly on exposure to air as to produce a rise of temperature suffi- 
cient for its liquefaction. The liquid thus produced possesses only 
the properties of ordinary melted phosphorus, and catches fire very 
readily. 

Central High School. — Journ. Franklin Inst., Feb, 1874. 



THE MEDICINAL EXHIBITION OF PHOSPHORUS. 
By A. C. Abraham. 

In the " Pharmaceutical Journal " of December 6th appeared an 
article by Mr. Grerrard, in which he recommended a method for com- 
bining phosphorus with resin for the above purpose. 

The process involves the application of a strong heat under circum- 
stances extremely inconvenient and dangerous to the operator, and 
calculated to deteriorate the product by the oxidation of the phos- 
phorus, and by its conversion into the amorphous form. 

To obviate these disadvantages I would propose to use some resin 
fusible below the boiling-point of water, and also sufficiently heavy to 
sink in that liquid. Balsam of tolu will be found to answer both 
these requirements, and by its use the combination can be effected 
entirely under water. Experiment has shown that four grains of 
phosphorus are perfectly dissolved by 96 grains of washed tolu, if 
melted together under water and well stirred. 

The preparation so made, when examined microscopically, does not 
show any particles of undissolved phosphorus, and when seen in the- 
dark, and rubbed between the fingers, it gives off a perfectly equally 
distributed light. 

This preparation may, therefore, be formed into pills, with every 
confidence in the equal distribution and activity of the phosphorus. 
Liverpool. — London Pharrn. Jour., Jan. 10, 1874o. 



116 



Combination of Lime and Glycerin, etc. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar. 1, 1874. 



COMBINATION OF LIME AND GLYCERIN, AND ITS PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL APPLICATIONS* 
By P. Carles. 

The recent publication of a note upon this subjectf has induced 
the author to put on record some experiments, the results of which 
were communicated orally to the Paris Societe* d'Emulation pour les 
Sciences Pharmaceutiques in 1871, but have not hitherto been pub- 
lished. 

When distilled water is shaken with lime under normal circum- 
stances it only dissolves 1*251 grams per litre ; but this proportion 
is, however, singularly increased by the intervention of neutral 
bodies, such as the sugars. That glycerin also acts in the same man- 
ner was noticed by the author, and gave rise to the following experi- 
ments : 

Into a series of flasks of similar capacity were placed constant 
quantities of 100 grams of distilled water and 20 grams of pure lime, 
together with varying proportions of glycerin, 0, 50, 100, 200, 400> 
etc. The flasks were labelled, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. After agitation of the 
mixture for some time at a temperature of 18° C. the quantity of 
lime passed into solution was estimated alkalimetrically, and found to 
be- 
No. 1, 1-251 

"2, 1-865 

"3, . 2-583 

" 4, . . . . 4-040 

"5, ..... 6-569 

Now, if each of these numbers be reduced by 1-251, the co-efli- 
cient of the solubility of lime in water, it will be found that an addi- 
tion of 50 parts of glycerin to 1000 of water augments by nearly 
one-half the solubility of the lime, and that this solubility is doubled 
by the addition of 100 parts of glycerin per litre. If the proportion 
of glycerin be raised beyond 200 parts the quantity of lime dissolved 
is still sensibly increased, but starting from that figure it is in pro- 
portion irregularly inverse to the quantity of glycerin added. It is 
the author's opinion that the combination of glycerin with lime, which 

* Bulletin de la Societe de Pharmacie de Bordeaux, vol. xiii, p. 294. 
t Pharm. Journ. [3], vol. iv, p. 321. See, also, Amer. Journ. Pharmacy, 
1873, p. 397 and 557. 



Cymene from Oil of Turpentine. 117 

is a true combination very soluble in water, is on the contrary slightly 
soluble in glycerin itself. Commencing at experiment 5, it commu- 
nicated to the liquor a latescence more and more opaque, and whilst 
the undissolved lime was precipitated rapidly or remained upon the 
filter, the glycero-calcic compound remained for a long time in sus- 
pension, or even passed through the paper. In short, the glycerinate 
of lime is formed in larger proportion as the quantity of glycerin is 
increased, but being less soluble in the latter than in water remains 
in suspension. 

These solutions appear to the author to be susceptible of the fol- 
lowing applications : 

(1) In a chemical point of view, since they remain unaltered during 
a long time, they might advantageously replace as alkaline liquors 
the changeable solutions of saccharated lime. 

(2) Pharmaceutical^ it would allow of the simplification of the 
preparation of the lime liniment, and yield a superior product. The 
Codex orders one part of oil of almonds, and nine parts of lime 
water, to be agitated together, and the separation of the soap which 
floats on the top. If, in the place of ordinary lime water, equal parts 
of almond oil and of lime water containing 10 per cent, of glycerin 
are simply agitated together, a consistent calcareous soap is produced, 
which, even after several weeks, loses none of its consistence or ho- 
mogeneity. 

(3) Considered therapeutically, the addition of the glycerin, which 
besides is produced in small quantity in the ordinary process, appears 
to constitute an excellent adjuvant. — Pharm. Journ. (Lond.), Jan. 
10, 1874. 

ON CYMENE AS A CONSTITUENT OF, AND DERIVATIVE FROM, 
OIL OF TURPENTINE. 
By C. R A. Wright, D.Sc. 
On Feb. 6, 1873, the writer read before the London Chemical So- 
ciety a paper (Chemical News, vol. xxvii., p. 82 ; Journ. Ohem. $oc. y 
[2], xi, 549) wherein it was shown that there are reasons for supposing 
that the small quantities of terephthalic acid obtained by the oxida- 
tion of certain terpenes are really derived, not from the terpene itself, 
but from cymene simultaneously present ; and it was moreover stated 
that cymene had been actually isolated from two such terpenes (viz. 
myristicene from nutmeg oil and terebenthenes from oil of turpen- 
tine) by a process suggested to the writer by Dr. Hugo Miilier, viz.,. 



118 Gymene from Oil of Turpentine, etc. [ A "ifi^ES* 

" treating the mixture with sulphuric acid so as to polymerise the 
terpene present, and then diluting with water, and distilling in a 
current of steam." 

Shortly after (April 3, 1873), the writer read a second paper de- 
scribing the properties of the cymene thus obtained, and contrasting 
them with those of cymene from other sources {Chemical News, vol. 
xxvii., p. 180 : Journ. Chem. Soc. [2], xi., 686). 

On Feb. 21, 1873, M. Ribau communicated to the Paris Chemical 
Society the results of his experiments on the action of sulphuric acid 
on terebenthene (Bui. Soc. Chem. Paris, xix., 242), and on July 4, 
1873, he also read another paper on the same subject (Ibid., xx., 97 
and 100), the result arrived at being that cymene is formed from the 
terpene by the reaction C 10 H 16 +H 2 SO 4 ^2H 2 O+SO 2 +C 10 H 14 . In a 
postscript to the second of the above mentioned papers, written before 
the appearance of M. Ribau's second communication, the writer sug- 
gested that the cymene obtained by M. Ribau was not formed thus> 
but was that pre-contained as such, the main reason given being that 
by cautiously acting on oil of turpentine with sulphuric acid, " the 
writer had succeeded in isolating cymene from oil of turpentine, without 
the evolution of more than inconsiderable quantities of sulphurous 
acid.*' The method employed was as follows : — Oil of turpentine 
freed from oxidized substances by distillation over sodium was very 
gradually mixed with about its own weight of sulphuric acid, the 
mixture being carefully cooled ; after a few minutes the whole was 
poured into a large bulk of water, the oily layer decanted and dis- 
tilled with water, and the oily layer of distillate treated repeatedly in 
the same way. Only once or twice was a very faint odor of sulphurous 
acid observed ; and, as about 3 per cent, of nearly pure cymene was 
ultimately obtained (irrespective of losses and waste in distillation), 
it was inferred that this was pre-contained as such. 

It being in no way improbable that some specimens of oil of tur- 
pentine might contain more cymene than others, the pre-existence of 
M. Ribau's cymene thus appeared exceedingly probable, even though 
the amount obtained by this chemist was considerably above 3 per cent. 

Between August 20 and September 1, 1873, Herr Orlewski read 
before the Meeting of Russian Naturalists, at Kasan, a paper, in 
which he states (as reported by Richter, Ber. Deut. Chem. Gres, vi., 
1257), that considerable quantities of cymene are produced by the 
action of sulphuric acid on turpentine oil in the ordinary process for 



^Mar! U M874t RM } Cymene from Oil of Turpentine, etc. 119 

preparing terebene ; and that terebene itself is altered by this reagent, 
cymene being formed, sulphurous acid being simultaneously generated. 
At the same time Herr Orlewski stated, that by long continued frac- 
tional distillation of an old yellowish sample of turpentine oil, he suc- 
ceeded in isolating a small per centage of cymene (10 grammes from 
1J litres), and ascribed the presence of this substance to the action of 
atmospheric oxygen on the original oil, whereby hydrogen is removed 
from the terpene. 

As regards this explanation, the writer has shown (loc. cit.) that by 
the action of oxidizing agents, certain terpenes undergo the reaction, 
2C 10 H 16 -|-O 2 =2C 10 H 16 O, the resulting bodies presenting great simi- 
larity to certain isomerides of camphor which readily break up by 
treatment with dehydrating agents into cymene and water, C 10 H 16 O= 
H 2 O+C 10 H 16 . M. Ribau has very recently published in the Bulletin 
of the Paris Chemical Society (January 5, 1874, pp. 3, 4) two notes, 
the one a reclamation for priority over Herr Orlewski, the other a 
discussion of the reasons assigned by the writer for supposing that 
the cymene obtained by M. Ribau was pre-contained as such. 

As regards the first question, a comparison of the above dates will 
show that, whilst M. Ribau undoubtedly preceded Herr Orlewski in 
this matter by several months, the results of the writer were made 
public in London more than a fortnight before those of M. Ribau 
were first brought before the notice of Parisian chemists ; it is there- 
fore evident that, whilst the experiments of M. Ribau and the writer 
must have been carried on almost simultaneously, the actual claim to 
priority rests with England rather than with France or Russia. 

As regards the second point, the writer has great pleasure in con- 
firming the exactitude of M. Ribau's results ; whilst he has no doubt 
from his own results (and those of Herr Orlewski) that cymene is 
actually pre- contained in, at any rate, some specimens of oil of tur- 
pentine ; and in other terpenes he has yet found that when the action 
of the sulphuric acid is prolonged for some hours at the ordinary tem- 
perature (and especially if the mixtures be made quickly so as to heat 
rapidly), sulphurous acid is copiously given off, and a much larger 
■quantity of cymene is obtainable than can be if all possible care and 
precautions are taken to avoid the formation of sulphurous acid; this 
additional quantity must necessarily be found, as M. Ribau first sug- 
gested, by the reaction C 10 H 16 +H 2 SO 4 =2H 2 O+SO 2 +C 10 H u . 

Chemical Laboratory, St. Mary's Hospital, Jan. 11, 1874. 

Chemical News, London, January 23, 1874. 



120 



Scheme for Detection of Alkaloids, etc. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm„ 
Mar. 1, 1874. 



STAS-OTTO'S SCHEME FOR THE DETECTION OF ALKALOIDS, Etc. 



^Translated from the German by H. Carrington Bolton, ph. d. 


Taken up by ethe 1 * in acid solutions.f 


Taken up by ether in alkaline solutions.^ 


With tannic acid. 


Solid (odorless). 



Precipitated. 



Colchicia. 

The yellow 
solution is 
eolored violet 
by concentra- 
ted HN0 3> 



DlGITALIN. 

Mixed with 
a solution of 
galls concen- 
trated H2SO4 
a bright red 
stratum is 
formed and 
finally a red 
liquid. 



No action. 



Picrotoxin. 

The dilute 
alkaline (Na- 
HOj solution 
is colorless and 
reduces Fe ti- 
ling's coppe 
solution. 



On diluting 
the nitricacid 
solution and 
making it al- 
kaline with 
NaHO, an or- 
ange-red col- 
oration is ob- 
tained. 



On dissolv- 
ing in concen- 
trated H2SO4 
and mixing 
with a drop of 
bromine wa- 
ter, a violet red 
coloration 
produced. 



With concentrated sulphuric acid. 



In the cold. 



Rose-red. 



Brucia. 

Soluble in 

concentrated 
HNU3, with a 
bright red col- 
or, which be- 
comes yellow 
on heati ug. 
On adding 
stannic' chlo- 
ride to this 
solution, a 
violet color is 
formed. 



Brown-red. 



Delphinia 

forms with 
concentrated 
H2SO4 and 
bromine wa- 
ter a reddish- 
\violet color, 
j The same col- 
oration ap 
pears on eva- 
porating with 
p h ospfi oric 
acid. 



On heating. 



Yellow 

then or 
ange, anc 
cherry-red. 



Veratria, 

forms with 

concentrat- 
ed HClacciZ- 
orless solu- 
tion, which 
becomes a 
fine dark red 
on heating. 



ACONHIA 

dissolves in 
H2SO4 with a 
red-brown col- 
or. 



Yellow, then 
violet-blue, 
and dark red. 



Taken up by ether in alkaline solutions.^ 



Solid (odorless). 



With concentrated H2SO4 and 
K2Cr207. 



In the cold. 



Violet-blue. 



On heating. 



Characteristic 
odor. 



With c o n - 
c entrated 
p h s p h oric 
acid and ap- 
plication of 
heat. 



Aconitia 
produces a vi- 
olet color. Dis- 



Strtchnia Atropia. 
forms a yellow The odor is 
solution with better formed 
HNOa. T h e by placing thejsolves in con- 
violet coloration alkaloid on a concentrated 
also obtains few crystals of L12SO4 with a 
when either po- chromic a c i d\hair-brown co 
tassic ferricy-and gentlyjior. 
anide, plumbic heating until 
and manganic the green ox- 
ide of chromi- 
um begins 1 
form. 



dioxides, or po- 
tassic iodate is 
nsed in place of 
K 2 Cr207 



Note. 
Cuearina 
gives similar r< ac- 
tions to strjc 1 nia, 
hut forms a red color 
with H2S04 alone, 
and is moreovor in- 
soluble in ether in 
the presence of acids 
and alkalies. 



Delphinia and 

DlGITALIN 



behave in the 
same manner 
with H3P04. 



Liquid (strongly odorous). 



With chlorine water. 



Nakcotina, 

on dissolving 
inH-;S04with 
a little HN03, 
forms a red 
color. Con- 
centrated H2- 
C$04 with a. 
trace of sodic 
molybdat© 
forms a green 
color. Dis- 
solves in HC1, 
forming apaZe 
green solution 
which turns 
yello wish-ied 
on adding 
NH±HO. 



Insoluble in ether 



Morphia. 



Precipitated. 



Conia. 
Aqueous so- 
lutions become 
colored on heat- 
ing. 



Dry HC1 gas 
colors itred and 
then deep blue. 



No action. 



Nicotina. 
Aqueous solu- 
tions do not be- 
come colored 
on heating. 



On gently heat- 
ing with HC1, 
becomes violet, 
and on adding 
HN03 the color 
changes to or- 
ange. 



The ammoniacal 
solution gives a 
grass-green solu- 
tion on heating 
with cuprammoni- 
urn (Nadler). Con- 
centrated HNO* 
colors it blood-red, 
neutral Fe2Cl6 col- 
ors it darkblue. On 
dissolving in con- 
centrated H2SO*, 
heating, all®wing 
to cool, and then 
adding a little 
HN03, an intense 
red color is prod- 
uced. Reduces an 
ac'd solution of 
iodic acid, the 
»odine dissolving, 
out in Crf2 with a 
violet color. 



* Pharmaceutische Post, Vol. VI., No. 11, June, 1873. f Also a small quantity of atropia. 
X Also partially colchicia and digitalin. — American Chemist, November, 1873. 



AM Mar 0UR i; wT'} Culture of Gunjah in Bengal. 121 



THE CULTURE OF GUNJAH IN BENGAL. 

Garija or Gunjah {Cannabis indica), forms an important excisable 
article in Bengal, and yields a yearly revenue of Rs. 1,106,818 
(,£110,681). Why the cultivation of ganja is confined to a single 
tract of land lying on the north of Rajshahye, south of Dinagepore, 
and southwest of Bogra, is a vexed question. Judging of matters 
from a practical point of view, similar soils would produce ganja any- 
where. Every year the cultivation is extending to the north and east, 
which is an indication that it is not confined to a limited space. The 
mode of cultivation, the labor and outlay necessary, the restrictions 
placed on storage and sale of ganja, the rapidity with which it dete- 
riorates, operate as a check to a successful extension of the cultiva- 
tion in every district. Ganja is also grown in the tributary mehals of 
Orissa, but it is of an inferior description, and finds no favor with the 
smokers in Bengal. All soils are not equally adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of ganja. Light sandy soils are best adapted, and the plants 
reach the height of six to seven feet. Poor warm soils sometimes 
yield good hemp ; stiff clays are generally avoided. Extreme mois- 
ture is prejudicial to the growth of the plants ; the cultivation begins 
in August, the seeds are sown broadcast in the nursery, and in a 
week they germinate. In a fortnight, when the plants attain a little 
strength, and are able to bear transplantation, the nursery is broken* 
and the seedlings are sent to the field and sown in rows six inches 
apart from each other. The fields are not large in size, each being 
on an average fifteen cottahs, or a beegah. The soil is renovated 
every year by the addition of fresh earth, and before the seedlings 
are transplanted, the ground is harrowed and manured with oil-cakes 
and cow-dung, and the soil thus prepared is fit to receive the plants. 
When the plants spread their leaves, men known as " ganja doctors" 
are employed to pick out the female plants, which yield no flowers, 
and are injurious to the crop. Ganja doctors alone can distinguish 
the female organs in the plants; the process of picking is repeated 
two or three times, and when he cultivator is sure that all female(?) 
plants have been uprooted and thrown away, he again manures the 
ground with cow-dung and liquid oil-cakes, and clears the stems of 
the plants. In a field of one thousand plants some four hundred are 
thrown away. In December, when the plants reach the height of 
four or five feet, ridges are opened, and the ground is irrigated and 



122 



Culture of Gunjdh in Bengal. 



f Am. Jour. Phaem. 
\ Mar. 1, 1874. 



manured with oil-cakes. The more oil-cakes are used the more the 
plants thrive. At the end of January the plants mature, and the 
harvest season commences. The plants are cut by the cultivators and 
divided into four or five parts, and exposed to the rays of the sun for 
three or four days ; the leaves being withered, are spread on mats and 
trampled upon, and they assume the flat shape in which ganja is sold 
in the market. Round ganja is prepared by a similar process ; the 
stalks being taken off, each branch is rolled up and dried. Chur ganja 
consists of flowers and leaves. There is no difference in the narcotic 
powers of these three descriptions of ganja. The natives of the Turk- 
ish empire and the North of Africa are far more addicted to the use of 
haschisch, or hemp, than to that of opium. They have a similar effect, 
yet the former is decidedly preferred. They use either the dried 
leaves in smoking, or they drink the expressed juice, or use it in the 
form of cakes soaked with that essence. Much uncertainty prevails 
among botanists regarding the plant or plants which produce these 
narcotics — whether they are different species or mere varieties of the 
common hemp.* Probably 0. sativa and 0. indica are identical, yield- 
ing the ganja and bhang of the East. Both the above drugs are sold 
separate in the Indian bazaars, and in external appearance are con- 
siderably different. Ganja has a strong aromatic and heavy odor, 
abounds in resin, and is sold in the form of flowering stalks for smo- 
king with tobacco. It is made up in bundles about two feet long and 
three inches in diameter, containing about twenty-four plants. Bhang 
is in the form of dried leaves without stalk, of a dull green color, not 
much odor, and only slightly resinous. Bhang is not smoked, but 
pounded up with water into a pulp, so as to make a drink highly con- 
ducive to health, and people accustomed to it seldom get sick. Bhang 
grows in abundance in Tirhoot and Bhagulpoor in the wild state. In 
Scinde a stimulating infusion made from the plant is much drunk 
among the upper classes, who imagine it is an improver of the appe- 
tite. Ganja is frequently mixed with tobacco to make it more intox- 
icating. This is especially done by the Hottentots, who chop the 
hemp leaves very fine, and smoke them together in this manner. 
Sometimes the leaves powdered are mixed with aromatics, and thus 
taken as a beverage, producing much the same effects as opium, only 
more agreeable. The cost of cultivating a beegah of land varies from 



* " Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal." 



Am. Jour- Pharm. ") 
Mar. 1, 1874. J 



Culture of Gunjah in Bengal. 



123 



BO to 35 rupees. The quantity of manure required for a beegah of 
land and cost incurred for it, as well as other expenses incidental to 
the cultivation, are given below. 





Quantity required for manuring 


Cost incurred. 




one beegah of land. — Maunds. 


Rs. 


a. 


p. 


Cow-dung, 


. 10 


1 


14 





Oil-cake, 


10 


12 


2 





Rent, 




2 








Irrigation, 




6 








Labor, cutting and thrashing, 


12 








Fresh earth added, 




2 








Total, 




36 









In fact, without irrigation and manure ganja does not thrive. There 
are no irrigation wells in this district, and the water required is bailed 
from the nearest tank, bil, khal, and river. The cultivators fully un- 
derstand the advantages of allowing land to remain fallow for a year or 
two, in order that it may produce a good crop of ganja. Ganja is 
sometimes alternated with barley, mustard, or other pulses. Ganja, 
like mulberry, is grown on high lands ; extreme moisture injures the 
plants. Each cultivator cultivates one cottah to four beegahs of land ; 
the produce varies from 5 maunds 20 seers to 9 maunds 20 seers per 
beegah. About 1,100 to 1,200 beegahs of land are annually sown 
with ganja, and the produce amounts from 9,000 to 10,000 maunds • 
1,300 to 1,400 men are engaged in the cultivation. They cultivate 
on their own account ; some of them occasionally take advances from 
money-lenders, or their landlord, and mortgage the produce under a 
system of hypothecation, and sometimes they sell off the crops to 
wholesale dealers and content themselves with a small profit. Some 
of them let out the lands in bhagjote to under-ryots, and divide the 
crop in equal shares with them. When fields are sold to wholesale 
dealers, they cut, dry, and manipulate the plants at their expense for 
exportation to their own districts. The cultivation of ganja under a 
system of advances, as is done in indigo, has not succeeded. Twenty 
years ago, Mr. Brown commenced the cultivation of ganja by making 
advances to the cultivators ; about 8,000 maunds of the drug were 
cultivated in the first year, which were made up like opium cakes and 
shipped to the China market. The advances were not renewed — 
probably Mr. Brown found that the trade was not sufficiently remu- 



124 Culture of Gunjah in Bengal, {%S',mr 

nerative. Ganja is one of the first staple articles of produce in this 
district, and the value of export may be estimated at 200,000 rupees. 
Thirty years ago the value of this export was represented by 40,000 
rupees ; the drug was sold by the cultivators at eight annas to one 
rupee four annas a maund, and now the price has enormously increased. 
The general rise in the price of all articles of food also influenced the 
ganja trade. From 4,800 to 5,091 licenses are annually issued for 
the sale of this drug in Bengal. The cultivators of ganja are mostly 
Mahommedans, because the bulk of the population in the northern 
part of this district is of that persuasion. Some of them are well-to- 
do in the world, and have accumulated small fortunes by industry and 
economy, but they do not know how to utilize their money or enjoy 
it. The hooka is in general use, and both sexes smoke. Children at 
an early age acquire the awkward habit of smoking the hooka ; at an 
early hour of morning the men leave the house with a hooka in hand 
to work in the field. The use of stimulants is unknown to the ryots 
on the north of this district. Of late they have imbibed the habit of 
chewing opium; ganja, which is extensively cultivated by them, finds 
no favor. The ganja trade is carried on by three distinct classes of 
men : the cultivators who produce the drug, the wholesale dealer who 
exports it from the producing district, and stores it in a public gola 
to sell to the retail vendors, and the retail vendors who supply the 
consumers. Each in his turn makes whatever profit he can. Neither 
the first nor the second has any fee to pay to Government. The cul- 
tivators sell the drug to the wholesale goladar and retail vendor, and 
to nobody else, and any violation of this condition subjects him to a 
penalty and a forfeiture of his license. He makes his bargain with- 
out the intervention of excise officers. He submits his samples to the 
purchaser through a broker, and if it is approved, the bargain is struck* 
and the drug is conveyed to the cutchery of the supervisor of the cul- 
tivation of ganja to have it passed. The wholesale goladar sells the 
drug to the retail vendor in the presence of excise officers. The retail 
vendor pays a monthly fee of four rupees for each license and the 
duty fixed by the Board of Revenue. This fee in the town of Cal- 
cutta and its suburbs is fixed at sixteen rupees in Calcutta, and at 
eight rupees and four rupees in the suburbs respectively. The whole- 
sale trade is confined to two hundred people, and they are all men of 
substance. The retail vendors are men of small capital, averse to ag- 
ricultural labor. They are generally illiterate, and cannot even write 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar. 1, 1874. J 



Gigartina Acicularis, etc. 



125 



the accounts of their shops. They manage to make a capital living. 
The whole of the excise duty on ganja is contributed by the laboring 
classes. There has not been any improvement in the cultivation of 
ganja; the same manures which had been used in years gone by are 
used to this day. The same process for conserving the manure is fol- 
lowed. There has evidently been deterioration in quality of the pro- 
duce ; the plants do not weigh so heavy as they used to do twenty 
years ago. — Journ. of Applied Science, Feb. 1, 1874. 



GIGARTINA ACICULARIS AS AN ADULTERANT OF CARRA- 
GEEN MOSS * 

By J. Dalmon. 

The author has for some time frequently observed in French com- 
merce the mixture of Grigartina acicularis with carrageen moss (Fucus 
crispus, L. ; Chondrus polymorplius, Lam.), and he states that he has 
received specimens of moss containing as much as 40 per cent, of it. 
The mixture is readily discovered upon a moderately careful exami- 
nation. 

The Gcigartina acicularis, Lam belongs, like the Fucus crispus, to the 
order of Algae, sub-order of Choristosporeae. It is distinguished from 
the latter by its cylindrical, cartilaginous, subdichotomous, flexuous 
fronds, with acuminate most frequently bifurcated branches, sending 
out lateral horizontal spiniform branchlets. The concepticles are spher- 
ical, sessile, and thin. The mixture is also manifested by the light brown 
tint retained by the pedicels, which gives to the mass an appearance 
of a less uniform color than that presented ordinarily by carrageen. 

Placed in contact with cold water, the Grigartina acicularis, absorbs 
it rapidly and in great quantity, and swells considerably. Treated 
with boiling water it dissolves, but in much less proportion than Fucus 
crispus ; the jelly which it yields upon cooling is opaque, whitish, and 
without consistence. 100 parts of this alga leaves upon calcination 
16 parts of a residue which retains the form of the plant. This ash 
dissolves partly in water. The solution is neutral ; it is precipitated 
slightly by nitrate of silver, and abundantly by nitrate of baryta and 
oxalate of ammonia. The solution evaporated, and redissolved in 
alcohol and water gives, with phosphate of ammonia a crystalline 
precipitate. The insoluble part of the residue consists of carbonate 

* Repertoire de Pharmacie, new series, vol. i, p. 696. 



126 Glycerin in Astringents, etc. {^'Sf" 

of lime and silica. Operating as above the following results were 
obtained : — 

Chlorides of Sodium and Magnesium . . 0*60 

Sulphate of Magnesia ..... 1*20 

Sulphate of Lime ..... 6.60 

Carbonate of Lime ..... 5*40 

Silica 2-20 



16-00 

Calcination with potash and testing with an acid and starch showed 
no trace of the presence of iodine. 

Practically the mixture of Gigartina acicularis with carrageen moss 
presents no advantage to the pharmacist, who would not obtain with 
this product a jelly presenting the consistence sought for in the prepa- 
ration of jellies from carrageen. But the author considers that the 
remarkable quantity of lime salts which the Gigartina contains would 
render it a fairly active medicament in many cases, and especially in 
phlegmasies of the intestinal canal. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. , 
Jan. SlsL 1874. 



ON THE EFFECT OF GLYCERIN IN MODIFYING THE ACTION 

OF ASTRINGENTS. 
By E. B. Shuttleworth. 

There have been few additions to the materia medica, which, in so 
short a time, have attained a more universal popularity, have been 
applied to as manifold uses, or been more generally extolled than 
glycerin. Its powers as a solvent, equalling, if not exceeding, those 
of alcohol, have opened up a wide field of usefulness which has gen- 
erally been entered upon with great advantage. It may be, however, 
quite possible, and even probable, that a property of such ready 
adaptability, and of so wide a range, has been to generally made use 
of; sometimes under circumstances in which its effects may have 
proved the reverse of beneficial. Of such a character is the indis- 
criminate employment of glycerin in the preparation of tinctures or 
fluid extracts^ of vegetable substances of complex composition ; when, 
though a presentable and permanent compound may be obtained, in- 
ert, or, perhaps, injurious agents, which would have been much better 
undisturbed, are dissolved and retained in solution. 

It is not, however, to this modifying action that I would, at present, 



A \i°r U i;mi RM } Glycerin in Astringents, etc. 127 

call attention, but to an effect depending on another cause. Physi- 
cians who have been in the habit of using astringents — as tannic acid, 
and some of the preparations of iron — have noticed that when these 
substances*are mixed with glycerin, a different, and much milder effect 
is realized than when an aqueous solution is employed. During the 
last few months, some of the pharmaceutical journals have alluded to 
this effect ;* and, at the last meeting of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, it was made the subject of a short discussion. f it was 
then stated by the president, that he was aware of an instance in 
which three hundred grains of perchloride of iron, dissolved in glyc- 
erin, was swallowed, by mistake, without any ill effects. It is certain 
that a much smaller quantity, in aqueous solution, would have pro- 
duced serious results. The common experience of physicians with 
regard to the comparative inefficiency of glycerinurn aciditannici was 
also alluded to. Again, at a meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society 
held Dec. 3rd,J it was stated as a well-known fact, that, if a greatly 
astringent effect is desired, the solution of tannin in glycerin must be 
diluted with water ; and that the same is true in regard to the styptic 
action of a solution of perchloride of iron in glycerin. It was also 
stated that glyeerinum acidi carbolici was much milder in action than 
an aqueous solution of similar strength. At the last meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association the effect of glycerin on astrin- 
gents was alluded to as having been noticed ; as all these statements 
coincide with the opinions of observant physicians, this modifying ac- 
tion of glycerin may be recognized as an acknowledged fact. 

It becomes interesting for us to ascertain the cause of this modify- 
ing action ; and, in this endeavor, we may consider, first, the nature 
of the physiological and therapeutical effects produced by astringents ; 
and, secondly, the effect of glycerin on the chemical properties of this 
class of remedies. 

In regard to the first point we find the action of astringents is, in 
great part, if not entirely, to be attributed to their chemical agency. 
In most instances, these bodies have an affinity for certain constituents 
of the animal solids and fluids, and effect changes by direct combina- 
tion. Pharmacologists are generally agreed on this matter, and it is 

* Glycerin ; by A. H. Mason, F. 0. S., Chemist $ Druggist, April, 1873, p. 
119 ; and Can. Pharm. Joum., No. lxii, p. 396. 
t Pharm. Jour. & Trans., Oct. 1873; and Can. Pharm. Jour., Vol. vii, p. 172. 
j Pharm. Joum. & Trans., Dec. 1873, p. 451. 



128 



Glycerin in Astringents, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Mar. 1, 1874. 



thought that, whether applied externally or taken internally, these 
remedies have a more or less local action, producing astriction or cor- 
rugation of the tissues, or coagulation of the fluids. In regard to 
tannic acid,* Pereira says " Tannin acts on the animal tissues by vir- 
tue of its affinity for their constituents. It forms, with albumen and 
gelatine, compounds which are insoluble in water, and it also com- 
bines with fibrin; when taken into the stomach it unites with the con- 
stituents of the epithelium, and of the mucous membrane of the ali- 
mentary canal." It may therefore be assumed that astringents are 
in general merely chemical agents, and, if their anticipated effect 
is to be realized, their chemical composition must not be modified or 
disturbed. 

In order to determine the chemical action of glycerin on astrin- 
gents I have commenced a series of experiments, w T hich has, so far, 
only been completed so as to afford indications of a definite and sat- 
isfactory conclusion. The substance chosen as best representing the 
class of vegetable astringents is gallo- tannic acid — the tannin ©f 
commerce ; the mineral astringents may be aptly represented by the 
perchloride and persulphate of iron. 

The effect of reagents on an aqueous solution of the glycerinum acidi 
tannici is precisely similar to that produced on a simple aqueous solu- 
tion of tannin. The salts of iron, tartrate of potash and antimony, 
chloride of sodium, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and gelatin, 
give, in both cases, colorations and precipitates, alike in appearance. 
In order to ascertain the comparative power of the two solutions in 
precipitating gelatin, solutions equal in tannin strength were prepared, 
and it was found that an equal number of measures of the same so- 
lution of gelatin were required for precipitation. 

Being unable to detect any difference in the behaviour of these 
aqueous solutions, a solution of tannin in glycerin, undiluted, was 
treated with solution of gelatin, and it was found that the tannin was 
not precipitated ; or, at least, that only a small portion of the glycerin 
solution which was in immediate contact with the water contained in 
the solution of gelatin was so affected. This superficial layer of co- 
agulum was, on the application of a gentle heat, immediately dissolved. 
This result is, so far, satisfactory, and affords a possible explanation 
of the fact before alluded to — that, in order to realize the full astrin- 

* Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Yol. i., p. 98. 



^m™:Im™'} Action of Oil of Turpentine, etc. 129 

gent effect of the glycerin preparation of tannin, dilution with water 
is necessary. 

I have not had time to pursue this subject further, or to examine 
into the effect, noted by some observers, that glycerin prevents the 
precipitation of some of the salts of iron by alkalies. 

Speculating on this subject, and bringing to our aid those facts re- 
lating to the properties and affinities of glycerin which are already 
known we find that this substance is by no means chemically inert, 
not indeed sufficiently so as to admit of a general application as a 
solvent. The range of glycerin compounds is not at all a limited one,, 
but quite extensive, comprising salts many of which are well defined, 
and which possess strong individual characteristics and properties. 
Of those are the simple compounds of glycerin and the inorganic 
and organic acids, or the more characteristic glycerides or glyceryl 
ethers. I would hazard the suggestion that when glycerin and tan- 
nic acid are left in contact for a considerable time, or when heat is 
applied in the pharmacopoeial process, that glycero-tannic acid, or 
ether is formed. The distinguishing termination in applied to ethers 
of this kind would not, in this case, be appropriate. 

I hope to resume this subject when sufficient leisure for further 
experiment presents itself. 

Toronto, Jan. 10, 1874. — Can. Pharm. Journ. Feb. 1874. 



ACTION OF OIL OF TURPENTINE UPON LEAD AND TIN. 
By J. M. Merrick. B. Sc. 

I was recently consulted by a manufacturer of paints as to what 

metal he could use for lining a large tank in which he intended to 

keep a stock of oil of turpentine. I advised the use of sheet lead,. 

but he met that advice by producing a well corroded sheet of lead 

with which a turpentine tank had been lined, and a sample of a white 

powder which he asked me to examine. I found the powder to be an 

oxycarbonate of lead, and the paint maker said that after the tank 

had been used about forty days for storing turpentine, observing the 

lead to be corroded, he had the oil drawn off, and found a wheelbarrow 

load of this oxycarbonate of lead upon the bottom of the tank. The 

sample of oil of turpentine he exhibited was not perceptibly acid, but 

appeared to be in a normal condition. 

Laurent (quoted in Gmelin's Handbook, xiv. 245) found white, 
9 



130 



Ozone, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar. 1, 1874. 



granular crystals of formiate of zinc on the covers of zinc boxes in 
which oil of turpentine had been kept, and Saussure (Gm. xiv. 247-8) 
found that in nine months one volume of oil of turpentine can take 
up one hur.dred and twenty-eight volumes of oxygen. 

It is easy to see that the action of the turpentine in the case 
brought to my notice was simply that of a vehicle which conveyed the 
oxygen of the air to the readily oxidizable metal. 

This matter lead to some experiments upon the action of acetic acid 
and turpentine upon tin, viz. : three pieces of pure sheet tin were 
tweighed and immersed respectively in glacial acetic acid, an acid of 
SO per cent, glacial acid, and 50 per cent, water, and in oil of turpen- 
tine, reweighed at the end of certain periods, and the loss noted. 





With Glacial Acid. 




With 50 


per cent. Glacial Acid. 


wt. 


Loss. 


Loss p. ct. 


Hrs. 


Wt. 


Loss. 


Loss p. ct. Hrs. 


28 948 








30 209 






28 780 


•168 


•58 


24 


30 204 


•005 


•00017 24 


28-1435 


•6365 


221 


70 


30-191 


•013 


•0003 70 


27655 


•4885 


1 74 


96 


30 183 


•008 


•0002 96 


27545 


•110 


•39 


100 


: o iso 


•003 


•0001 100 


27-537 


•008 


•0003 


104 


30173 


•007 


•0002 104 


27 100 


•437 


1-54 


118 


30163 


•010 


•0003 118 



In turpentine, 40*024 grammes of sheet tin lost only *001 grm. in 
118 hours. 

Laboratory, 49 Broad Street, Boston. Jan. 2, 1874. 
— American Chemist, February, 1874. 



OZONE— A NEW AND CORRECT METHOD OF SUPPLY. 
The use of ozone as a disinfectant in hospital wards and public 
buildings has amply demonstrated its virtue as a purifier of air ex- 
hausted by breathing or poisoned with emanations from corrupt or 
decaying organic matter. The only bar to its more extended use has 
been the lack of a simple and trustworthy means of generating it, 
safely and continuously, by a process not involving scientific skill or 
costly materials. 

The latest means suggested certainly bears the palm for simplicity ? 
cheapness, and accessibility to all. It consists simply in the exposure 
to atmospheric action of common phosphorus matches moistened by 
water, the alleged result being the production of nitrite of ammonia 
and ozone — both active purifiers of air. 

Knowing the efficiency of moistened phosphorus as a generator of 



*kx Jour. Pharm„ 1 
Mar. 1, 1874. J 



Ozone, etc. 



131 



ozone, the author of the match method, Mr. Sigismund Beer, of this 
-city, set out one day to procure a quantity of that substance to use in 
sweetening the atmosphere of a room whose musty smell had success- 
fully resisted the power of ordinary disinfectants. Failing to find 
any phosphorus at the drug stores in his neighborhood, it occurred to 
Mr. Beer that possibly lucifer matches might furnish the needed 
element in a condition suited to his purpose. He tried them, dipping 
them into warm water for a few moments, then suspending them in 
the obnoxious room. Their effect was prompt and salutary ; and 
thereafter, by continuing their use, he was able to enjoy " the luxury 
of pure and refreshing air," notwithstanding the room was in the 
basement of an old cellarless house on made land, the air of which 
was further tainted by a quantity of moldy books and papers. In a 
paper lately read before the Polytechnic branch of the American In- 
stitute, Mr. Beer narrates a number of subsequent experiments with 
the same simple materials, the success of which convinced him that he 
had made a veritable discovery of great importance. 

Touching the safety of the method he proposes, Mr. Beer is confi- 
dent that no overcharging of the air with ozone or other injurious 
jnatter may be apprehended from the use of matches in the manner 
he describes. Both the ozone and the nitrite of ammonia are generated 
slowly, and their force is swiftly spent by combination with the im- 
purities they are intended to remove. It is obvious that the supply of 
the purifying agents can be easily regulated by increasing or dimin- 
ishing the number of active matches. In thej:oom above mentioned, 
six bundles of matches were kept active — some near the ceiling, others 
near the floor — by daily watering. 

In another instance a single bunch is mentioned as having sufficed 
for quickly purifying the air of a room in which several adults and 
-children were lying sick, but in this case the air was fanned against 
the matches while they were carried about the room, thus hightening 
their activity, How long a match retains its ozonizing power, Mr. 
Beer does not say. In conclusion, Mr. Beer claims that, whatever 
may be said of his theory of match action, the fact is indisputable 
that, in the use of matches as he suggests, we have a handy, whole- 
some, and inexpensive means of freeing our houses from noxious ex- 
halations and the long train of evils attendant on the prevalence of 
bad air. The matter is easily tested and certainly well worth trying. 
— Scientific American, February 21, 1874. 



132 Minutes of the College. { kv m™tmt*' 

fliiuttes 0f % f paMgp Mlqt of i^rmatg. 



Philadelphia, 2d mo. 17th, 1874. 
A special meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this- 
afternoon at the College Hall ; 28 members present. Dillwyn Parrish, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

The President read a minute from William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board 
of Trustees, announcing the appointment of a Committee of the Board to draw 
up a testimonial of respect expressive of our feelings in the loss of our col- 
league, William Procter, Jr., and to report the result of their labors to a spe- 
cial meeting of tb^College at an early day. 

The Committed being present, signified their readiness to report, and Daniel 
S. Jones, Chairman, read the following testimonial of respect for his memory, 
and resolutions expressive of the great loss we have sustained in his sudden 
decease. 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

Fellow Members. — We meet together to-day on an occasion in the history 
of this College when it is fitting that we should give expression to our sense 
of the bereavement which has visited us. In the providence of Him with whom 
are the issues of life and death, our associate and tried friend — our noble stan- 
dard bearer — he in whom "was the excellency of our might" — has suddenly been 
removed from our midst. 

On Tuesday moining, the 10th inst., the intelligence was spread among us 
that Professor Procter had died during the night. So overwhelming was the 
sense of the loss we had sustained, that our hearts were mute with grief. 

Slowly, but not with less impressiveness, comes to us the realization that the 
voice, so lately heard in instruction and in counsel within these walls, is now 
sealed in death. While mourning a loss which seerns to us almost irreparable, 
it is fitting that we should* call to remembrance the many benefits which the lifa 
of our brother has bestowed upon us. For a quarter of a century his name has 
been inscribed on our banner, and we have found it a talisman of strength. 

His life was characterized by earnestness of purpose, single-minded in pur- 
suit of science, sincere in all his relations in life, loving Truth for Truth's sake ; 
his enemies are unknown, but friendship is claimed wherever his name is spoken. 

The record of his life is engraved on the character of this institution ; our 
Journal is an enduring monument of the activity and ability of his genius. His 
name comes back to us from beyond the Atlantic in pharmaceutical litera- 
ture with acknowledged authority. Well may the drapery of mourning be hung 
upon these walls, and our eves turn in depressing sadness to the vacant chair. 

It was not alone in his character as a teacher and author that Prof. Procter 
was known in this community. Modest and diffident even to the extent of ren- 
dering injustice to himself, he was amiable, courteous, approachable and ever 
ready to assist from his store of information and experience those who sought 
advice from him. Pretension was no part of his composition ; facts were to him 
the only realities. 

There can be no tribute paid more fitting to the character of our brother 
than the many hearts which mourn his loss. It remains for us to remember his 
example and to strive to emulate his labors, so that his life may be renewed in. 
that spirit and power which he has left to us as an heritage. 



Am. Jour.Phabm.1 
Mar. 1, 1874. J 



Minutesof the College. 



133 



RESOLUTIONS. 

Having been called to mourn the loss by death of our beloved fellow mem- 
ber, Professor William Procter, Jr., we desire to express our deep sorrow 
and bear testimony to the high attainments and commanding worth of the de- 
ceased. 

"Resolved, That in the death of Professor Procter, we feel this College has 
sustained a loss deeply to be deplored, the School of Pharmacy an able in- 
structor, and our profession one of the most ardent and distinguished exponents 
of that science he so ably illustrated, and to which he devoted his life. 

" Resolved, That we will ever cherish the memory of his bright example, his 
excellence of character in all the relations of life, his perfect integrity, sincerity 
and lofty purpose, his conscientious devotion to duty, and his faithfulness as a 
friend. 

" Resolved, That the Committee on Deceased Members be instructed to pre- 
pare a memoir of Professor Procter for publication, that the history of his use- 
ful life, example aud eminent services may be preserved and placed among the 
records of our College. 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the family of 
the deceased, with the assurance of our heartfelt sympathy in this time of their 
great and sudden bereavement." 

Daniel S. Jones, "] 

DlLLWYN PARRISH, j n 

t> o r Committee. 

Robert Bridges, \ 

Philadelphia, February 17, 1874. Chas. Bullock. J 

The reading of these papers was listened to with profound attention, caus-» 
ing a deep feeling of sorrow and sympathy to pervade the meeting, which was 
heightened by the solemnity of silence. A general feeling of sadness rested on 
all as the fact manifested itself that henceforth memory must be the only link 
between us and our ever-faithful and honored colleague. 

Charles Ellis bore testimony to his worth and excellence of character, in a 
few appropriate remarks, and moved that the resolutions be signed by the offi- 
cers of the College, and published in the daily papers ; and also that a copy of 
them be engrossed, and sent by the Committee who prepared them to the 
family of the deceased. 

Charles Bullock moved that a copy of the resolutions be sent by the Corres- 
ponding Secretary to the Colleges of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tions in the United States. These resolutions were both adopted. 

A letter was received and read from Joseph L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa., 
regretting bis inability to attend the meeting, and expressive of his sympathy 
in our great bereavement. 

Professor Maisch suggested that it would be necessary to elect some one to 
fill the office of 1st Vice President, now vacant, until the annual election in 
March next, in order that all the signatures of the officers may be affixed to 
i,he diplomas of the College soon to be issued to the graduates. 

On motion of Charles Bullock, the President of the College was directed to 
-cast a ballot for Peter Williamson as 1st Yice-President, which, being done, 
Mr. Wihiamson was declared unanimously elected to that office until the an_ 
*nual meeting in March next. 

On motion, then adjourned. William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



134 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { AM M J a°r C i',i874 EK 



pftixtts of % l^rmaatttial luting. 



The regular monthly meeting was held February 17th, 1874. Twenty mem- 
bers present. 

On motion, Dillwyn Parrish was elected President, and the minutes of last*, 
meeting were read and approved. 

Prof. J. M. Maisch presented a drug mill from the Enterprise Manufacturing 
Co., which is an improvement on the one first produced — the throat having 
been enlarged, and the whole japanned in black instead of red. 

A paper on Pancreatized Solid Fat, by R. V. Mattison, was read, which-- 
produced considerable interest and discussion, and one experiment was tried,, 
which resulted in proving that the emulsion was perfectly miscible with water. 

A sample of what was called Oregon Balsam of Fir was exhibited, and Dr. 
W. H. Pile said that an article almost identical to the sample, could be made- 
by the admixture of rosin and turpentine, in proportions that would produce a 
preparation equal to it in specific gravity. 

A specimen of Cypripedium pubescens, was also shown by Prof. Maisch,. 
which had been used to adulterate serpentaria. 

Mr. Hazard presented to the College a beautifully crystallized specimen of 
sulphate of iron, which had been made from waste oil of vitriol and scrap iron* 
from galvanizing works. 

Prof. Bridges remarked that the copperas made from such iron was very apt- 
to be pure, as it was necessary to clean the iron carefully belore galvanizing it. 

Prof. Maisch stated that he had successfully utilized spent sulphuric aci& 
from oil of wine operations when in the U. S. Laboratory, and mentioned that 
B. J. Crew, some years ago, made a remarkably handsome sulphate of iron,, 
by using waste oil of vitriol from petroleum operations. 

E. McC. Boring wished to call the attention of the members to the Syrup of 
Fresh Orange Peel as made by the formula of R. Rother, Chicago. He said 
that it did not produce a clear syrup, but that the flavor was very agreeable j: 
and that he cut off the outer rind of the orange (rejecting the white portion of 
the rind), and beat them to a pulp belore subjecting to the solvent action of 
the alcohol. 

S. M. McCollin p said that he preferred to grate the oranges, mix with sugar 
and water, and then throw on a thick filter. 

Prof. Maisch spoke of a German preparation, which was made by macerat- 
ing orange peel in wine and afterwards adding sugar. 

J. A. Heintzelman thought that the officinal orange syrup was the best, be- 
cause physicians generally want the bitterness it possesses. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour, on account of the College meeting relative- 
to the death of Prof. Procter having been held first, a motion was carried tc*. 
adjourn. 

Jos. P. Remington, Registrar. 



A \i°™; L™"} Pharmceutical Colleges and Associations. 135 



llarmaatttal Collies anb %mtMxm%. 



Commencements — The commencement of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy will be held at the Academy of Music. March 13. Prof. Bridges has 
been invited to deliver the valedictory address, in the place of Prof. Procter, 
deceased. The commencement of the New York College of Pharmacy will 
take place, at Association Hall, March 3ist, and Prof. Bedford will deliver the 
valedictory. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — Mr. Joseph P. Remington, who had 
been Professor Procter's assistant at his lectures, has been appointed to con- 
duct the examination of the candidates for graduation in pharmacy. The Ex- 
amining Committee, of which both Prof. Procter and Mr. Remington were 
members, was then constituted as follows : 

W. J. Jenks, S. S. Bunting, Wm. Mclntyre, A. P. Brown and Prof. J. M. 
Maisch. 

On the evening of Feb. 11th, a meeting of the students was held to take 
action in regard to the death of the late Professor Procter. The class was 
deeply impressed with the loss they had sustained in the death of their valued 
teacher, whose genial disposition and faithful instruction had endeared him to 
all who came in contact with him. The following preamble and resolutions 
were unanimously adopted : 

Whkreas, It has pleased an All- Wise Providence to suddenly remove from 
our midst our worthy and beloved Professor Wm. Procter, Jr., who has so 
faithfully filled the chair of " Pharmacy" in this College; therefore, be it 

Resolved, Thft we tender to the afflicted family of the deceased our heartfelt 
sympathy in their great bereavement. 

Resolved. That the students of the College, who have listened with so much 
interest to bis able and instructive lectures, and who feel so deeply indebted 
therefor, shall ever cherish in sacred remembrance his many deeds of kind- 
ness and arduous attempts to engraft in them the knowledge of our profession 
which he so largely possessed. 

Resolved, That in the death of our esteemed Professor, who has so suddenly- 
been taken from us in the mid^t of his duties, we, the students, have suffered! 
an irreparable loss, and the College has lost an able and devoted fellow- member.. 

Resolved, That we attend the funeral at the residence in a body, and that a 
committee be appointed to accompany the remains to their final resting place- 

Resolved That this preamble and resolutions be published in the different 
journals of pharmacy and in two of the city papers, and a copy be sent to the* 
family of the deceased, and another to the Trustees of the College. 

W. L Harrison, Chairman; H. B. liutchiuson, Geo. C. Lescher, D. Ack- 
erman, Jr., J. T. Seal, Committee. 

Fred. B. Power, Secretary of the meeting.. 



Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — At a meeting of the Board of Trus- 
tees, held February 24th, 1874, Samuel M. Colcord, President of the College^ 
arose and said : 



136 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A \i° r u T,m4 RM * 

On the 10th day of February, 1874. in the City of Philadelphia, William 
Procter, Jr., passed from earth to his home in the spiritual world. 

Probably no one in this country was so widely known and so dearly beloved 
by all who knew him as was William Procter. Jr., in all the ranks of the phar- 
maceutical profession. No pharmacist in this country has written so much, 
lectured so much, and performed so many public uses as has William Procter, 
Jr. As a writer, a journalist, a professor of pharmacy, an original investigator, 
a fearless exponent of Truth and sound doctrine in our profession, William 
Procter Jr., stood unequalled. For the past quarter of a century he has been 
the recognized leader of all the public pharmaceutical work performed in this 
country. 

Under his care the American Journal of Pharmacy came to outrank any 
other pharmaceutical journal in the world. The Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy is greatly indebted to him for its success. He was one of the original 
founders of the American Phai maceutical Association, and its success more 
than to any other person is due to the persistent efforts of William Procter, 
Jr. The United States Dispensatory contains constant reference to him as 
authority upon many points, and the United States Pharmacopoeia in past 
years bears the marks of his masterly hands, but not so much as the work of 
its last revision shows the want of his presence on that Committee. William 
Procter, Jr , was the most noted man in our profession in this country; his 
earthly career has closed in the midst of his life of use at the full height of his 
popularity; the record ot his lile is all clean progiess professionally, morally, 
spiritually; there are left to us no bats and ifs to mar the glory of his fame; his 
life has been a life of use, strong and active, nothing of doubt, uncertainty or 
hesitation, but manly decision and persistent effort ruled his course. Possess- 
ing strong individuality, he left his mark upon all his work, but the element of 
selfishness is entirely wauling in all his associated efforts ; every work of a pub- 
lic nature performed by him was done lor the sake of use or from a sense of 
duty; this was his first view as well as his second sober thought. It might 
have occurred to him '"can 1 afford it ?" but never '• can I make more money ?" 
As a friend he was firm, constant and true ; as an associate he gave more than 
he received ; in conversation he was instructive, agreeable and entertaining; a 
remarkably good listener as well as a good talker, but whether in thought, 
word or deed, nothing of virtue value or use was ever sacrificed, diluted or 
modified lor the sake of ornament. The fascination for naked truth with him 
was just in proportion to its power and force. Speaking for Pharmacy, 1 know 
of no man in our country who has done so much for our profession or who has 
accomplished so much in a life time. 1 know of no man who will be missed so 
much ; 1 kuow of no man w hose place it is so hard to fill ; but his life oi. earth 
will stand ou record as a practical example of what a pharmacist's should be, 
for our guidance ; and to those of us who had the pleasure ot a personal ac- 
quaintance, the name of William Procter, Jr., will ever live sacred in pleasant 
memories, honored aud cherished as the embodiment of every mauly virtue, the 
highest type of honesty and intelligence as a pharmacist. 

Nearly a quarter of a ceuiuiy ago, when the Massachusetts College of Phar- 
macy was struggling for a place among the institutions of our country, William 
Procter, Jr., was her friend and counsellor; to the information, advice and en- 
couragement which he has given us, we are indebted for much of our success. 
We feel this day that we have lost a friend, and while we mourn his loss, we 
desire to give expression and to offer sympathy to those to whom this severing 
of human ties aud relationship is far heavier than to us. i therefore move the 
following resolutions : — 

Whereas, William Procter. Jr., from a life of great usefulness upon earth 
lias been suddenly transplanted to his heavenly home ; 

Resolved, That, as members of his profession, co-laborers in the same field 
of use, we lament our loss and mourn his removal from us. 



' A Va? u i; i874 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 137 

Resolved, That by this sad event we mourn the loss of one to whom we were 
endeared by ties of personal friendship ; a leader to whom we looked as au- 
thority for guidance; a journalist whom we delighted to honor as honest, in- 
telligent and fearless, and an instructor who was thorough, reliable and patient ; 
as a pharmacist living in the enjoyment of the perfect confidence of all who 
knew him, and perfectly reliable in every respect. 

Resolved, That while filled with grief and sorrow at this earthly separation, 
"we acknowledge and humbly bow to the Divine Will, which guides us in our 
efforts to do right in this world, and removes us from it at the best possible 
moment. 

Resolved, That we tender our most earnest sympathy to the family of the 
deceased, the wife and children whom he so tenderly loved and cared for ; and 
while we feel keenly the poverty of human consolation, we invoke for them a 
Savior's blessing and a Savior's care. 

George F. H. Markoe, Cor. Secretary. 



\ New Hampshire Pharmaceutical Association. — A meeting of about fifty 
pharmacists of New Hampshire was held, in Concord, January 22d, and orga- 
nized by electing Charles A. Tufts, of Dover, President ; C. F. P. Hildreth, 
of Suncook, Vice-President; G. F. Underhill, of Concord, Secretary, and H. 
B. Foster, of Concord, Treasurer. An Executive Committee of ten was also 
chosen. The gathering was considered a preliminary one, which will open the 
way for an early formation of a State pharmaceutical association. They want 
a law that will regulate the sale of medicines and allow druggists to sell spirits 
for medicinal purposes; they strongly oppose that feature of the New Hamp- 
shire Prohibitory law that gives one-half of the fines to the informer. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — At the conversational meeting of Feb. 
12th, Dr. Fr. Hoffmann delivered a lecture on the application of the microscope 
in pharmacy and the drug trade, and illustrated his remarks by exhibiting the 
sections of many drugs by the aid of an oxy-hydrogen stereopticon. 

The decease of Prof. Procter having been announced, a Committee was ap- 
pointed to represent the College at the funeral. 



The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association held a meeting at Jersey 
City Feb. 11th, which was well attended. We have not received an account 

•of its transactions, but we are pleased to inform our readers that this Associ- 
ation has at last been successful in obtaining a pharmaceutical law. The " New- 
ark Daily Advertiser," of Feb. 19th, announces this success in the following 
complimentary remarks: 

After five years of hard work and steady perseverance the druggists of New 

•Jersey have obtained the passage of their Pharmaceutical bill. Regularly 
every year a number of druggists have visited Trenton, urging its passa_e, but 
without success, and each year their number has become le.^s aud less, as con- 
tinued defeats disheartened them. At the opening of this session a few drug- 
gists appeared, but again left, until Mr. C. H. Dalrymple, of Morristown, alone 
remained, aud he urged the bill vigorously. By dint of carefully explaining it 
to the members individually he secured its careful consideration and passage. 

On the bill coming up in the House, having already passed the Senate, Mr. 



138 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A Man?,"m^*- 

Hemmingway moved to strike out the enacting clause, but withdrew it so thai 
it might be recommitted. Mr. Smith objected, as did Mr. Kirk, the latter gen- 
tleman thinking that too many safeguards could not be thrown around the sale? 
of drugs. Mr. Morrow thought the bill a good one, as did Mr. Howell, both- 
gentlemen saying that the druggists should be given the bill, as a means to pre- 
vent, if possible, so many poisoning cases as were occurring of late. Messrs.. 
Iszard and Patterson favored the bill, The motion to recommit was lost, as. 
was also an rmendment to relieve country storekeepers of having to pay a $2: 
charge for license. Mr. Skellinger offered an amendment that the law should^ 
not apply to townships of less than 2000 inhabitants, which was lost when the 
bill was passed, 38 to 19. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the stated meeting held Feb. 12th,. 
the following tribute to the memory of the late Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., was 
offered by the President, Dr. John F. Hancock: 

Gentlemen. — It becomes my painful duty to call your attention to an an- 
nouncement that must strike keenly and deeply the cords of reverence and 
sympathy in every heart here present. It is the only sorrow from which the 
human heart refuses to be severed. A feeling of regret and sorrow comes over 
us when we see the icy hand of death placed upon a stranger; but what are 
our feelings when death comes to rob us of dearest loved friends ? Can we look, 
at their removal from our midst with hearts unaffected? No! Despite our 
efforts to disguise our feelings, which on such occasions spontaneously gush> 
forth, and with full knowledge of the terrible power of the unwelcome messen- 
ger, our hearts soften with sorrow, and our heads bow in humble yet mournful, 
submission to the will of Him who gives and who takes away. He to whose 
memory we are called upon to pay tribute was not a friend only but a benefac- 
tor also, not simply a benefactor of his personal friends, but also of his race.. 
His escutcheon is as free of stain as is the spotless snow. We could not speak 
of his faults, were we so inclined, because we know of none. We knew him 
only as ihe true gentleman, the con6ding and trusty friend, the kind and affec- 
tionate husband and father, the devotee of a humanitarian science which in its- 
practical bearings is a part of that profession which the immortal Hippocrates 
pronounced to be ihe greatest of all arts. In his profession he was always a, 
consistent, steady, honest and persistent workman. The fruits of his labors- 
are familiar to all. .As a pharmaceutical chemist, and as a journalist who re- 
corded facts only so far as he knew them to be such ; as a high-minded honor- 
able gentleman, who was unconscious of his own merits because of the simpli- 
city and innocence of his moral nature, the name of William Procter, Jr.,. 
will command reverence and respect wherever and whenever his name shall be 
mentioned in the presence of a pharmacist in any part of the civilized world.. 
Should any person ever manifest so much ignorance as to inquire who was Wm. 
Procter, Jr., or what he accomplished, refer them to the volumes of the "Ame- 
rican Journal of Pharmacy," which he so long edited, and to the Proceedings 
of the American Phai maceutical Association, and implore them, not only to- 
consult the general index of the works respectively, to ascertain the vast num- 
ber of his original contributions, but to turn to the pages and read the commu- 
nications, which cannot fail to afford much valuable information. If there are 
any under the sound of my voice who did not know personally our friend and* 
benefactor, he who has done more than any other man in this country to ele- 
Tate the moral and intellectual standard of pharmacy, by diffusing the purity 
of its literature, I would respectfully refer them to a fair sample of his unos- 
tentalional characteristic language, as shown in his resignation of his position* 
as Kditor of the ' American Journal of Pharmacy," dated Dec. 27th, 1870, and 
published in the "Journal" of that year. 

Alter the reading of this communication, notwithstanding the resignation* 



***ri?!t i8w RM \ Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 130 

occasioned expressions of regret on the part of members present, yet they 
knew the man so well that what he said he had good reason for and meant,, 
though it was an unpleasant duty yet it was incumbent upon them to com- 
ply with his request. A similar prompt action was taken when he resigLed 
his professorship in the College, an action on his part greatly regretted by 
his fellow-members. But did he continue to rest from his arduous labors in 
the College? No; for we find his accommodating disposition surrendering 
his hand and heart to the College on the death of his co-laborer and friend, 
the late Prof. Edward Parrish, and thus we find him in the full armor of' 
his usefulness to within a few hours of his death. It seems that even death 
had a kind and tender consideration for him ; for so tenderly did the mes- 
senger come and steal him away, that his family were scarcely permitted to 
witness the agony of death, and he passed from earth to Heaven more like- 
a midnight dream than a stern reality. Is he dead ; he whom we all loved 
so dearly, and whom we looked to as a falher for counsel and advice? It is- 
hard to realize the fact. He is not dead ! The purity of his life, and his^- 
Tvorks (though his body has become as cold and as lifeless as the adamantine 
rock) will live imperishably in our immortal memories, and, like the brilliant 
son, will wax brighter and brighter until the perfect day. 

Let us emulate his example. At least, to the younger members of our 
profession this is possible, remembering always that true genius is not born 
but made. 

Let us resolve at this time that his virtues, industry and honesty of pur- 
pose shall serve us as beacons on the bleak shores of the stormy ocean of 
our lives, so that when the golden bowl is broken and the silver cord is loosed 
we may join him in the better land. 

Further remarks appropriate and eulogistic of the life and character of the 
deceased were made by Dr. A. P. Sharp and Prof. J. Faris Moore. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Moore, Sharp and Roberts to prepare suit- 
able resolutions, which were approved, as follows : 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty, in the inscrutable ways of his prov- 
idence, to remove from his sphere of usefulness on earth our well-beloved 
brother and friend Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., of Philadelphia; and 

Whereas, It is proper and becoming that this body, devoted to the advance- 
ment of pharmacy, of which science he was such a bright and shining light, 
should express and make record of its consciousness of the great loss sus- 
tained, not only by our brother pharmacists of Philadelphia, but of the pro- 
fession throughout the land ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we have heard, with sincere and heartfelt regret, of the death* 
of Wm. Procter, Jr., and in his demise feel that the cause of pharmacy ha& 
lost one of its ablest, most faithful and long-tried representatives; one whose- 
life has been devoted to the interests of our science, and whose only ambition 
seemed to be to acquire knowledge and proficiency in his profession, that he 
mi^bt the better serve his fellow-workers in the same loved cause. 

Resolved, That, as individuals, we who had the pleasure of his acquaintance 
can but feel that one near and dear to us has been called from our midst, occa- 
sioning a void that we look around in vain for one to fill so worthily and so- 
well. 

Resolved, That we tender to his sorrowing family our sincere sympathy and 
condolence in this the hour of their sad bereavement ; but while we lament 
with them the irreparable loss, we mourn not as those who mourn without 
hope, for we can but feel that, though it is our loss, it is his eternal gain. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread at large on the journal of the 
College, and a copy of the same forwarded to the family of the deceased, a& 
evidence of our estimation of his worth and character. 



140 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. \ A *M™Xim*' 

The President delegated Dr. A. P. Sharp, Prof. J. Faris Moore, and Dr. 
Jos. Roberts to represent this College at the funeral. 

Donations were received of " cosmolin," from Messrs. E. F. Houghton & 
Co., and an improved drug mill, from Enterprise Manufacturing Company, both 
of Philadelphia, to whom the Secretary was directed to extend the thanks of 
the College. 

The Committee on Annual Meeting named March 19th for holding the same 

J, Newport Potts, Eep. M. C. P. 



Chicago College of Pharmacy — At a meeting of the students of this Col- 
lege, held Monday, Feb. 16th, A. D. 1874, the following preamble and resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, We have learned, with unfeigned sorrow, of the death of Prof. 
William Procter, Jr., of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, in which he 
so ably and faithfully filled the position of " Professor of Pharmacy," and 

Whereas, The loss of his valuable services to the students, the College, and 
the profession at large will be difficult to replace ; be it therefore 

Resolved, That we, the students of the Chicago College of Pharmacy, tender 
our sincere sympathy to the students of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
in the loss of so able a teacher, and so true a friend. 

Resolved, That we shall ever remember one whose many researches and able 
efforts in the cause of science and the elevation of the profession have justly 
entitled him to be acknowledged the "Father of Pharmacy" in America. 

Resolved, That we all unite in regretting the loss of one who has been re- 
moved so early from the field of his usefulness. 

Resolved, Therefore, that a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of 
the deceased, to the students of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, class 
1873-74, and to the " Pharmacist" for publication, and that these resolutions 
be filed in the archives of this College. 

Chas. M. Ford, ) 
H. W. Buchman, j 

E. L. Stahl, Jr., }■ Committee. 

F. S. Smith, 
Chas. E. Harlan, J 

Geo. H. Ackerman, Chairman. 
H. A. Warner, Secretary. 

The students of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have requested the 
publication of this communication in the "American Journal of Pharmacy." 



Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — At the 
stated meeting of the Executive Board, held Feb. 12th, 1874, a feeling of deep 
sorrow pervaded every heart on account of the great loss which the Associa- 
tion and the whole pharmaceutical world had sustained in the sudden demise 
of our eminent member, Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr. To give expression to these 
feelings, Joseph P. Remington was appointed to deliver an eulogy upon our 
distinguished member, — who was at once our warm friend, kind counsellor, and 
noble archetype, — at the public reception to the graduating class to be held on 
the evening of March 10th, 1874, at 7^ o'clock. 

William McIntyre, Secretary. 



A Mi?.T;m4 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 141 

Pharmaceutical Society op Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held Feb. 4th, Mr. W. M. Holmes read a note on iodide of iron. A pre- 
scription calling for Potass, iodid., ^i ; Ferri iodid., ^ss ; Syrup tolut., £ij ; A q- 
dest., ad %iv, was compounded by rubbing the iron salt with some reduced 5 
iron and water, filtering, adding the potassium salt, and then the syrup; a pre- 
cipitate occurred in a few minutes. But if the syrup was added before the 
iodide of potassium, the mixture remained clear for several hours, and perma- 
nently clear if the free alkali of the iodide of potassium was neutralized by a 
little citric acid. The author suggests, instead of dispensing solid iodide of 
iron in mixtures, to dissolve an equivalent quantity of iodine in water, using an 
excess of reduced iron. 

An interesting discussion followed involving the question whether the phar- 
macist is justified in such caees to make a slight addition to prevent a decom- 
position which would not occur if the materials were chemically pure. The 
majority of the speakers seemed to take this view, but the President, Mr T. H. 
Hills, suggested that the prescribing physician be informed of this necessary 
addition. 

Messrs. Rimmington, Williams and Hills spoke of the tasteless iron prepa- 
rations as recommended by Mr. J. L. A. Creuse (see Amer. Jour. Phar., 1873, 
p. 214 and 385). These being almost tasteless, beautiful and permanent com- 
pounds, they were recommended to be included in the proposed additions to 
the British Pharmacopoeia, if this would not interfere with any patent right. 

Mr. Bland called attention to the alkaline reaction of all commercial iodide 
of potassium, and believed there was difficulty in getting large-sized crystals 
when the salt was perfectly pure. Mr. Williams said it was quite true that if 
the solution was perfectly pure, bad and ill formed crystals are obtained which 
the public will not have ; in fact, it seemed to be the rule that the more impure 
the solution the better the crystals. Mr. Rimmington said that Mr. Southal! 
had some years ago manufactured iodide of potassium in very large and trans- 
parent crystals ; but Professor Redwood said that all specimens he had ever 
seen had an alkaline reaction. 

Professor Bentley referred to Larch bark and Areca nuts, which are to be 
included in the forthcoming additions to the Pharmacopoeia. The former is 
used as a tanning material, but has been recommended by Dr. Greenhow, about 
ten years ago, in the form of tincture, for checking profuse perspiration and in 
certain bronchial affections; in Ireland the bark, divested of its outer layer, is 
frequently employed in similar cases. Areca or betel nut is known in Great 
Britain for the charcoal it yields, and is used in the preparation of Ceylon cat- 
echu, which was formerly officinal in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. Areca 
nut has also been used as a vermifuge, and is a popular remedy in India, though 
it is but slightingly spoken of in the Pharmacopoeia of India. 

Professor Redwood said that a tincture made of one part of larch bark to 
eight of rectified spirit had been somewhat extensively used in Ireland, the 
dose being 20 to 40 minims. Areca nut is used in the form of powder in doses 
of four to six drachms, mixed with milk, and is regarded by some eminent mem- 
bers of the Medical Council as the most valuable remedy known at the present 
time for the expulsion of tapeworms. 



142 



Editorial. 



< Am. Jour. Pha.rh. 
\ Mar. 1, 1874. 



Mr. Mackay has made tincture of larch bark as far back as 30 years ago. 
The bark should be deprived of the outer portion, and of the woody fibre some- 
"times adhering to it. 

Professor Attfield asked whether the Pharmacopoeia would indicate the fine- 
ness of powder in which areca nut was to be used; but Professor Redwood 
thought this not likely, except, perhaps, for the purpose of making tinctures, 
-&c. ; however, some pharmacists laid great stress on the very minute division 
-of substances administered as powders, and now-a-days, as a rule, they were 
reduced to the finest state of division. 

te *Mr. Urwick had found finely powdered areca nut without effect on pointer 
dogs, while the coarse powder proved effectual. 

Mr. Umney said areca nut could be obtained in a powder which would pass 
through a sieve having 140 meshes per linear inch, powdered rhubarb through 
a sieve of 180 or 190 divisions, while powdered caraway would scarcely pass 
through a sieve much finer than 60 meshes per inch. 

Mr. Candy said that the astringency of larch bark was presumably due to 
tannin. This, therefore, seemed to be a step in the opposite direction to what 
has been sometimes advanced, namely, the employment of active principles 
instead of crude substances. It seemed that the former were not always as 
active as the latter, or there would be no necessity for introducing this article. 



(SMtorial department 



Prosecution under the New York Pharmacy Act. — In the early part of 
January, eight apothecaries, who had refused to be registered in compliance 
with the law, were arrested, and afterwards fined $50 and costs. 



Legal Decision against the Proprietor of a Quack Medicine. — We are 
indebted to the American Agriculturist for an advance proof of the following 
decision by Judge Davis, of the Supreme Court in New York : 
January General Term. 
David Richards, 

Plff. and Appt. Davis, P. J. 

VS. ■ DONOHUE AND DANIELS, 

Orange Judd and others, /. J. 

Deft, and Respt. 

Appeal from order of Special Term, striking out the complaint in this action, 
and dismissing the same with costs, for plaintiff's refusal to answer certain ques- 
tions propounded to him as a witness pursuant to the order of the Court. 

John L. Walker for plaintiff; Amos G. Hull for respondent. 

Davis, P. J. : 

The plaintiff alleges in his complaint, in substance, that he is and has for 
many years been the sole proprietor, owner and manufacturer of articles of 
medicines and merchandise generally and publicly known as Dr. Richau's 
Golden Remedies, which he has for ten years last past manufactured and put 
up and offered for sale and sold, and that by means of extensive advertising 
and the good qualities of such Golden Remedies he has secured large sales 
and profits. 



V 



: %a J r Xmr M *} Editorial 143 

He also alleges that ihe defendants are publishers of a monthly magazine, 
known as the American Agriculturist, and having a circulation monthly of two 
hundred and fifty thousand copies ; that in November, 1872, the defendants 
published in their said magazine a certain libelous article in the fallowing 
words: "Sundry Humbugs. — Our newer readers keep inquiring about the 
trustworthiness of this, that, and the other doctor for various diseases. We 
answer that every so-called physician, every medical institute or college or as- 
sociation that advertises medicine or medical advice, by circular or otherwise, 
•is a quack — in short, a swindle. The whole tribe of those who advertise 4 mar- 
riage guides,' 4 female medicines,' ' advice to the young,' 4 errors of youth,' 4 eye 
•doctors,' 4 ear doctors,' consumption cures,' cancer doctors or medicines, etc., 
etc., are positively quacks and imposters, to whom it is unsafe to address even a 
letter of inquiry ; also that the 4 Golden Remedies' inquired about by several are 
nonsensical quackery. We have not room for a lot more of humbugs on hand, 
but will renew the war upon them in the next volume, and, as hitherto, we ex- 
pect to shield at least all our readers from swindlers, and through them many 
-other people." 

The plaintiff alleged also that the defendants, by means of these words pub- 
lished as hereinbefore set forth, insinuated and meant to be understood by 
those to whom it was published and the public at large, as charging the plain- 
tiff with being a quack, imposter and swindler, and that the said 44 Golden 
Remedies" manufactured solely by the plaintiff were wholly valueless and use- 
less, and possessing no medicinal qualities whatever, and that by means of the 
publication the plaintiff has been injured in his reputation and in his business, 
and been deprived of custom and trade, and lost the sale of goods and profits 
which he would otherwise have made, to his damage, twenty-five thousand 
dollars. 

The defendants, in their answer, admit in substance that they are publishers 
of the American Agriculturist, and that in December, 1872, they published the 
article under the caption of 44 Sundry Humbugs," above set forth. They allege 
a-lso that the publication is substantially true, and was published with good 
motives and for justifiable ends. They also set out in extenso the circulars sent 
forth by the defendant with his 44 Golden Remedies," in which the plaintiff de- 
scribes himself as a physician who has had a general practice in all parts of the 
world ; and aver various facts tending to show that the alleged medicines of 
plaintiff are valueless as remedies for disease, being compounds costing but a 
few cents per bottle, and selling at several dollars, which the public would 
shun if the constituent facts were known. 

The defendants propose in their answer to give evidence of all the various 
facts alleged both in justification and in mitigation of damages. 

Issue being joined, the defendants upon affidavit procured an order and 
summons for the examination of plaintiff as a witness on their behalf before 
the trial. 

On such examination the plaintiff testified that a bottle marked "Doctor 
Richau's Golden Kemedy, No. 2," was one of the medicines he advertises and 
vends to the public. 

He was then asked of what Balsam No. 2 is composed. He refused to an- 
swer the question, on the ground that it was irrelevant, immaterial and a secret 
in his trade. 

The judge directed the plaintiff to answer the question. 

Ele then answered : 44 It is a secret compound composed of various ingredi- 
ents which possess great medicinal properties," and refused to state the names 
of the ingredients. 

He then gave evidence showing that he was not a doctor of medicine, and 
had never received a diploma, and had not been engaged in a general practice 
of medicine in any part of the United States. 

He then testified that he advertised 41 Doctor Richau's Golden Elixir de 
Amour, or Elixir of Love," and on being asked 44 of what is it composed ?" he 
refused to answer. 



144 



Obituary. 



f Aw. Jour. Phabm^ 
t Mar. 1, 1874. 



The Court at Special Terra, after argument, ruled that the plaintiff mu3t an- 
swer the question that had been propounded; and on the question being re- 
peated to him he answered: " It is a secret compound of various ingredients 
which possess great medicinal properties;" and refused absolutely to give any 
other answer. 

On presentation of these facts to the Court it was held that the answer was 
evasive ; and the plaintiff, under the advice of his counsel, refusing to give any 
other answer, the Court ordered his complaint to be stricken out and dismissed 
with costs. 

By the allegations of his complaint the plaintiff had invited an issue as to 
the medicinal qualities and value of the " Golden Remedies." 

The statement of the alleged libel, so far as it pointed directly to plaintiff or 
his remedies, was to the effect that his Golden Remedies" are " nonsensical 
quackery," and it is chiefly of this statement that the plaintiff complains. 

The defendants undertake by their answer to show that this statement is 
true. 

No one can read the circulars of the plaintiff, as proved by himself on his 
examination, without observing the importance of the investigation sought to 
be made. It was competent to disprove the assertions of the circulars and of 
the complaint by ascertaining the ingredients of the several compounds for the 
purpose of showing that they possess no such medical virtues as are claimed by 
plaintiff. For instance, he asseits in his circular that his " Elixir of Love is 
composed of the most powerful ingredients of the vegetable kingdom— harm- 
less, but speedy in restoring healthy action." And again : "It is the fountain 
of youth to old age, the rejuvenator of pristine vigor in the young ; to the bar- 
ren woman of our land it is a special blessing." Indeed, it is impossible to read 
the vulgar and in many respects shameful assertions and instructions that ac- 
company the compounds of plaintiff without being struck with the vileness of 
the impostures. That he can bring an action of libel lor injury alleged to b& 
done io his trade in his medicines by denouncing them as arrant quackery, and 
at the same time protect himself against exposure by claiming them to be val- 
uable secrets, is a proposition that cannot be maintained. Byrn vs. Judd, 11 
Abbots, New Series ; 11 New York, 347, New Series. 

In the laudable exposure of such " humbugs" as the pretended medicine of 
plaintiff and others, the defendants take upon themselves great risks, and sub- 
ject themselves to the annoyance of suits; but I think they are not exposed to- 
any danger that courts will interpose any shield for the protection of parties 
guilty of fraud and deception of the public. 

If the plaintiff did not choose to try the question of the true character of his 
" Golden Remedies," he should have kept out of a court of justice. 

The order of the Court below was correct, and should be affirmed with $10" 
costs and disbursements. 



OBITUARY. 

Professor William Procter, Jr., died February 10th, of heart disease, at 
the age of 57. On the preceding evening he had lectured at the College, and 
retired near midnight apparently in his usual health ; about half an hour later 
he had breathed his last. Attended by numerous friends, by the students and 
members of the College, and by delegations from the Maryland College, the 
New Yoik College, and the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, his mor- 
tal remains were conveyed to Mount Holly, N. J. For a period of thirty-seven 
years his labors have aimed at raising the status of pharmacy, and have been 
of such importance and lasting value that the deceased may justly be regarded 
as the father of American pharmacy. In a future number we shall give a bio- 
graphical sketch, referring for the present to the obituary notices contained in 
the preceding pages. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



APRIL, 1874. 



THE BALSAM OF LIQUIDAMB AR STYRACIFLUA. 
By William Landon Harrison, G. P. 
An Inaugural Essay. 

This balsam, commonly known as sweet gum, is a natural exuda- 
tion from Liquidambar gtyraciflua, a tree belonging to the natural 
order Hamamelacce, sub-order Balsamifluce (Gray). It is indigenous 
to nearly all parts of the United States, growing most abundantly in 
the southern portion. It seems to prefer moist localities, as swamps, 
the banks of rivers, etc., though it is often found in elevated situa- 
tions and quite distant from water. In favorable situations, and 
when matured, it reaches the height of fifty to sixty feet, w r ith a 
diameter of two to four feet. 

The trunk is covered with a grayish, deeply-furrowed bark, and 
the branches have thick corky ridges running their entire length. 
The leaves are palmate, deeply five- to seven-lobed ; lobes pointed, 
smooth and shining ; of a bright green color, becoming crimson in 
autumn. 

The flowers are mostly monoecious, in globular heads or catkins ; 
the sterile arranged in a conical cluster, naked, stamens numerous, 
filaments short. The fertile flowers consist of many two-celled, two- 
beaked ovaries, subtended by minute scales in place of calyx, all 
more or less cohering and hardening in the fruit, forming a spheri- 
cal catkin ; styles two ; ovules many, but only one or two perfecting. 

The balsam is obtained from incisions in the bark. As it first ex- 
udes it is of a yellowish color, and of the density of thick syrup ; by 
standing it thickens, and after some time becomes darker in color 
and finally perfectly hard. On being broken, in the latter state, the 
fracture presents a variegated appearance, from a dark brown to 
10 



162 Balsam of IAquidambar Styracifiua. { A ™Av?X'wt*' 

spots of a pure white color. It has a pleasant benzoinic odor, and a 
balsamic and somewhat burning taste. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, 
chloroform and fixed oils : its alcoholic solution slightly reddening 
litmus paper. 

With the view of ascertaining its constituents, a specimen, collected 
in south-eastern Virginia, was submitted to the following treatment : 

Four ounces avoirdupois of the balsam, in a semi-liquid state, was 
distilled with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate as long as any 
oil continued to come over. The distillate contained, floating on the 
surface of the water, about half a drachm of colorless oil. 

The liquid remaining in the retort was filtered from the resin, and 
sulphuric acid in slight excess added to decompose the cinnamate of 
sodium. The result was a copious deposit of a light yellowish color. 
This was collected and washed on a filter till free of sulphuric acid ; 
it was then dried and heated with hot petroleum benzin, which dis- 
solved all except a little brown resinous matter. The benzin solution, 
while still hot, was decanted into another vessel, and allowed to cool. 
It was then found to have deposited all the acid, in small, perfectly 
white, needle-shaped crystals. 

The liquid filtered from the precipitate, obtained by decomposing 
the first solution by sulphuric acid, appeared quite cloudy, and by 
tests was found still to contain some cinnamic acid. It was carefully 
evaporated to dryness, and the residue treated with boiling benzin, 
which, on being decanted and allowed to cool, deposited a small 
amount of a white amorphous powder. This was collected, and all 
the benzin having been removed by careful heating, was boiled with 
a small quantity of water. It was readily dissolved, the solution 
giving an acid reaction, and on cooling deposited quite a quantity of 
long, colorless, acicular crystals. These were dried and treated with 
hot benzin, which at once dissolved them, and on cooling deposited 
them in the usual-shaped crystals of cinnamic acid. 

As the decompositions in its amorphous condition were identical 
with those of crystallized cinnamic acid, and as it was converted into 
a crystalline state simply by dissolving in water, in its amorphous 
condition it must have been cinnamic anhydride. 

The amount of impurities in the balsam (consisting of pieces of 
bark, dirt, etc.), was 160 grs. ; this deducted from the original weight, 
4 oz. avoirdupois, leaves 1590 grs. of pure balsam operated upon ; 
the amount of acid obtained was 88 grs., making a yield of about 5J 
per cent. 



AM Ap°r t ! R i ) i874 RM '} Balsam of Liquidambar Sty rati flua. 163 

It agreed with the following reactions of cinnamic acid (see "G-me- 
Uns Hand-Book of Chemistry") : 

Heated on platinum foil, it first fuses and then takes fire, burning 
with a fuliginous flame, and evolving peculiar stifling and irritating 
fumes. Cold oil of vitriol colors it yellow, and then dissolves it with 
evolution of heat, forming a clear brownish liquid, which, on the ad- 
dition of water, deposits a small quantity of a brownish-white pow- 
der (sulpho-cinnamic acid). Hypochlorite of calcium converts it first 
into oil of bitter almonds, with its characteristic odor, and then into 
benzoate of calcium. Sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium 
also convert it into oil of bitter almonds and finally into benzoic acid, 
the same effect being produced by other oxidizing agents. 

The resin remaining after the extraction of the cinnamic acid was 
treated with boiling petroleum benzin, the liquid decanted and al- 
lowed to cool, when a yellowish-white oily-looking mass was deposited. 
This was proven to be styracin, rendered amorphous by heat. The 
vessel containing it and the benzin was set aside in a moderately cool 
place, and allowed to stand for several weeks. On then examining 
it, the yellowish mass was found to have become crystalline, and quite 
a quantity of styracin in clusters of white acicular crystals had been 
deposited on the sides of the vessel above the surface of the benzin. 
The property of being rendered amorphous by heat and recrystalliz- 
ing on standing, as well as the manner of crystallizing above the sur- 
face of the liquid, are mentioned by Ginelin as characteristic of sty- 
racin. The specimen under examination also afforded the following 
reactions of styracin : 

Treated with nitric acid it is changed into a yellowish pulverulent 
substance, evolving at the same time the odor of oil of bitter almonds. 
With sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium it also evolves the 
odor of oil of bitter almonds. Treated with sulphuric acid alone, 
either hot or cold, it is charred. It is completely insoluble in water, 
I either hot or cold, soluble in alcohol, and more freely in ether. It 
does not combine with or dissolve in solution of lime, even at boiling 
heat, neither does it dissolve in solution of ammonia. Heated with 
potassium hydrate, it is converted into cinnamate of potassium, and 
a brown resinous-looking substance, with a pleasant odor, resembling 
that of cinnamon. It does not combine with acids, but is rendered 
more soluble by them, e. g., the solution of one part styracin in eight 
of boiling alcohol becomes turbid on cooling, but is immediately ren- 
dered perfectly clear by the addition of a little sulphuric acid. 



164 Balsam of Liquid ambar Sty raciflua. { AM Xpr UI i, V ml™' 

The volatile oil, styrol, obtained by distillation, seems identical 
with that from storax. It is a carbo-hydrogen, nearly colorless, of a 
peculiar aromatic odor resembling the balsam, and has a persistent,, 
burning taste. It is slightly soluble in water, and imparts to it, in a 
marked degree, its peculiar odor ; very soluble in alcohol, ether and' 
the fixed oils. Sulphuric acid has no marked effect upon it. Treated 
with nitric acid it is converted into a reddish resinous-looking sub- 
stance, evolving an odor almost identical with that of oil of turpentine. 

The resin remaining after the cinnamic acid, styracin and styrol 
had been extracted, was of a dark brown color, nearly odorless and 
tasteless; entirely soluble in alcohol and ether and insoluble in bisul- 
phide of carbon. 

In the American Journal of Pharmacy for May, 1860, Mr. W. P.- 
Creecy, of Mississippi, in an inaugural essay on this balsam, states- 
that the acid obtained by sublimation gave no odor of oil of bitter- 
almonds when treated with hypochlorite of calcium, and hence he 
concluded that it was benzoic acid. Not having been able to detect 
the presence of benzoic acid in the balsam, and doubting its exist- 
ence, the above-mentioned experiment was repeated in this case, but 
with different results. A portion of the balsam was mixed with sand 
and carefully heated in Mohr's apparatus for benzoic acid. A sub- 
limate was obtained, consisting of white acicular crystals, with a 
slight empyreumatic X)dor. A portion was treated with hypochlorite 
of calcium, and at once gave the decided and characteristic odor of 
oil of bitter almonds, thus proving that it was cinnamic and not ben- 
zoic acid, as averred by Mr. Creecy. 

If benzoic acid exists in the balsam at all, it must be in very min- 
ute quantity, as all the methods applied failed to detect it.* 

The use of petroleum benzin in obtaining cinnamic acid in a pure 
state (a suggestion of Prof. Mafsch) was found highly, preferable to 
alcohol, which is the solvent recommended by Gmelin and others. 
Benzin dissolves only the acid, and on cooling deposits it in a pure 
state, free of all traces of resin and coloring matter. Alcohol also 
dissolves the acid, but takes up along with it the adhering resin, ren- 
dering it difficult to purify. The acid is also more soluble in alcohol 
than in benzin, and hence the loss in the mother liquid is greater. 

* See also Prof. Procter's paper in the American Journal of Pharmacy* 
1866, p. 37. 



fe r °T;m A 4 RM "} Balsams of L. Styraciflua and Orientate. 165 

The same advantages from the use of benzin will also be observed in 
extracting styracin. 

The foregoing experiments serve to show the very close analogy 
between the balsam of Liquidambar styraciflua and that of L. orien- 
tate. In this case the balsam of the former was treated in the manner 
given by Grmelin in the examination of storax, and precisely the same 
result obtained, and in similar quantities. The balsam also somewhat 
resembles storax in its physical properties ; the tree producing it be- 
longs to the same natural order, and hence it is natural to conclude 
i;hat by a proper treatment of the fresh bark, a product similar to, 
:and answering all the purposes of, liquid storax, may be obtained. 



ON THE BALSAMS OF LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND 

ORIENTALE. 

By John M. Maisch. 

The experiments detailed in the essay of Mr. Harrison, and the 
-interesting results obtained by him, leave no doubt of the identity of 
the balsamic exudations as obtained from the Asiatic and American 
species of the genus Liquidambar. The difference in their physical 
appearance is readily accounted for by the different methods employed 
in obtaining the storax of commerce, and the so-called sweet gum of our 
Southern States. While the latter, even after having become dark- 
colored by exposure, is perfectly transparent in thin layers, the former 
is of a peculiar grey color and opaque, until the water which it con- 
tains has been expelled by heat or allowed to settle by long standing, 
in which latter case the lower stratum will retain the opacity of the 
commercial article, while the superior stratum will have assumed the 
perfect transparency which the natural exudation of L. orientate un- 
doubtedly possesses, though the color of the latter is likely to be and 
remain lighter than that of the clarified storax. If these premises 
are correct, it was to be expected that the introduction of water into 
the sweet gum should produce an opaque article, resembling storax in 
appearance. An experiment made by Mr. Harrison at the laboratory 
-of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, proved the correctness of 
the inference stated ; when sweet gum was heated in a water-bath, 
together with a small quantity of water, and frequently stirred, the 
balsam assumed a grey color, and remained opaque after cooling. I 
cliave no doubt that the resemblance to storax will be still greater if 



166 Balsams of L. Styraciflua and Orientate. [ Ax j^iiuSS!! m 

the recent bark of Liquidambar styraciflua is properly comminuted 
and carefully steamed or digested in warm water and afterwards ex- 
pressed. 

Several other experiments made by Mr. Harrison deserve to be 
mentioned, as possessing considerable interest. 

In 1871, while preparing the proximate principles of storax, I ob- 
served the solubility of styracin in petroleum benzin, and at the Feb- 
ruary (1872) meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ex- 
hibited* some of the products obtained, among them styracin prepared' 
by the processes of Simon and of Toel, which could not be obtained 
pure by crystallization from alcohol without sustaining great loss 
also styracin which had been obtained from storax previously ex- 
hausted by carbonate of sodium, by treating the residue directly with 
hot petroleum benzin, which on cooling deposited it at once pure. It 
may be mentioned here that this storax residue was repeatedly treated 
in the same manner, when it was observed that the later deposits were 
amorphous, but became crystalline after some time, the interval be- 
coming longer after each subsequent treatment, until finally a portion 
was obtained but slightly yellowish in color, rather soft and perfectly 
transparent ; in this portion the change into the crystalline state did 
not commence until about two years after the experiment had been 
made, and even now, after a period of thirty-two months, has not 
been completed, notwithstanding the mass has been occasionally stir- 
red. The statement of Toel that fused stvracin which refuses to 

%/ 

crystallize, congeals rapidly into stellately arranged needles, on being, 
touched with a pointed instrument, must be modified with the proviso 
that the heat be not applied too long or too frequently after short in 
tervals. 

After Mr. Harrison had observed cinnamic acid to be readily solu- 
ble in hot petroleum benzin, he proved also, experimentally, that this 
acid and styracin are taken up together, from sweet gum as well as 
storax, by the menstruum mentioned, and crystallize together on cool- 
ing; the snow-white crystals yielded t} dilute ammonia all the cinnamic 
acid, leaving the styracin behind, and the ammoniacal solution giving 
with muriatic or sulphuric acid a white precipitate of cinnamic acid. 
This appears to be by far the quickest way of obtaining perfectly 
pure cinnamic acid from storax, if the loss of styrol is of no conse- 
quence ; and, in case styracin is not desired, the mixture of styracin* 



*See Amer. Journ. of Pharra., 1872, p. 134. 



AM \p? u i,"m£ RM } Cortex Juglandis Oinereee. 167 

and cinnamic acid may be distilled with caustic soda solution, when 
styron (cinnamic alcohol) is found in the distillate, while the residuary 
alkaline liquid, on being supersaturated with muriatic acid, yields all 
the cinnamic acid. 

Treatment of either of the two balsams with hot solution of sodium 
carbonate removes all cinnamic acid ; the styracin obtained from the 
residue of sweet gum by petroleum benzin was found by Mr. Har- 
rison not to contain any free cinnamic acid, and the styracin pre- 
pared by me from storax in 1871 was equally pure. 

The so-called sweet gum is used medicinally in some sections of 
our Southern States, as it seems, principally as a stimulating expec- 
torant. Mr. Oscar L. Smith, in a letter dated Savannah, Ga., Sept. 
30, 1873, informed me that it is popular there with physicians, who 
employ it in the form of syrup or tincture ; both preparations are 
made by the formulas of the U. S. P. for the corresponding prepara- 
tions of tolu, and are used in about the same manner as the latter. 
Near Savannah the balsam is collected by negroes, but the supply is 
frequently inadequate for the demand. 



CORTEX JUGLANDIS CINE RE jE. 
By Edward Seymour Dawson, Jr., G. P. 
Condensed from an inaugural essay. 
The butternut tree is found throughout the New England, Middle 
and Western States, and Canada, growing in rich woods, on elevated 
river banks, and on cold uneven rocky soils. Early in the spring, im- 
mediately before the leaves unfold, a saccharine juice, which furnishes 
a good sugar, is obtained by tapping the tree. The wood of the tree 
is light, of a reddish hue, not apt to become worm-eaten, and is often 
used in paneling and ornamental work. The fruit, collected previous 
to its ripening, is used by many persons in the form of a pickle, and 
in Germany, as I have been informed, the fruit of Juglans regia is 
macerated in liquor with spices, and thus furnishes a sort of elixir 
which is used as a tonic in dyspepsia. The bark of the tree, and 
husks of the nuts, furnish a dye of a chocolate color for woolen goods. 
The bark and leaves of the tree are, practically, the only medicinal 
portions, but the former only is recognized by the U. S. Pharmaco- 
poeia, under the name of " Juglans" and it is directed that the inner 
bark of the root collected in May or June, should be used, but, from 
my observations, bark collected in July, is as efficacious as that col- 



168 



Cortex Juglandis Cinerece. 



( Am. Jotjr. Pharm. 
t Apr. 1, 1874. 



lected earlier. I would not recommend the use of bark that has 
been collected earlier than May, for I found that some collected in 
April yielded an extract which had a sweetish insipid taste, and was 
decidedly less strong than that made from bark collected later. The 
bark used for my analysis was obtained from the stem of the tree, 
and was collected during the month of July, 1873. It was from f to 
|- of an inch thick, and consisted of a liber ranging from J to J inch 
in thickness, which was covered with a grayish-colored corky layer. 
The corky layer was marked with irregular longitudinal fissures, and 
penetrated very unevenly into the liber. When first taken from 
the tree the liber was wJiite, but on exposure to the air, it first ac- 
quired a lemon-yellow, and ultimately a deep brown, almost black 
color. The odor was quite strong and peculiar, and the taste was 
bitter and very acrid. When the liber is chewed, it stains the saliva 
yellow, and leaves a brownish stain upon the tongue. Having freed 
the liber from the layer of cork, I carefully dried it, and, upon exam- 
ining it; found that its inner surface was quite smooth, that its trans- 
verse fracture was somewhat fibrous, and that its longitudinal fracture 
was quite uneven. A cross section of the liber shows the bast fibres 
to be placed tangentially, and it has a checkered appearance, which 
is caused by the radial medullary rays crossing the tangential rows 
of bast fibres. In the fresh, undried bark, the fracture shows white 
edges, which quickly change color from lemon-yellow to brown, but 
in the dry bark the fractured edges do not change color, unless they 
be moistened with water. Unless the bark is dried immediately after 
being collected, it becomes of a deep brown color throughout, and 
loses its bitter, acrid taste, and acquires an insipid, resinous taste. 
Whether this change of color and taste affects the medicinal virtues of 
the bark, I cannot say, but I would recommend that the bark be 
dried at once after collection. While trimming the bark, my hands 
were stained a decided brown color, which I found very difficult to 
remove. Butternut bark possesses mild cathartic properties, and has 
acquired considerable reputation in bowel affections, particularly in 
cases of dysentery. It is given in the form of decoction or extract, 
never in substance. An extract of the bark is officinal in our Phar- 
macopoeia under the name of extractum juglandis, and when given in 
doses of grs. v — x, acts as a laxative, and in doses of grs. xx — xxx, 
as a purge. Under the name of juglandin, there appears in com- 
merce an eclectic resinoid, which is obtained by exhausting the offici- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Apr. 1, 1874. J 



Cortex Juglandis Cinerece. 



169 



oal bark with alcohol (sp. gr. -835), mixing the resulting tincture with 
half its bulk of water, distilling off the alcohol, and then removing the 
resin, which is suspended in the aqueous residue, and washing and 
drying it. This resin, in doses of grs. 2 — 5, is said to act as a 
diuretic and cathartic, but that which I obtained, when taken in 5 
^rain doses, had more of a diuretic effect than cathartic, and I do not 
think that any decided medicinal virtues can be attached to it. But- 
ternut bark has for a long time been used in domestic practice, and 
by that means, probably, became known to our medical profession, 
with whom, at one time, it enjoyed considerable reputation, but has 
now become almost obsolete with our city physicians, although it is 
still used to quite an extent by country practitioners. I have found 
that a tincture of the bark, of such a strength, that fl. § xvi of it will 
represent two troy ounces of the powdered drug, (the menstruum 
being diluted alcohol), forms a handsome, permanent preparation, and 
when given in doses of fl. gi — ij, acts most decidedly as a cathartic. 
A fluid extract made according to the Pharmacopoeia formula for ex- 
tract, cinchonse fl., forms a preparation which fully represents the 
•odor, taste, and medical properties of the bark. 

Mr. C. 0. Thiebaud, in 1872,* made a very interesting investiga- 
tion of the constituents of butternut bark, and found, among others, 
a volatile acid: juglandic acid, which he considered allied to chryso- 
phanic acid, and also an acid crystallizing in flat tabular crystals. 
The solvent used by him in isolating the above constituents, was true 
benzole. In prosecuting my analysis of the bark, I followed, to a 
certain extent, the course adopted by Mr. T., substituting, however, 
petroleum benzin for a solvent in place of benzole, but the results of 
my investigation do not entirely correspond with his. 

In the cold infusion, which had an acrid taste, the author found 
neither albumen or alkaloid ; to the incompatibles mentioned by Mr. 
Thiebaud (loc. cit. p. 255), Mr. Dawson adds potassium ferrocyanide, 
mercuric chloride and tartar emetic ; gelatin likewise produced a pre- 
cipitate, and tannin appears therefore to be present. f 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p, 253. 

fThe discrepancy between the statement of Mr. Dawson and Mr. Thiebaud 
may perhaps be explained by the bark used by the former having been care- 
fully and rapidly dried immediately after collection; it is not unlikely that 
thereby the decomposition of the tannin may be partly prevented. — Editor 
Amer. Journ. Ph. 



170 Cortex Juglandis Cinerece. { AM Ap? u i B ; i ? 87t RM * 

Trommer's test indicated sugar in the infusion, which bad dissolved 
about one-sixth of the total weight of the bark, and separated on 
standing and evaporation, some greenish resinous matter. The bark 
exhausted by cold water, yielded starch to boiling water. 

The decoction of the bark resembles the infusion, but is destitute 
of its acrid taste. The precipitate with acetate of lead, when decom- 
posed by H 2 S, evaporated and exhausted by alcohol, furnished on 
evaporation an amorphous black residue, which was precipitated by 
gelatin, ferric chloride and tartar emetic, and therefore contains some 
tannin. The filtrate from the lead precipitate contained principally 
sugar. 

The bark (gj), which had been exhausted with hot water in preparing 
the decoction, was thoroughly dried, and then macerated in petroleum 
benzin, in a warm place for several days, whereby a yellow liquid 
was obtained, which, on evaporation, yielded a rather thick oily resi- 
due. This residue, when entirely free from benzin, was found to 
weigh grams 4 58, which shows for the bark a yield of a trifle 
over 14 per cent, of fixed oil. It has a dark red color, slight odor, 
and a peculiar, slightly pungent taste. At 60° F., it is quite fluid, 
but between 40° and 50° F , becomes partly solid, owing to the sepa- 
ration of a crystalline body, which is probably stearin. At 20° F., 
it solidifies into an opaque crystalline mass. Its specific gravity, ob- 
tained by means of a buckshot, is 0*9 at 55° F. The oil is sparingly 
soluble in 85 per cent, alcohol, almost entirely soluble in absolute al- 
cohol, and freely soluble in ether, chloroform and benzole. It is 
readily saponified by KHO, and, when heated with the latter, yields 
a clear violet-colored solution, which, when diluted with water and 
treated with NaCl, yields a brownish soap that separates and rises to 
the surface. 

Resin. — The troy ounce of bark, exhausted with hot water and 
benzin, was thoroughly dried and then macerated in 85 per cent, al- 
cohol for 7 days. The tincture thus formed was mixed with half its- 
bulk of water and subjected to distillation, till the alcohol was mostly 
removed. From the liquid remaining in the retort, about grams 0*2. 
of a greenish-brown resin was obtained, which weight does not appear 
to represent the whole amount of the resin. 

It is entirely soluble in liquor potasste, forming a deep violet- 
colored solution, from which it is precipitated by acetic acid provided 
the solution is concentrated, but if the latter is diluted it is not af- 



171 Cortex Juglandis Cinerece. { Ax k^5S Hm 

fected by that acid. It is completely precipitated from either strong 
or diluted solutions by hydrochloric acid. 

It seems to be slightly soluble in water, is sparingly soluble in chlo- 
roform, and insoluble in benzin. Ether dissolves about 50 per cent, 
of it. It fuses at 170° F. When heated on platinum foil it first 
fuses, and then takes fire, burning with a smoky, luminous flame. 

Volatile Oil. — A portion of the bark was placed in a retort, mixed 
with a little more than enough water to cover it and subjected to dis- 
tillation, whereby a yellowish distillate was obtained, which had a 
slight acid reaction, and a strong, peculiar, aromatic odor. From 
this, by cohobation, I finally obtained a colorless liquid, on the sur- 
face of which minute globules of oil could be seen floating. The 
odor of the volatile oil is peculiar, and not very pleasant. The yield 
was so very small that I could not determine anything in regard to it. 

Volatile Acid. — About one troy ounce of the bark was treated as 
in the former experiment, and subjected to distillation. Before the 
contents of the retort had begun to boil, I obtained about half a fluid 
ounce of a bright yellow distillate, which was odorless ; this I sepa- 
rated and set aside, and then continued the distillation till about six 
fluid ounces of a nearly colorless distillate had been obtained. The 
distillate first obtained was agitated with ether, till the latter ceased 
to be colored, and the ethereal solution was drawn off. This had a 
bright yellow color, and, on evaporating the ether, yielded an orange- 
yellow residue in which were numerous long acicular crystals, which 
had an acid reaction, and a hot, acrid taste. When treated with 
liquor potassse, the crystals acquired a deep-violet color. This vola- 
tile acid probably constitutes the acrid principle of the bark, therefore 
we can readily understand why a long-boiled decoction of the bark 
is devoid of an acrid taste. The second portion of the distillate was 
not acid in reaction, and was not subjected to further investigation. 
It would almost seem as if this volatile acid was decomposed at the 
boiling point of the decoction, inasmuch as the condensed vapor of 
the liquid in the retort ceased to have a yellow color the moment 
the latter began to boil, and, also, ceased to have an acid reaction. 

A fresh portion of bark, when treated with petroleum benzin, 
yielded an oily extract, from which neither alcohol or diluted alcohol 
would separate any crystalline principle. The extract, distilled with 
water, yielded a light yellow distillate, from which ether took up an, 
oily matter which was not colored purple by alkalies. But the water 



172 Loss of Weight in Drying Air-dry Drugs, { A ^ r °X'?m™' 

in the retort was deep red, and ether dissolved from it an olive-brown 
amorphous mass, becoming violet by alkalies. No better results were 
obtained on saponifying the oil with potassa, removing the soap by 
salt, acidulating with acetic acid and treating with ether ; the residue 
was acrid, amorphous, of an acid reaction, colored violet by alkalies 
.and stained the hands. 

Commercial benzole was not employed by the author, because he 

[ observed it to leave a crystalline residue on spontaneous evaporation. 
Air-dry bark yielded 5*3 per cent, of ashes, containing aluminium, 
magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium, combined with carbonic, 
sulphuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and silicic acids. 

Note by the Editor. — The results obtained by Messrs. Thiebaud 

i and Dawson leave no doubt that the juglandic acid of the former is 
identical with the nucin of A. Vogel, Jun., and Reischauer (see 
'Gmelin's Chemistry, Cav. edit., vol. xvii, p 20), obtained from green 
walnut peel, and which is very readily altered in the presence of that 
principle, which in contact with the air, rapidly becomes brown-black, 
and which J. A. Buchner* named juglandic acid, but he did not succeed 
in isolating it. Nucin being sublimable at a temperature exceeding 
80° C. (176° F.), its appearance in the watery distillate from the 
bark is easily accounted for, so that the volatile acid of Dawson and 
Thiebaud must be identical with the juglandic acid of the latter, as 

| proven by the former by the behavior to alkalies. According to 
Reischauer and Vogel, subacetate of lead and alkaline borates and 
phosphates impart to nucin a beautiful purple red color, the same as 
caustic alkalies. 



ON THE LOSS OF WEIGHT BY THE DRYING OF AIR-DRY 

DRUGS. 

By George W. Kennedy, G. P. 

In the April number of the "Journal" of 1872, page 156, will be 
i found an article by the writer on the amount of moisture contained in 
! air-dry drugs. The experiments were made during the months of 
January and February, and only show the loss and re-absorption for 
; those two months. 



*Buchner's Repertorium, 1843 ; lxxix, 355. 



4 A P J rT'i8 P 7 H 4 ARM } Loss of Weight in Drying Air-dry Drugs. 173 

That examination is inadequate as a guide for the year, as some 
months are wet and others more dry, necessarily causing the drug to 
vary in the amount of moisture it contains. 

Prof. Maisch suggested to me the importance of making a series of 
experiments with a number of drugs in each month during the year, 
for the purpose of ascertaining how much they would vary during wet 
and dry weather,* and thus to determine the importance of using 
only drugs that are thoroughly dried in the manufacture of the many 
galenical preparations, and especially tinctures, syrups and fluid ex- 
tracts and the like, which must vary in strengtn as made from anhy- 
drous or merely air-dry drugs. I give below the results of my expe- 
riments, commencing with January, and continuing during the year 
till December, 1873. 

The operation was conducted in the following manner : The drug 
was weighed from the stock on hand about the first of each month, 
and then exposed to a heat of about 110° Fahrenheit in a common 
cooking stove oven until it ceased losing weight. The loss was noted, 
and the material was then exposed to the atmosphere until the end of] 
the month, when it was re-weighed in order to find out how much| 
moisture had been re-absorbed during the month. It will be found 
upon examination that the quantity of moisture lost and re-absorbed[ 
varies considerably, owing to the condition of* the weather at the time 
when the drug was weighed; for instance, supposing at the first of thel 
month the article was weighed in dry weather, the loss in moisturq 
was invariably smaller than if it were weighed in rainy weather; thenj 
again at the end of the month, when the drug was re-weighed in wet} 
weather, the amount of moisture re-absorbed was always larger. 

The figures presented by the writer are as correct as they possibly! 
can be, care having been taken to avoid the loss of material on th 



*Our suggestion was not, to exsiccate the drugs every month for the pur 
pose of ascertaining the percentage of moisture contained in them, but to makd 
that determination once only, at the beginning of the year, and to reserve an 
other portion of the same drag for the purpose of weighing it once or twice 
month, in order to determine the variation of the actual weight of the drug 
kept in the usual manner throughout the year. It is obvious that the relativ 
strength of the galenical preparations of air-dry drugs would be the same, if th 
actual weight of these drugs did not differ throughout the year, in wet or dr 
weather, &c. ; while in actual medicinal strength they are undoubtedly weake 
than if they had been made from anhydrous drugs. — Editor Amer. Journ. Pe 



174 Loss of Weight in Drying Air-dry Drugs. { k \^™;m?"' 

one hand, and excessive contamination with dust on the other hand. 
Sometimes two or three experiments in drying, &c, were made in or- 
der to satisfy myself that the results were correct. 

In the following tables the I column for each month indicates the 
actual weight obtained from 100 parts of the drugs after drying as 
indicated above ; the II column shows the actual weight of the same 
material at the end of the month ; the difference between these and 
the first figures indicating the amount of moisture re-absorbed during 
the month. The remarks, Dry, Wet, &c, at the head of each column, 
describe the weather on the day the weight was taken : 



DKUGrb. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


Mat. 


Junk. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


ui y . 


Dry. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Damp 


Dry. 


Show- 
ery. 


Dry. 


Dry. 




ury . 


Wet 


1. Roots and R In 


zornes 
























■Colchicum 


88 80 


97-15 


88-20 


96-60 


88-00 


96-00 


88-20 


96-00 


88-90 


96 80 


88-60 


98-50 




89-00 


97-50 


89-60 


98-25 


88-90 


97-15 


89-10 


96-77 


89 50 


97-10 


89 20 


98 00 




88-00 


96-80 


88-00 


97-10 


87-40 


95-80 


88-00 


96-20 


88-20 


96-60 


88 00 


97-00 


Podophyllum ... 


88-80 


97-05 


88-90 


97-30 


87-80 


96-70 


88-25 


96 05 


88-80 


96 60 


88-50 


97-10 




89 20 


97-45 


89 00 


96-50 


87-90 


97-10 


88-20 


96-80 


89-15 


96 40 


89-75 


97-85 




89-55 


97-45 


88-80 


97-30 


88-10 


96-85 


89-10 


96-00 


89-75 


97-25 


89 65 


98 45 




88-75 


97-00 


88-40 


97-35 


87-00 


96-10 


87-90 


96-15 


88-75 


96-90 


88-00 


97-00 




88-00 


96-33 


88-00 


97-80 


86-00 


95 00 


86-40 


95-15 


87-00 


95-40 


86-80 


96-55 




89-10 


97-10 


88-75 


97-85 


87-90 


96-00 88-80 


96-30 


89-00 


96-20 


88-50 


97-00 


2. Barks. 


























Cinchona rubra 


89-80 


97-30 


89 30 


97-70 


88 10 


96-00 


88-80 


95-20189-00 


95-00 


89-00 


96-90 


Cinnamomum . 


89-10 


96-98 


89-00 


97-75 


88-00 96-10 


88-50 


96-50 


88-90 


96 00 


88-80 


97-30 


Prunus Virgin. 


89-67 


97-57 


89-60 


98-00 


88-50 96-70 


89-25 


96-65 


89 20 


96 70 


89-70 


97-70 




89-25 


97-35 


89-00 


97-90 


87-20 


95-00 


89-10 


96-45 


89-00 


94-20 


89-00 


97-20 


3. Leaves. 




























87-00 


95-25 


88-00 


97-00 


86-50 


95-00 


87-00 


95-10 


88 00 


96-00 


87-80 


96-70 


Belladonna 


86-25 


95-25 


87 50 


96-75 


85-60 


94-70 


87-00 


95-20 


88-50 


96-60 


89 00 


97-95 




88-75 


96-45,89-00 97-50 


87-80 


96-30 


89-00 


96-20 


89-25 


96-15 


89-00 


97-75 


Digitalis 


88-00 


96-00' 


88-75197-75 


86-00 


95-00 


87-50 


95-50 


88-50 


95-50 


88-00 


97-00 


Hyoscyamus 


88-00 


96-20 88-00 97-10 


87-20 


95-95 


88-10 


96-30 


88 25 


96-25 


88-20 


97-20 




88-20 


96 00 88 25 


96-65 


86-80 


94-40 


89-00 


96-80 


89-00 


96-25 


89 75 


97-95 




89-67 


97-07 89-00 


97-90 


88-80 97-00189-25 


96 85 


89-20 


96-60 


89-60 


98-35 


4. Flowers. 


























Anthemis 


90 00 


97-10 


89-00 


97-65 


88-40|96-80 


89-25 


96-95 


89-80 


97-10 


89-75 


97-85 




89-75 


97-25 89-20 


97-30 


88-70 


96-37 


89-00 


96-50 


90-00 


97-50 


89-75 


97-70 


5. Seeds. 




























89-75 


97-75 90-00 


98-00 


b8-20 


96-20 


88-80 


96-20 


89-00 


96-25 


89-20 


97-30 


Stramonium.... 


91.40 


98-40|90 00 


97-00 


89-80 


96-70 


89-90 


96-45 


90-00 


96-00 


90-00 


98-00 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Apr. 1, 1874. J 



Extemporaneous Pharmacy. 



175 



DRUGS. 



1. Roots and R hi 

Colchicum 

Gentiaaa 

Lappa 

Podophyllum... 

Rheum 

Senega 

Serpentaria 

Taraxacum 

Valeriana 

2. Barks. 
Cinchonarubra 
Cinnamnmum.. 
Prunus Virgin. 
Sassafras 

3. Leaves. 

Aconitum 

Belladonna 

Buchu 

Digitalis 

Hyoscyamus.... 

Senna Alex 

Uva ursi 

4. jblowers. 

Anthemis 

Arnica 

5. Seeds. 

Colchicum 

Stramonium 



July. 



Dry. 



zomes 
88-80 
89 20 
88 20 

88- 10 

89- 60 
89-25 

88 80 
86-90 

89 00 

89 75 
88 80 
89-25 
88-90 

88-20 

88- 75 

89- 30 
88-25 

88- 25 

90- 00 

89- 60 

89-67 
89-40 

89-90 
89-80 



II. 



Very 
wet. 



98-80 
98 00 
98-20 

97- 70 

98- 30 
98-65 
97-90 

96- 90 

97- 65 

97-60 
97-55 
97-25 

97- 50 

98- 20 
98 55 
98-20 

97- 75 

98- 00 
98-00 
98-10 

97 67 
98-15 

98-00 
98-20 



August. 



Wet. 



Wet. 



96- 90 
98-00 
98-70 
98-00 

97- 75 

96- 75 

97- 40 
97-75 
97 25 
97-20 
97-20 

97.75 
97-75 

97-00 
97-40 



September. 



Dry. 



88- 20 

89- 20 
88-35 
88-75 
88-75 
88-90 
88-20 
86-50 
88-50 

88- 90 

89- 00 
89-50 
88-80 

88-10 
88-75 
88 90 
88-00 

88- 00 

89- 00 
89-10 

89-75 
89-35 

89- 50 

90- 00 



Dry. 



96- 70 

97- 20 
97-90 
96 95 

97-30 
97-80 
97-65 
97-00 
96-90 

96- 85 

97- 35 

97-65 

96- 50 

97- 60 

98- 00 



October. 



Damp 



88-00 
88-25 

87- 80 

88- 15 
88-20 
88-20 
88-00 
84-75 
88-10 

88-50 

87- 90 

88- 00 
87-75 

87-50 

87- 20 

88- 10 
87-00 

87- 60 

88- 20 

88- 50 

89- 00 
88-50 

88- 80 

89- 60 



Wet. 



97-25 
97-90 
97 25 
97-35 

97-50 
97-70 
97-00 
97-20 
97-20 
97-20 
97-00 

97-25 
97-70 

96- 90 

97- 80 



November. 



Dry. 



89 00 

88- 80 

89- 00 
88 90 

88 00 

87- 90 
89-00 
88 00 

88- 00 
88-40 

88- 75 

89- 00 

88- 90 

89- 50 
9010 



Dry- 



94-40 
96-40 
96-50 
96-00 

96-15 
96-15 
97 00 
96-10 
96-25 
96-30 
96-15 

96-20 
96-40 

96-65 
97 20 



December. 



Dry. 



88- 70 

89- 60 

88 80 

88- 90 

89- 75 
89-10 
88-85 
86-80 

88- 90 

89- 20 

88- 90 

89- 15 

89 00 

88-50 

88- 40 
89 00 

89- 00 

88- 20 

89- 00 

88- 80 

89- 25 

89- 40 

90- 00 
90-20 



98-30 
98-00 
98-45 
98-00 
98-75 
98-60 
98-60 

97 90 
98-40 

97- 20 

98- 70 
98-65 

98 15 



EXTEMPORANEOUS PHARMACY. 
By Willard M. Rice, Jr. 

It is my purpose, in this article, to speak of the great importance 
to pharmacists of a thorough knowledge of this branch of our 
profession, and also to mention some of the abuses into which it 
has fallen. If, as a result of my labors, any one, student or pre- 
ceptor, shall be induced to pay greater attention to this subject, I 
shall be amply repaid. 

One would suppose, if he were unacquainted with the facts of the 
case, that this branch of our profession, at least, would be thoroughly 
mastered by every one engaged in the dispensing and compounding 
of drugs and medicines. But if such a person were to take the 



176 



Extemporaneous Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Phark. 
t Apr. 1, 1874, 



trouble to inquire into the matter, what a lamentable state of affairs 
would be brought to light ! I do not wish to be understood as depre- 
ciating or underrating the standard of knowledge and ability pos- 
sessed by our druggists as a class, — far from it — but it is a fact well 
known to every thoughtful mind, that there are a great many per- 
sons in the ranks of our profession who are terribly deficient in this- 
most important branch. And this is the more inexcusable when 
Colleges and Text books are so plenty and good, offering to all who- 
choose to avail themselves of their privileges the advantages of a 
good sound pharmaceutical education. 

Nor are druggists the only ones to blame in this matter. The pre- 
scription files of any of our retail drug stores will show orders, some 
of them written by men standing high in their profession — 
bright and shining lights of the medical firmament — calling for 
the administration of drugs not only chemically, but often pharma- 
ceutically incompatible. But it is to the case of the druggist that E 
wish to call attention more particularly at this time. It oftentimes 
happens that the exhibition of two or more articles in combination 
depends mainly, and even entirely, for its success upon the skilful 
manner in which the prescription is compounded. In such a case 
how important it is to know just " what to do," and " how to do it ! " 
The health, and oftentimes the life itself of the patient may be in 
our hands, and woe be unto us if we prove recreant to the great trust 
reposed in us ! What a cause of poignant grief and self-recrimina- 
tion it would be to know that our criminal neglect of the means of 
knowledge within our reach has been the means of hurrying some 
soul, perhaps unprepared, into the presence of its maker and its 
judge. 

But it falls to our lot not only to compound and dispense cor- 
rectly and knowingly, but it is also laid upon us to correct the 
oftrepeated mistakes of prescribers. This is a matter of much 
delicacy, and requiring a great deal of individual tact, as no set 
of rules can be laid down to guide us in these cases. We are 
sometimes startled by having handed to us a prescription calling for 
a large quantity of some poisonous alkaloid, for example, and unac- 
companied by any directions for use, (a neglect, by the way, of what 
is evidently right and duty in most cases at least, that is strangely 
prevalent at present). In this case we are compelled either by adroit 
questioning to get some idea of the manner in which the medicine is* 



AM ApH; m** 11 " } Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. 177 

to be used from the person bringing the prescription, without at the 
same time exciting his or her suspicions on the subject, or else, 
pleading necessary delay, we have to consult the physician himself. 
In this latter case how often are we treated as if it were a criminal 
act to be careful and particular in dispensing deadly articles. 

Again, a prescription may be handed to us with the remark, "please 
hurry, as the doctor is waiting to administer the first dose himself." 
Upon looking at the manuscript we find that it has evidently been 
hastily scrawled with lead pencil, probably at the bedside of the pa- 
tient, and only by much study, and some " guesswork," are we able 
to make it out. I venture to say that all of my professional brethren 
have gone through this experience. 

But examples such as these might be multiplied to an almost in- 
definite extent — let these suffice. It remains for us to consider the 
remedy or remedies for this state of affairs. This I leave to older 
and more^experienced heads than mine, only hoping that my humble 
endeavor may have the effect of calling attention to the great need of 
practical instruction in extemporaneous pharmacy in our pharma- 
ceutical schools and colleges, and also in the store. There are some 
proprietors who insist on making all their preparations themselves, and 
even boast of so doing, thus giving their students no means of acquiring 
practically a knowledge of the daily routine of the laboratory. How 
these parties can expect to train up thorough pharmacists is more 
than the writer of this can understand. 

Nor is this all that is needed. Who doubts that if a course of 
practical pharmacy formed a part of the curriculum of our medical 
schools there would be fewer deaths from " mistakes " to record. 

And may we all, physicians and druggists, remember that we shall 
be called upon hereafter to account for " the deeds done in the body," 
and may we realize that it is our bounden duty to make the most of 
our advantages, and to acquire as thorough a knowledge as possible 
of our avocations. 

Philadelphia, March, 1874. 



DISINFECTANTS, ANTISEPTICS AND DEODORIZERS. 
By Adolpii W. Miller, M D., Ph. D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting March 1 7th. 

The above terms appear to be regarded by many as being almost 
synonymous in their meaning, and consequently they are freely in- 

11 



178 Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. { Aa A$?^i,* Sri" 

terchanged. Inasmuch as each of them indicates a different action' 
and applies to a special class of substances, it may further scientific- 
accuracy to define the peculiar signification of these words with 
greater precision. 

A deodorizer, deodorant or antibromic is evidently a body which 
has the property of destroying offensive odors, whether it be by chem- 
ical action or by merely absorbing fetid gases. 

An antiseptic is a body which prevents or checks putrefaction. 

The word disinfectant, the most popular term of the three, applies 
literally only to those agents which are capable of neutralizing mor- 
bific effluvia. Dr. Henry Hartshorne tersely defines that substance 
to be a disinfectant, which destroys either a noxious material itself,, 
or the pabulum upon which it subsists. As it is, however, still an 
open question, whether we possess any chemicals which have the 
power of destroying disease germs, at least in that state of dilution 
in which it is practicable to employ them, the term disinfectant is 
frequently used in a somewhat more liberal sense. Thus, Dunglison 
includes under it also antiseptics, or agents that are capable of re- 
moving any incipient or fully formed septic condition of the living 
body. We regret to observe that even in the revised and recently 
published edition of this standard work, no alteration has been made 
in this definition, which we conceive to embrace entirely too much 
latitude of meaning. 

Dr. Squibb has proposed the new word azymotic, contracted from 
the French antizymotique, in order to express the peculiar effect of 
carbolic and cresylic acids on those low organic forms, whose life is 
intimately connected with fermentation. The difference in meaning 
between azymotic and antiseptic is clearly shown by their etymology 
— the one expressing the absence of fermentation, the other the pre- 
vention of putrefaction. The new term seems to be a fortunate one, 
although it would have been better not to have altered the prefix of 
the French word, since in its present form it indicates only negation,, 
while anti distinctly defines opposition. We may note, in passing,, 
that the flexibility and abundant resources of the German language 
have been amply sufficient to express the precise meaning of antizy- 
motic by the term galirungswidrig, without the necessity of borrowing 
from a foreign idiom. 

Charcoal and dry earth may be given as examples of simple deo- 
dorizers ; they are disinfectants only in so far that they prevent the 



AM ::lTiJm M s Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. 179 

escape of morbid particles when they mechanically enclose them. 
They have neither antiseptic nor azymotic properties, since, accord- 
ing to Grace Calvert's experiments, charcoal positively favors putre- 
faction and the production of vibriones. 

Glycerin and chloride of sodium may be considered as antiseptics, 
both being practically used for preserving meat and^other animal sub- 
stances. Neither of them possess a notable influence on the produc- 
tion or destruction of disease germs, so that they are not true disin- 
fectants — at least not in the restricted signification of the word — nor 
can either of them be ranked as a deodorizer. 

Cresylic and carbolic acids may possess disinfectant, antiseptic and 
azymotic properties to an eminent degree ; but they are certainly not 
deodorizers, though they frequently disguise or mask an unpleasant 
odor by their own inherent abominable stench. 

Superheated steam, or an elevated dry temperature, is perhaps the 
most reliable disinfectant that we possess. Both are also azymotic, 
as they destroy the vitality of the organic forms on which fermenta- 
tion depends ; but they have only a very slight antiseptic effect, un- 
less the amount of moisture, which is requisite for putrefaction, is 
withdrawn from the tissues by continued exsiccation. Neither dry 
nor moist heat can be regarded as deodorizers, as they have no influ- 
ence towards fixing or decomposing offensive gases. 

We see thus that the bodies, which are usually collectively called 
disinfectants, may possess but a single one of the four qualities 
enumerated above; more frequently they have two of them and some- 
times three, but rarely, if ever, the entire four. 

A highly interesting series of experiments, made by F. Grace Cal- 
vert, tends to elucidate this point still more clearly. As his valuable 
papers have a direct bearing on this subject, it may prove profitable 
to present a condensed abstract of them. 

The experiments were conducted in small glass tubes, which had 
been carefully cleaned and heated to redness. 26 grams of a mix- 
ture, consisting of 4 parts of water to 1 of egg albumen, were intro- 
duced into each of them. 26 milligrams of the substances experi- 
mented with were subsequently added, being equivalent to 001. 
Immediately after the mixing a drop of the liquid, was examined 
under a microscope with a power of 800 diameters ; this was repeated 
daily for the succeeding 39 days, and occasionally for the following 
80 days. 



180 Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. { AM Ap? u i,'m4 RM ' 

The results arrived at may be summarized as follows: Only car- 
bolic and cresylic acids prevented the formation of both mould and 
vibriones. The chlorides of zinc and mercury, and sulpho-carbol- 
ate of zinc, prevented the generation of protoplasmic life, but not of 
mould. Lime, sulphate of quinia, pepper and hydrocyanic acid ad- 
mitted of the production of vibriones, but not of mould. A fourth 
class of bodies had no antagonistic effect on either of them, compris- 
ing sulphurous, sulphuric, nitric, arsenious and acetic acids, caustic 
soda, potassa and ammonia, the chlorides of sodium, calcium and 
aluminium, hypochlorite of calcium, chlorate of potassium, the sul- 
phates of calcium and iron, bisulphate of calcium, hyposulphite of 
calcium, the phosphates of sodium and calcium, permanganate of po- 
tassium, the sulpho-carbolates of potassium and sodium, picric acid, 
turpentine and charcoal. 

Hypochlorite of calcium acted as an antiseptic only when used in 
large excess, by decomposing organic compounds with the evolution 
of nitrogen. The assumption that chlorinated lime renders organic 
substances incapable of putrefaction, is consequently fallacious. On 
the contrary, when used in small proportion, like other agents which 
favor oxidation, it actually promotes decay and the generation of in- 
fusorial life ; but when about four per cent is added, it checks the 
development of animalcules in organic solutions, and also destroys 
the vitality of vaccine lymph. 

Special attention is also called to the action of the sulphate of 
quinia, which, while not interfering with vibrio life, completely ar- 
rests the growth of fungi. As quinia is as near a specific for inter- 
mittent fever as any that we possess, it seems probable that this dis- 
ease is caused by the introduction of the germs of low vegetable forms 
into the system. The prevalence of intermittent fever in marshy dis- 
tricts, contrasted with its rarity in high and dry regions, seems to be 
another argument to strengthen this theory. 

In a second series of experiments, Dr. Crace Calvert employed solu- 
tions of albumen in which organisms had already been formed, to which 
he added one per cent, of the various substances. Cresylic acid com- 
pletely destroyed the vibriones and prevented their reappearance during 
the entire continuation of the trial. Carbolic acid, sulphate of quinia, 
chloride of zinc and sulphuric acid killed almost all the vibriones, 
though a few were observed towards the end of the experiment. Sul- 
pho carbolate of zinc and picric acid were likewise fatal to almost 



Am a^ d i r ,'i874 RM '} Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. 181 

all the vibriones, but did not seem to interfere with their reproduc- 
tion, although after sixteen days the solution contained only about 
half as many as a simple one, which had been reserved for compari- 
son. Chloride of aluminium, sulphurous and hydrocyanic acids be- 
haved in the same manner, but after sixteen days the solutions con- 
tained quite as many vibriones as the simple trial mixture. Hypo- 
chlorite of calcium, chloride of mercury, chlorine water, caustic soda, 
acetic acid, nitric acid, sulphate of iron and sulpho-carbolate of sodium 
at first destroyed a large proportion of the vibriones, but afterwards 
seemed to favor their regeneration to such an extent that these solu- 
tions finally contained more vibriones than the trial mixture. Arseni- 
ous acid, the chlorides of sodium, calcium and potassium, sulphate of 
calcium, turpentine and pepper exerted no effect on these organisms, 
neither at the beginning nor after the sixteen days, during which the 
studies were prosecuted. Lime, charcoal, permanganate of potassium, 
phosphate of sodium and caustic ammonia favored the production of 
both vibriones and moulds. 

We may next examine the peculiar manner in which disinfectants 
accomplish their results. We find that their different modes of action 
may be grouped together under five different classes, as described in 
the following table, which has been compiled by Dr. Henry Harts- 
horne : — 

1st. By the absorption of gases and by preventing their emanations, 
as dry earth, lime and charcoal. 

2d. By neutralizing and fixing sulph-hydric acid, as nitrate of lead. 

3d. By antiseptic action, that is, by arresting putrefactive changes 
in organic matter, as sulphurous acid. 

4th. By decomposing sulph-hydric acid and organic matter, as chlo- 
rine. 

5th. By destroying organic disease germs or morbid poisons of in- 
fection and contagion. 

Substances possessing the properties of the first two classes should 
be called deodorizers, while those embraced in the fifth class have a 
just claim to be considered as disinfectants. The agents included in 
the fourth class act as deodorizers, but may also become true disin- 
fectants if used in sufficiently large proportion. 

It seems to be a curious fact that the oxidation of perfumes and 
volatile oils is generally accompanied by an active ozonization of the 
tmosphere. Prof. Paolo Mantegazza, of Pavia, who has carefully 



182 Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. { A % J £XwT M * 

investigated this subject, says that it is a very convenient method of 
obtaining ozone, as, under the influence of solar light, the essential 
oils will ozonize comparatively large proportions of atmospheric oxy- 
gen. This statement seems to furnish a true basis for the reputation 
which odorous herbs and other perfumes have borne as purifiers of 
the atmosphere since ancient times. The fumigation with aromatic 
gums, which are so liberally indulged in by the Latin church, may 
therefore have a sanitary value in addition to the gratification of the 
olfactory sense by the diffusion of their rich-smelling odor through- 
out the edifice. Dr. Dougall found benzoic acid, which is so large a 
constituent of these gums, to be a more powerful antiseptic than any 
other organic acid. 

The confusion of terms relating to this subject is not by any means 
confined to this country. Thus we find in the German periodicals an 
article on chlorinated lime as a disinfectant, by A. Eckstein, an apoth- 
ecary of Vienna. The only test which he applied for the purpose of 
ascertaining the disinfecting properties of chlorinated lime and other 
chemicals, was the impression produced upon his own olfactory organs* 
The paper has consequently a practical, if not a scientific value, as 
we are all personally interested in the abatement of nuisances and 
the removal of nauseous effluvia to which we are compelled to expose 
ourselves daily. 

Eckstein states that the results of his experiments have convinced 
him that chlorinated lime is the most useful agent for deodorizing 
cesspools, privy wells and excrementitious matter in general. The 
rapidity and energy of its decomposition has so far proved to be an 
obstacle to its regular employment, as the eliminated chlorine vapors 
seriously incommode the respiratory organs of those who frequent the 
localities where it has been applied. In order to overcome this ob- 
jection, Eckstein conceived the idea of employing a cover of a mate- 
rial which is but slowly acted on by lime, but which, by its osmotic 
qualities, mitigates the inhalation of chlorine vapors to such an ex- 
tent that they do not annoy the respiration of even the most sensitive. 
He found a bag made of parchment paper to fulfil these indications 
in the most convenient manner. When such a bag is thrown into a 
well it remains in ihe spot where it has been deposited, as it is too 
heavy to be washed away by the drainings. As it is constantly sur- 
rounded by liquids, it has a local action, which seems to consume the 
chlorine in about the same ratio in which it escapes. 



Am af D i;'i874 M [ Disinfectants, Antiseptics and Deodorizers. 183 

Eckstein experimented for two years with the privy of his house in 
Vienna, which was frequented by at least one hundred persons daily. 
He successively tried a great number of chemicals in various methods, 
with the following results : 

1st. When an aqueous solution of two pounds of iron sulphate was 
poured into the well, the odor of sulph-hydric acid was eliminated for 
several hours. After this time all unpleasant odor had disappeared, 
but within twelve hours the effect of the deodorizer was no longer per- 
ceptible. 

2d. A solution of sulphate of copper behaved in the same manner. 

3d. Two pounds of iron sulphate in crystals exerted a deodorizing 
effect for two entire days ; the same amount of copper sulphate in 
crystals gave analogous results. 

4th. Two pounds of disinfecting powder, composed of a mixture of 
iron and copper sulphates with carbolated lime, acted for only two 
days. 

5th. Sulphurous acid, in a liquid form, was found to be rapidly ef- 
fective, but it proved to be very troublesome to the organs of respi- 
ration for an hour, and it was dissipated within twenty-four hours. 

6th. One ounce of red carbolic acid disseminated a very unpleasant 
tarry odor throughout the entire house for two days ; so that its true 
effects could not be estimated, as one fetid odor was concealed by a 
still worse one. 

7th. Two pounds of iron sulphate in crystals were introduced into 
a parchment bag and put into the cesspool. No result was observed 
until after two hours, and but little sulph-hydric acid was eliminated. 
The place was thoroughly deodorized for three full days. When the 
parchment bag was removed it contained only a turbid, but almost 
inodorous, liquid. 

8th. Two pounds of commercial chlorinated lime, of high test, en- 
closed in a parchment bag, began to deodorize within two hours after 
being deposited. It did not in any manner inconvenience either the 
respiratory or the olfactory organs, while its action extended over a 
period of quite nine days. 

9th. Two ounces of crude permanganate of sodium, used by itself 
in solution, deodorized almost instantly, but all traces of its effects 
had vanished after twenty-four hours. The same preparation, when 
^enclosed in a parchment bag, was active for two days. 

The above data seem to demonstrate conclusively that chlorinated 



184 



Rectification of Alcohol, etc. 



f Am. Jouk. Pharm. 
t Apr. 1, 1874. 



lime, enclosed in a bag of parchment paper, deodorizes not only in 
the most effectual manner, but also for the longest period of time. 
This statement is confirmed by the results of numerous similar inves- 
tigations which have been recently instituted in the Official Chemical 
Laboratory for Public Hygiene of Dresden, in Germany. Many of 
the so-called disinfectants were carefully studied in relation to their 
effects in deodorizing the liquid of manure heaps. Chlorinated lime, 
in conjunction with sulphuric acid, was found to be the most power- 
ful, so that the value of this was taken as the standard, being numeri- 
cally expressed by 100. The results were tabulated as follows : 



Chlorinated lime with sulphuric acid, . . = 100 

Two parts chlorinated lime with seven parts iron sulphate, = 99 

Calcium sulphate with seven parts iron sulphate, . = 92 

Carbolic disinfecting powder, . . . = 85*6 

Slacked lime, 84-6 

Alum, 80-4 

Iron sulphate, .....= 76*7 

Chloralum, . . . . . = 74 

Magnesium sulphate. = 57*1 

Potassium permanganate with sulphuric acid, . . — 51*& 



The report takes special occasion to caution the public against the 
purchase of the English chloralum preparations, on account of the 
disproportion existing between their actual value and the price de- 
manded for them. According to the analyses of Alex. Muller chlo- 
ralum consists of 16 aluminium chloride, 1*7 calcium chloride, 0*1 
alkaline sulphates, 1*2 hydrochloric acid and 80-9 water. Chloralum 
powder contained 13*4 of aluminium chloride, 4*1 of aluminium sul- 
phate, 9*1 calcium sulphate, 14*1 sodium sulphate, 15*5 of alumina 
soluble in hydrochloric acid, 13*5 kaolin, 9-4 silicic acid and 20*9 
water. Muller considers it probable that both articles are obtained 
as by-products in the manufacture of soda. 



ON THE RECTIFICATION OF ALCOHOL BY MEANS OF LIME. 

By Charles Bullock. 

The process usually employed to obtain absolute alcohol, is distil- 
lation of the spirit from quick lime. 

The practical result of the process will appear from the following 
operation. 



A Vr°™mt™' } Rectification of Alcohol, etc. 185 

Fifteen gallons of alcohol, sp. gr. -82361 at 60° F. == 93 per cent, 
was poured upon seventy pounds of well-burned lime, (previously 
broken into small pieces), in a still, heated by a steam jacket. The 
still was then made tight, and heated to about 120° ; after standing 
three days, a worm was attached and distillation commenced, protect- 
ing the distillate from the air. Bach gallon was collected in a sepa- 
rate vessel, the heat being gradually increased as was necessary to 
cause the alcohol to pass over slowly. 

Ten gallons was all that could be made to pass over by steam heat. 
Water was then added to the lime in the still, and most of the alco- 
hol recovered as dilute alcohol. 

The ten gallons of strong alcohol thus obtained was returned to a 
still with twenty-five pounds of quick lime, and the operation as above 
repeated. Eight gallons of alcohol was obtained, separated as before 
in fractional portions of one gallon. 

The specific gravity of the several portions taken on a balance with 
the one thousand grain bottle, temperature at 60° F. is shown in the 



following summary : 






Gallon. 


First Distillation. 


Second Distillation. 


1st. 


•80170 


•80978 


2nd. 


•79756 


•79700 


3rd. 


•79610 


•79461 


4th. 


•79762 . 


•79516 


5th. 


•80040 


•79458 


6th. 


•79593 


•79410 


7th. 


•79782 


•79425 


8th. 


•79632 


•79615 


9th. 


•79706 




10th. 


•79780 




Mean 


•79783 


•79695 



The density of absolute alcohol varies somewhat with different au- 
thorities ; Drinkwater and Fowne give '79381, Tralles, -7939, and 
Gay-Lussac, -7947; taking the mean of these authorities, we have 
•79413. 

It will be seen, on reference to the figures given above, that the 
sixth gallon of the second distillation alone is absolute, according to 
this mean standard, and that the mean of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 
7th gallon of the second distillation is -79425, being within the figures- 
given by Gay-Lussac. 



186 



Notes on Ptyalin. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Apr. 1, 1874. 



It will be noticed that the weakest alcohol distills over first, which 
would lead to the supposition of an affinity of the lime for the stronger 
portion of alcohol, or else water having a greater disposition to va- 
porize in an atmosphere of alcohol vapor. 

The distillates all contain lime, which does not separate on stand- 
ing, the stronger the alcohol the greater appears to be the amount of 
lime present. Redistillation from overdry tartaric acid removes the 
lime, (Gmelin,) and renders the alcohol perfectly clear. 

—Philadelphia, March, 1874. 



NOTES ON PTYALIN. 
By Albert P. Brown, G. P. 

At the pharmaceutical meeting held in January I stated that at 
the suggestion of my friend Dr. Marcy I had experimented with the 
parotid gland of the pig in order, if possible, to obtain ptyalin. 
Ptyalin is found in the saliva, and acts on starch, rapidly changing it 
into glucose. The parotid gland is the "salivatory gland, situated near- 
est the ear, which pours its secretion into the mouth during mastica- 
tion. It is largest in the herbivora, and those animals whose food is 
most difficult of mastication. Its duct, called the duct of Steno, 
opens into the mouth opposite the second molar tooth. 

The parotids were obtained from the butcher immediately after 
killing, chopped fine, macerated in water acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid for twenty four hours, and then separated by filtration. To the 
acidulated solution a saturated solution of sodium chloride was added, 
which caused a precipitate; this was allowed to stand until the precip- 
itate rose to the surface; it was then skimmed off and placed on a mus- 
lin filter to drain, afterwards washed with a weak solution of sodium 
chloride, and then pressed. When all the salt solution had been re- 
moved and the mass was nearly dry, it was rubbed with a quantity of 
milk sugar and then thoroughly dried without heat, after which it was 
diluted with sugar of milk until five grains dissolved in one fluidrachm 
of water would emulsify to fiuidrachms of cod liver oil ; in other 
words, it is prepared in the same manner that pepsin and pancreatin 
are. Ptyalin is most beneficially employed in combination with pep- 
sin and pancreatin, as a promoter of digestion. The hurried manner 
in which nearly all Americans masticate their food interferes with the 
<very first condition to healthy digestion. I have seen some severe 



4.M. Jour. Pharv, ) 
Apr. 1, 1874 / 



Notes on Ptyalin. 



187 



cases of dyspepsia relieved with a few doses of the above combination. 
An elixir can be prepared from ptyalin in the same manner as elixir 
of pepsin and elixir of pancreatin ; and when equal proportions of the 
three elixirs are mixed together and given in dessertspoonful doses, 
immediately before eating, the happiest results are obtained. 

Ptyalin is a substance of the nature of diastase, both having the 
power of converting starchy food into soluble glucose. Diastase acts 
like pancreatin and ptyalin when mixed with cod liver oil. If a 
strong infusion of malt is mixed with cod liver oil, an emulsion is 
formed equal to the one produced when pancreatin or ptyalin is used. 

In order to test the virtue of ptyalin, its action on starch and al- 
bumen was tried with the following results : 

About a drachm of arrow root was mixed with a small quantity of 
water, about a quarter of a grain of ptyalin, freshly precipitated and 
without any sugar of milk being added to it, was added to the starch 
and water, and kept at a temperature of 100° Fahr. for twenty-four 
hours. At the expiration of that time the mixture was filtered and the 
filtrate tested for glucose by Trommer's test, which gave the charac- 
teristics of that test, reducing the cupric solution. 

The action on albumen was next tried ; ten grains of saccharated 
ptyalin was dissolved in one fluid-ounce of water, and ten drops of 
hydrochloric acid and one hundred and twenty grains of coagulated 
•albumen were added; the mixture was kept at a temperature of 100° 
Fahr. for twelve hours, then filtered and the remaining albumen 
weighed. It was found that the ptyalin had dissolved about twenty 
grains, thus showing its inferiority to pepsin. 

When I first made ptyalin I considered it only a curiosity, and 
kept it to show as such, but physicians became interested in it and 
began to prescribe it. There must certainly be some virtue in it. I 
first made one ounce, and the demand was so great that I had to 
make a larger quantity, which was soon exhausted, and another still 
larger lot was made, and the demand is still increasing. 

I do not suggest ptyalin as a substitute for pancreatin, but to be 
used in combination with pancreatin and pepsin, as a promoter of 
digestion ; and the three combined I think are better than either of 
them used singly. 

Camden, N. J., March 16tk, 1874. 



188 Preparation of Medicated Waters. { k X™^T"~ 

ON THE PREPARATION OP MEDICATED WATERS. 
By James Ruan, G. P. 

I desire to present to the consideration of the readers of the Jour- 
nal the following suggestion for the preparation of the different med- 
icated waters of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia which call for the interven- 
tion of magnesium carbonate in their preparation ; the substance 
which I suggest to take the place of the latter, is paper pulp, pre- 
pared from chemically pure filtering paper. 

The following is the "modus operandi" which I find yields very- 
satisfactory results : 

To prepare Aqua Mentha Piperita — 

Take of the Oil of Peppermint half a fluidrachm. 
Chemically pure filtering paper one drachm. 
Distilled water, two pints. 

The paper is cut into small pieces and beaten up in a mortar with 
one ounce of water gradually added until reduced to a pulpy consis- 
tence ; the oil is then added and triturated with the pulp until incor- 
porated ; fifteen ounces more of water is to be gradually added ; the 
whole is then poured into a suitable sized bottle, the mortar rinsed 
out with the remaining pint of water, which is added to the first. 
The whole is then to be well shaken and then filtered through paper. 

In the same manner prepare other aquae medicatse, which call for 
the intervention of magnesium carbonate. Peppermint water, pre- 
pared as above, is strongly impregnated with the oil, and beautifully 
transparent ; some which I had prepared over three weeks, is still 
clear, with no appearance of sediment or separation of the oil. 

Aqua Cinnamomi, prepared by the above process, is perfectly co- 
lorless, with the odor and taste strongly defined. 

In the preparation of the waters by the above process, it is well to 
allow them to stand a few hours before filtration, occasionally shaking 
so as to thoroughly disseminate the pulp through the water, thereby 
giving the water greater surface to act on. I think the waters pre- 
pared according to the described manner equal to the distilled. The 
filters can be reserved for making additional pulp. I am not aware 
that the process I have described has been used before, and as the- 
results I have found so satisfactory in my case, I thought I would pre- 
sent the process to the Journal for publication. 

I have prepared Aqua Camphorse by the same process, first reduc- 



AM AprT;i874 RM "} Oils of Wormwood and Citronella. 189 

ing the camphor to fine powder by alcohol, and proceeding as with 
the others. 

Philadelphia, March 19, 1874. 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE ON THE OILS OF WORMWOOD AND 

CITRONELLA. 
By C. R. A. Wright, D.Sc. 

A quantity of pure oil of wormwood (obtained from Dr. Septimus 
Piesse) being submitted to distillation, the greater part passed over 
at a temperature close upon 200 u C, a portion of blue oily product 
being obtained at a higher temperature (the azulene of Piesse and 
voerulein of Gladstone), and also a small quantity of substance boil- 
ing below 190°, and apparently containing a terpene. 

The portion boiling at 200° — 205° has been shown by Leblanc to 
be indicated by the formula C 10 H 16 O, whence Gladstone has termed 
the substance absinthol. It hence appears that this substance is iso- 
meric with the myristicol found to exist in nutmeg oil and in cam- 
phor ; and as each of these bodies breaks up into water and cymene 
when treated with dehydrating agents (e. g., zinc chloride, phosho- 
rus sulphide, etc.,) the action of these bodies on absinthol was exam- 
ined. 

When absinthol was heated with phosphorus pentasulphide, a mod- 
erately energetic action was perceived, and a colorless liquid distilled 
over ; this was poured back into the retort when the action had ceased, 
and the whole kept very gently boiling for half an hour. On distil- 
lation, a quantity of hydrocarbon passed over at 170° — 180°. The 
thermometer then rose rapidly, and a yellowish liquid distilled at 
230° and upwards, the sum of two distillates representing about 35 
or 40 per cent, of the absinthol used, and the first being about half 
as much again as the second. 

The hydrocarbon was found to boil at close upon 176° after treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid and distillation over sodium. On analysis 
it appeared to be cymene, formed by the reaction 
CioH 16 — H 2 + C 10 H U . 

The oxidation-products of this cymene are now undergoing investi. 
gation, in order to decide whether this hydrocarbon is identical with 
the cymene now known to be obtainable from many other sources. 

Zinc chloride seems to act similarly, water, cymene and a resinous 
body being formed. 



190 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Phabm- 
| Apr. 1, 1874. 



The liquid of higher boiling point appears to consist mainly of thio- 
cymene or cymyl-sulphydrate, apparently identical with that recently 
obtained by Flesch from the products of the action of phosphorus 
sulphide on camphor. The boiling point of the pure substance lies 
close to 235°, and it corresponds in all respects with thiocymene de- 
scribed by Flesch, especially in the production of a mercury salt 
crystallizable from hot alcohol, and a silver salt only slightly soluble 
in hot alcohol. The properties of this body are undergoing further 
examination. 

The reason for publishing this notice is the appearance of a paper 
by Beilstein and Kupffer (Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber., vi, 1183) a few 
days ago, wherein the authors state that by the action of phosphorus 
sulphide on absinthol, cymene results, from which a sulpho acid can 
be prepared, giving salts identical with those similarly obtained from 
the cymene of cumin oil and that of camphor. 

When oil of citronella is distilled, the main constituent seems to be 
an unstable body of formula C 10 H ]8 O (Gladstone found C 10 H 16 O. Not 
improbably essential oils vary in composition according to the climate, 
soil, etc.) The action of dehydrating agents on this oil seems to give 
rise, not to cymene, but to a terpene. By careful addition of two 
proportions of bromine, a product is obtained which on heating splits 
up thus : — 

C 10 H 18 Br 2 O = H 2 + 2HBr + C 10 H 14 , 
the resulting cymene being apparently identical with that already 
known. 

It is proposed also to examine the oil of cajeput, borneol, and other 
substances of formula C 10 H 18 O in the same way. — Journ. of the Chem.. 
Society, London, January, 1874. 



Action of Aerated Water on Lead. — M. Fordos — The danger arising from 
the employment of leaden pipes has been much exaggerated, and is certainly 
far smaller than that resulting from the use of shot in cleaning out bottles. 
The author, having shaken up shot in bottles in the ordinary way, filled four of 
them respectively with white wine, red wine, quinine wine, and vinegar. After 
allowing the liquids to stand for a few days, he discovered lead in solution. 
These experiments may serve, he adds, to explain the frequent presence of 
lead in the human system, a phenomenon so general that Hervy, Devergie and 
Orfila have considered it a normal constituent. — Chemical News, Jan. 30, 1873., 
from Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris, tome xx, No. 11, Dec. 5, 1873. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Apr. 1, 1874. J 



Varieties. 



191 



Action of the Waters of the Seine and Ourcq upon Lead. — M. Fordos. — 
The author finds that the waters of the Seine and Ourcq attack lead, though 
more slowly than distilled water. The action is more rapid the more finely di- 
vided the metal. New lead is less rapidly attacked than old. The product of 
the action of these waters consists of carbonate of lime and carbonate of lead, 
and these waters, after this reaction, contain no lead in solution, or merely an 
infinitesimal quantity. — Ibid. 

Poisoning by Cantharidal Collodion. — Dr. Ernst Schwerin, of Berlin, reports 
a case {Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift) of poisoning with cantharidal collo- 
dion. The patient, a woman aged twenty-three years, swallowed, through mis- 
take, fifteen drops of the preparation. After about an hour had elapsed she 
was attacked with cramps in the lower part of the abdomen, for which, pre- 
viously to sending for a physician, numerous household remedies were used. 
The doctor upon his arrival found the patient running about the room, with the 
arms crossed upon the abdomen, stopping after every few steps to void a few 
drops of urine, the passage of which was attended with intense pain. At 
times she fell into a species of catalepsy. The pulse was small and of mod- 
erate frequency. For some days albumen was found in the urine. Under 
treatment, she at the end of a few days was entirely recovered. It is inter- 
esting to notice that the sexual passion was not at all excited by the drug 
and this goes to confirm the opinion of later observers, that the older phy- 
sicians were mistaken in attributing aphrodisiac qualities to it. 

Medical Times ) Feb. 14, 1874. Wm. Ashbridge, M. D. 



Croton Chloral Hydrate (The Lancet, January 31, 1874.) — Mr. J. Burney 
Yeo, after a number of systematic observations, has come to the following con- 
clusions : 

1. In croton chloral hydrate we possess a remedy of remarkable efficacy in 
some cases of neuralgia of the branches of the nervus trigeminus. 2. It has 
also the power of affording relief in other obstinate forms of neuralgia. 3. It is 
of use in certain cases of diffused muscular rheumatism. 4. It has but little 
effect in purely rheumatic cases. 5. In cases of localized pain and other ner- 
vous symptoms which we find in the class of persons we are in the habit of call- 
ing hysterical, this drug is of little or no use. 6. Its efficacy in procuring sleep 
seems very variable in moderate doses. Two grains will produce sleep in some 
sensitive females, while ten grains will not even cause drowsiness in non-sensi- 
tive males. 7. It is very valuable in some forms of irritative and spasmodic 
cough, and there is scarcely any remedy likely to prove more valuable for the 
relief of the distressing night-cough of chronic phthisis. 

The dose varies from one to ten grains. From two to five grains may be 
given every hour, or the smaller dose every half hour, until fifteen grains have 
been taken. At present it hardly seem3 safe to go beyond that dose. 

The subcutaneous injection of twelve grains in a cat produced, after long un- 
consciousness, a series of epileptic convulsions and death. — Philada. Medical 
Times, March 21, 1874. 



192 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Apr. 1, 1874. 



Ittato of % f fmrmamttitai Siting, 



The regular monthly meeting was held March 17th, 1874 ; fourteen members 
present. 

Dillwyn Parrish was requested to occupy the chair, and the minutes of the 
last meeting being called for, they were read and approved. 

Under the head of donations to the Library, which was first in the order 
of business, Mr. T. H. Hazard presented to the College Library a valuable col- 
lection of engraved plates of various plants. They were bound in three large 
volumes, and the title page bore the name Herbier Artificiel; the number of 
plates contained in this work was nearly a thousand. The thanks of the Col- 
lege were presented to Mr. Hazard for the acceptable gift. 

Professor Maisch presented on behalf of the patentee, Mr. Jas. H. Plaisted, 
of Waterville, Maine, a suppository mould, for which the inventor claims merit. 
The mould is in two pieces, held in their places by a rubber band ; they are 
prevented from slipping horizontally by a very simple arrangement, which, 
however, permits them to slide in a plane parallel to the axes of the supposi- 
tories ; on this point the inventor claims superiority, for he argues that, 
when the suppository is cold enough, a slight sliding motion in the direction 
indicated, suffices to drop them out. 

Joseph P. Remington presented a urethral suppository mould on behalf of 
W. S. Wellcome, a graduate of the last class, who had written his thesis on 
the subject ; the cooling box was nicely made of zinc, which was an improve- 
ment on the tin ones usually employed. 

A general discussion was entered into on the subject of suppository moulds, 
during which Edward Chiles spoke of a mould made by Maw & Sons, which 
was somewhat similar to Plaisted's, and which he was much pleased with ; the 
horizontal slipping movement was controlled by a pin at the end, which fitted 
in a corresponding depression in the other mould. 

Professor Maisch exhibited a sample of what was said to be wild cherry 
bark, but which on examination proved to be very largely adulterated ; it 
seemed to be principally composed of the bark of the sassafras trunk. He also 
showed a sample of Vanilla pampona from Laguayra, and two beans, the origin 
of which was not exactly known ; they were very much broader than the regu- 
lar bean, and although possessed of a number of the characteristics of the true 
bean, did not possess the delightful odor of the genuine. Dr. A. W. Miller 
said that they had been offered for sale in the city at much less than the cost 
of the genuine, and the statement was made that they were the product of the 
wild plant. 

Mr. T. H. Hazard presented two specimens as contributions to the cabinet ; 
one, the seed vessel of Trappa Bicornis (ox-head), the other from a species of 
Maitynia. 

The reading of papers being now in order, Dr. A. W. Miller read one on 
" Disinfectants, Antiseptics, and Deodorizers," which was referred to the Pub- 
lication Committee. 



^Rfs?!™'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations 193 

Joseph P. Remington exhibited a new form of condenser, in which the prin- 
cipal of Liebig's was retained, but instead of one central tube there were seven, 
arranged parallel to each other and drawn together at the end so as to deliver 
the distillate into a narrow-mouthed receptacle. By this arrangement the 
large amount of condensing surface which is desirable in the ordinary worm 
is obtained, whilst the objection to the worm, the difficulty of cleaning, is 
obviated. 

Dr. W. H. Pile showed a sample of phosphoretted resin which had changed 
color from exposure to sun-light; it had become a beautiful red ; he also pre- 
sented a sample of an emulsion made with phosphoretted resin, and a tube 
containing a mixture of alcohol and the resin showing that the phosphorus had 
separated in the form of a fine precipitate at the bottom. 

No further business coming before the meeting, it then adjourned. 

Jos P. Remington, Registrar. 



fjjarmatetttkal Colleges anir J^otiations. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The examinations for the degree 
and title of Graduate in Pharmacy were completed early in March, the following 
questions having been submitted to the candidates, and were required to be 
answered in writing: 

Chemistry. rofessor Robert Bridges, M D. Session 1873-74. 

No. 1. State and explain the processes for preparing Corrosive Sublimate and 
Calomel ; and give their physical and chemical properties, the impuri- 
ties they may contain, and the methods, by which they may be detected. 

No. 2. What is the natural source of Potassium Carbonate? Give the 
methods of obtaining the commercial and officinal varieties, the physi- 
cal and chemical properties of the officinal forms, and the impurities 
contained in either. 

No. 3. What is Aqua Regia and how is it made ? State the physical and 
chemical changes which occur during its production, and the difference 
in chemical properties from those of the acids used in its formation. 

No. 4. What is the substance commonly known by the name of Arsenic? 
Give the source and method by which it is obtained, its physical and 
chemical properties, its effects in overdoses on the system, and best 
antidotes. 

No. 5. What is Chlorine? State and explain its mode of preparation, and the 
pr a i pal officinal compounds in whose production the gas is used. 

No. 6. What are the officinal forms in which Calcium Carbonate is used as a 
medicine, and the methods by which they are prepared for medicinal 
use ; and when by chemical means, give a formula of the reactions. 

No. 7. What are the officinal preparations of Sulphur? State their mode of 
preparation and any impurity or adulteration they may contain. 

No. 8. How is Iodide of Lead prepared? State the reasons for using the 
Lead Salt directed by the Pharmacopoeia and any impurities which 
may arise from using other Salts of Lead . 

No. 9. Wnat are the antidotes for Corrosive Subli.iiate, and the Salts of Lead 
and A ntimony ? 

12 



194 Pharmaceutical Colleges, and Associations. { £X i*?*™" 

No. 10. By what tests may the Magnesium, Zinc and Cadmium Salts be dis- 
tinguished ? 

Materia Medica. Professor John M. Maisch. Session 1873-74. 

1. Give the botanical characters of the natural order of Gentianacese ; name 
the drugs derived from this order, and state their medicinal properties. 

2. What is Rhubarb? Where, and from what plant is it obtained ? Give 
its principal structural characteristics, and also the difference from Euro- 
pean and American Rhubarb. 

3. What part of May- A pple is used in medicine ? Give the name of the plant, 
describe the officinal part, and give an outline of the process for the most 
important pharmaceutical preparation, as well as its yield and composition. 

4. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant yielding Cascarilla. 
Describe the drug and give its important chemical constituents, its me- 
dicinal properties and dose. 

5. Sabica. — Name, natural order and habitat of the plant. Describe the 
dru«r and its medicinal constituents ; what are its properties, and how does 
it d'.ffer from a similar indigenous drug? 

6. What is Kousso? Where, and from what plant is it obtained ? Describe 
the drug and give its important constituents, medicinal properties and 
dose. 

7. Describe Juniperberries as to origin, habitat and natural order of the plant, 
structure, composition and medicinal use. 

8. Describe the structure of M ustard Seed. What is the difference between 
White and Black Mustard Seed in regard to origin (including natural 
order and habitat), appearance and composition ? 

9. What is Kamala? Give name, natural order and habitat of the plant, the 
structure ol the drug, its composition, properties and test of purity. 

10. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant yielding Camphor. 
How is crude Camphor obtained? What are its impurities ? How is it 
purified ? Give its chemical composition, and that of the Borneo Camphor. 

Questions in Pharmacy, for Professor William Procter, Jr., by Joseph P. 
Remington. Session 1873-74. 

1. Define Specific Gravity. What instruments are employed in ascertaining 
the specific gravity of solids and liquids? How do you take the specific 
gravity of a substance lighter than water; and why is it necessary to fix 
upon one constant temperature in taking specific gravities? 

2. What do the following terms mean, in a pharmaceutical sense: " Moder- 
ately Fine Powder," "Saturated Solution," " Flocculent Precipitate," 
"Conical Percolator." State, in- a general way. how you would proceed 
in making a percolation of a drug. — Wild Cherry Bark, for an instance. 

3. State the general characters of Acidum Carbolicum ; including its specific 
gravity, solubilities, and boiling point. From what source is it obtained ? 
What are its medical properties, and into what officinal preparations does 
it enter ? 

4. Give the officinal formula for making Spiritus Aetheris Nitrosi. Why are 
Copper Turnings used ; and what is the nature of the residue left in the 
retort? Give the general characters and tests for strength, as given in 
the United States Pharmacopoeia. 

5. W hat is the general officinal process for obtaining volatile oils from plants ? 
and what precautions are necessary in obtaining pure oils? Give the 
formula for Oil of Copaiba, and state why it requires special treatment. 

$. Give the reasons for employing 

Ether, in making Tinctura Opii Deodorata, in U. S. P., 
Crystallized Sulphate of Potassium , in Pulv. Ipecac. Comp., 



AM Ap? u i; isn RM ' } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 195 

Muriatic Acid, in Ext. Conii Fruct. Fluid um, 
Alcohol, in Hydrargyri Iodidum Yiride, 
Carbonate of Lead, in Liquor Guttae Perchae. 

7. Give the composition of Pulvis Aromaticus, Pilulae Antimonii Compositae, 
Pulveres Effervescentes Aperientes, Mistura Glycyrrhizse Composita, and 
Mistura Potassii Citratis. 

8. What chemical relation does Glycerin assume in the composition of 
fixed oils? How is it separated? On what property of Glycerin does 
the modern process for obtaining it depend? State its specific gravity, 
solubilities, solvent powers, and tests of purity, as set down in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia. 

9. Define the term Alkaloid. State how Morphia, Atropia, Aconitia, 
Strychnia, and Veratria may be recognized ; and give the acid, with which 
each is combined naturally, in the drugs from which they are obtained. 

3.0. How do you prepare, by the United States Pharmacopoeia, Liquor Plumbi 
Subacetatis, Suppositoria Acidi Tannici, Spiritus Aetheris Compositus, 
Trochisci Cubebae, Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri ? 

Questions by the Examining Committee Session 1873-74. 

1. State the officinal and botanical name of Squill of Commerce. What part 
of the plant is used ? Give its active principles, medical properties, dose, 
the officinal preparations in which it enters, and a practical formula for 
making Vinegar of Squill. 

2. What is the percentage of Strychnia in Citrate of Iron and Strychnia? 
What would be a proper dose? What officinal Salt of Iron contains an 
acid derived from the animal kingdom ? Give the formula for its produc- 
tion, and what effect has boiling Nitric Acid on it. 

3. Give the names of five excipients for pill masses, and state which of the 
five you would prefer to make pills of: 

Pyrophosphate of Iron, 5 gr. each, 

Sulphate of Quinia, . • 2 gr. each, 

Compound Rhubarb Pills, U. S. P. ; 

and give the composition of : 
Compound Carthartic Pills, 
Compound Iron Pills, and 
Compound Squill Pills. 

4. Give the locality, natural order, and officinal name of the plant which pro- 
duces Assafcetida. State how the drug is obtained, and what is its princi- 
pal constituent. Name all its officinal preparations 

5. Give the formula for making each of the following preparations, and the 
dose of each for an adult : 

Acetuin Opii, Tinctura Opii, 

Vinum Opii, Tinctura Opii Acetata, 

Tinptura Opii Camphorata. 

6. Give the process for making Precipitated Sulphur, and describe the 
chemical changes that take place. What is the best test of its purity ? 
State what impurity is generally found in the ordiuary Lac Sulphur of 
Commerce, and in what manner the impurities become incorporated with 
it. 

7. Describe Strychnia as found in the shops. Give the average dose, tests of 
identity and purity, and Dime the officinal preparations to which it gives 
activity, with their doses. 

8. Give the ingredients, m jde of preparation, strength aud doses, of Com- 
pound Tincture of Cinchona Infusion of Digitalis, Syrup of Lactucarium, 
Compound Pill of Soap, and Ointment of Cantharides. 

9. State which of the following prescriptions are proper and which improper, 
and, in the latter case, the reasons : 



196 Pharmaceutical Colleges, and Associations. 



Am. Joto. Pha*m. 
Apr. 1, 1874. 



Extracti Hyoscyarni, 

Zinci Oxidi, . . . aa^ii, 
M. div. in pil. XL. 
One three times a day for an adult. 

B. 

Potassi Cyanidi, . . gi, 
Acidi Citrici, . . gr. ij, 
Syr. Pruni Virg.. . . f^ij. 
M. S. A teaspoonful every three hours 
for an adult. 

10. 



[C. F. J. Jones' Child. 

R. Syr. Scillse, 

Syr. Ipecac., . . aa fgijr 
Liq. Ammonii Acet., . f^iij- 
Tinct. Aconiti Rad., . f^ ss - 
M. S. A teaspoonful every four hours. 

D. For Hemorrhage. 

J£. Liq. Ferri Subsulph , . fgj, 
Plumbi Acet., . . . gij, 
Aquae Dest. . . . f^i y - 
M. Sis:. A teaspoonful every two hours. 



F. 



E. Write a formula for a one ounce Hypodermic Solution, of such- 
strength, that five minims shall contain one-quarter grain of Sulphate of 
Morphia, and one- ninety sixth grain of Sulphate of Atropia. 

How would you dispense the following prescriptions : 

Gr. 



R. 



M. 



01. Terebinth., 
Acacias, 
Sacehari, . 
Tinct. Opii, 
Aquas, 



f'5 



a q. 



R. 



M. 



Tinct. Benzoini Comp., 
Liq. Morphias Sulph., . aa fgij,- 

Mucilag. Acacias, . . f^ss, 
Aquas Camphoras, . f^i, 



The following specimens were placed on the table for examination by the 
candidates : 



Chemistry. 
Sulphur prsecipitatum, 
Acidum suluhuricum, 
Potassii ehloras, 
Sodii biearbonas, 
Sodii boras, 
Alumen, 

Potasii bichromas, 
Ferri subearbonas, 
Tinetura ferri chloridi, 



Hydrarg. ehlorid.eorros.AJoe capensis. 



Materia Medica. Pharmacy 
Sarsapariba (Vera Cruz) Ferri et quinise eitras. 
Leptandra, 
Quassia, (Jamaica) 
Kot-marinus, 
Santoniea, 
Cort. f'ruct. granati 
Cubeba, 
Physostigma, 
Lupulinum, 



Examining Committee. 
Cimicifuga, 
Confectid sennas, Buchu, 
Pilula ferri carbonatis, Myrrha, 
Extr. colocynth. com. Acidum oxalicum, 
pulv. Magnesii sulphas, 

Aqua Fceniculi, Zinci sulphas. 

Tinct. nucis vomica?, Vmum ergotse, 
Acid sulphuricum arom.Syrupus Senegas, 
Extr.sarsapar. comp.fld.Extr. uvas ursi fluid, 
Linimentum calcis, Ung. zinci oxidi. 
^ng. Hydrarg. iodidi 
rubri. 



The following report was handed to the Board of Trustees, and the gentle- 
men named therein were duly elected Graduates in Pharmacy: 

The Professors and Committee of Examination of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, report that the following named candidates, having the required 
qualifications, have passed their examinations favorably, and are recommended 
for the degree of " Graduate in Pharmacy." 

Their names are set down in the order of merit : 



Name. State. 

1 Edward Seymour Dawson, New York. 

2 Frederick Belding Power, " 

3 Alexander King, " 

4 William Landon Harrison, Virginia. 

5 Geo. Martin Shriner Hull, Pennsylvania. 

6 Frederick John Kruell, Illinois. 

7 Francis Joseph Koch, Iowa. 

8 John Levy Williams, Pennsylvania. 

9 Bartholomew Bantley, Wisconsin. 

10 William Dilmore. New Jersey. 

11 David Ackerman, Jr., Pennsylvania. 

12 Edmund Bakhaus, Ohio. 

13 Thomas Kramer Hilton, Pennsylvania. 



Thesis. 

Juglans Cinerea. 

Renna Podophylli. 

Madura Aurantiaca. 

The Balsam of Liquidambar^Styraci- 

flua. 
Linaria Vulgaris. 
Helianthemum Corymbosum. 
Helinium Autumnale. 
The Bitter Principle of Wild Cherry* 
Chimaphila TJmbellata. 
Actsea Alba. 
Mistura Assafoetid<z. 
Polygonatum Multiflorum. 
Potassium Acid Tartrate. 



**ap°°? Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



197 



14 John Beatty Price, 

15 John Joseph Miles, 

16 John Win. H. Oppermann, 
IT Samuel Benjamin Spence, 

18 Frank Stewart Savage, 

19 Jefferson S. Conner, 

20 Rush Blackfan Smith, 

21 Edgar Melville Hattan, 

22 William Baker Banks, 

23 Samuel Charles Blair, 

24 John Warrington Haines, 

25 William Francis Dugan, 

26 George Christian Lescher, 

27 Frederick William Latz, 
.28 John Mumbauer Wert, 

29 Augustus Henry Keenan, 

30 Adrian Bowens, 



Delaware. 

Mississippi. 

Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin. 

Pennsylvania. 

Indiana. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania 

a 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
a 

New York. 
Pennsylvania. 

Indiana. 



31 Henry Solomon Wellcome, Illinois. 



32 John Markley Rowe ; 

33 George Harris Jacobs, 

34 Howard Kingsbury, 
-35 diaries Johnson Biddle, 

36 Isaac Hansell Rowley, 
-37 William Heckenberger, 

38 Eugene Ziegler Hillegas, 

39 Frederick Rienhamer, 

40 Robert Hoosie Johnson, 

41 David Hunter, 
-42 Frank Robert Jummel, 

43 Thomas Daniel Terrell, 

44 Augustus Crane Buzby, 

45 Isaac Newton Coffee, 

46 Edward Everett Hazlett, 

47 John Lytle Royston. 

48 Thomas Loudes Buckman, 

49 Harvey Briarley Hutchinson 

50 James Aloysius Kinnear, 

51 Alfred George Mays, 

52 Edmund Albert Reed, 

53 Thoma3 Charles Morgan, 

54 Frank Murrell Budd, 

55 Millard Filmore Tomlin, 

56 John Frederick Sroltz, 

57 Henry Northam Bryan, 

58 Francis Marion Tilton. 

59 Franklin Thomas Hartzell, 

60 Louis Philip Leibold, 
•61 Jouas Eoerhart Roeder, 
-62 Jacob Hoeckley Hand, 
•63 William Kline Mattern, 
•64 Alexander Wilson Jacob, 

65 Abram Lawrence Lumb, 

66 George Hoopes Johnson, 

67 Robert Reed Stewart, 



North Carolina. 

Missouri. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Kentucky. 

Ohio. 
Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Arkansas. 
Pennsylvania. 
Illinois. 
Massachusetts. 
New Jersey. 
(< 

Pennsylvania. 



Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Rubus Villosus. 
Fluid Extract of Azederach. 
Vaccinium Resinosum. 
Silphium Perfoliatum. 
Syrup Lactopho phate of Iron and 
Lime. 

The Philadelphia Drug Law. 

Aconitum Napellus. 

Cephalanthus Occiden talis . 

Practical Remarks. 

Steam Apparatus for Fluid Extracts. 

Progress of Pharmacy. 

Glycenn. 

Saturated Tinctures. 
Pharmacy of the Present Time. 
The Apprentices Assistants. 
Zinc. 

The Constituents of Dr. Sage's Ca- 
tarrh Remedy. 
Urethral Suppositories. 
Bromide of Morphia. 
Examination of Quinine Pills. 
Capsicum. 

Polygonum Hydropiperoides. 
Pepsin. 

Cod Liv»r Oil. 

The Adulterations of Medicinal Sub- 
stances. 

Affinities of Chemical Attraction. 

Acidum Tannicum. 

Fluid Extract of Ipecac. 

Syrup us Ferri lodidi, TJ. S. P. and 
Ferrum,, Sfc. 

Digitalis Purpurea. 

Remarks on Elixirs. 

The Advantages of a Knowledge of 
Botany to Pharmacy Students. 

Indigofera Tinc'oria. 

The History of Medicine. 

Phytolacca Decandra. 

Oleate of Mercury. 

Silphium Liciniatum. 

Gentiana Lutea. 

Pharmacy. 

Eucalyptus Globulus. 

Suppositories. 

Cypripedium Pubescens. 

Preparations of Ferrum Pomatum. 

Cypripedium Acaule. 

Unguentum tlydrargyri Nitratis. 

Commentary on Pharmacopoeia Pre- 
parations. 

Early Closing. 

Chlorinium. 

Extracta Fluida. 

Datura Stramonium. 

Ilelianthemum. 

Emplastrum. 

Relations between Animal and Vege- 
table Matter. 
Podophyllum. 



198 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm- 
Apr. 1, 1874. 



68 Charles Sparrow, Kansas. 

69 Alfred Bartb, Pennsylvania. 
10 Charles Ouram, " 

71 Joseph Hall Marshall, " 

72 Benjamin Rowland Morrow, " 

73 Aaron Peter Jacoby, " 

74 Francis Henry Ebur Gleim, " 

75 Samuel Edwin Walker, " 

76 James Armstrong Allen, New Jersey. 

77 Charles Franklin Goodno, Pennsylvania. 

78 Lewis Kosputh Acker, " 

79 Paul Graef, Jr., Ohio. 

80 George Snavely Henry, Pennsylvania. 

81 Harry Barndollar, 11 



Algarobia Glandulosa. 
Hydrargyri Iodidum Viride. 
Anagallis Arvensis 
Preparation of Sugar Doses. 
Advancement of Medicine. 
Eupatorin. 
Castanea Vesca. 
Solidago Odora. 
Arbutin. 

Pilula Ferri Carbonatis. 
Suppositories. 
Prinos Verticillatus. 
Urinary Analysis. 
Chloral Hydrate. 



Signed Robert Bridges, 
John M. Maisch, 
Joseph P. Remington 



William McIntyre. 



William J. Jenks, 
Samuel S. Bunting, 
Albert P. Brown, 



The commencement was held at the Acad emy of Music on the evening of 
March 12th, in the presence of a very large and attentive audience. The gra- 
duates appeared with crape upon their arms, in memory of Professor William 
Procter, Jr., deceased. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred 
by the President of the College, Dillwyn Parrish, and the valedictory address 
was delivered by Professor Robert Bridges. The distribution of bouquets, 
books and other presents to graduates was conducted under the direction of 
the Committee on Arrangements, after which the proceedings closed as they 
had commenced, with music by the Germania Orchestra. 

The Summer Course on Botany will commence on Wednesday, April 8th, at 
3 o'clock, P. M. 



Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Philadelphia. — The 
annual meeting was held in the College Hall, March 5th, 1874, at 3£ o'clock* 
P. M. At this meeting the business of the Association was transacted. The 
President gave his annual report. The following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, W T illiam McIntyre ; Vice-Presidents, Jos. P. Remington, and Albert P. 
Brown ; Recording Secretary, Edwin McC. Boring, 10th and Fairmount avenue, 
Philadelphia; Corresponding Secretary, C. H. Kolp ; Treasurer, Edward C. 
Jones, 8. B. corner of Fifteenth aud Market streets, Philadelphia ; Executive 
Board, Wallace Procter, Jas. A. Parker, Rich. V. Mattison, E. P. Paxson, 
and H. B. French; Trustee of Sinking Fund, Thomas S. Wiegand ; Orator 
Lawrence Turnbull, M. D. 

It was decided to admit all graduates of the College to membership, restrict- 
ing the right to certificates of membership and annual reports to those who 
contribute $5, as heretofore, and as the objects of the Association are good, it- 
is to be hoped that all will avail themselves of this privilege. 

The public reception to the graduating class, given upon March 10th, at 
8 o'clock, in the College, was well attended, the ladies forming a large propor- 
tion of the number. The exercises consisted in the annual address by Wm. 
C. Bakes ; calling of new members by the Secretary ; presentation of the gold. 



AM Ap? u i,'i P 874 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 199 

medal to Edward S. Dawson, Jr., of New York; handsomely engraved certifi- 
cates for proficiency in chemistry, pharmacy, and materia medica were awarded 
to the following students respectively: F. B. Power of New York, Wrn. L. 
Harrison of Virginia, and F. J. Kruell of Illinois. Joseph P. Remington de- 
livered an eulogy on the late Professor William Procter, after which a micro- 
scopical exhibition was held under the direction of Professor John M. Maisch 
and Albert P. Brown. An opportunity was afforded for social conversation, 
and at a late hour all retired from one of the most interesting meetings ever 
held by the Association. 

Edwin McO. Boring, Secretary. 

New York ColleOxE of Pharmacy. — At a regular meeting of the trustees of 
this College, held March 5th, 1874, the following preamble and resolutions were 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, in his infinite wisdom, to remove 
from this transitory existence our friend Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., and, whilst 
mingling our sympathy with that of his bereaved family, let us not be unmind- 
ful that -'in the midst of life we are in death," and, although possessed of all 
the enjoyments and comforts of this world, how short the time we may be per- 
mitted to partake of them. 

Our deceased friend was in the prime of life, enjoying the success of his 
varied labors in the cause of science and pharmacy, happy and contented, ever 
ready and willing to diffuse his knowledge to others ; his amiability, modesty 
and spotless integrity, united to a cheerful temperament, endeared him to all 
who enjoyed the privilege of knowing him. 

Alas! in the vigor of manhood, and from off a career of usefulness to his 
fellow-beings, he was taken away, after a brief illness, and his spirit returned 
to the God who gave it, but his memory will ever remain among his professional 
brethren as one who ranked foremost amongst those who labored for the 
advancement of their profession. Be it therefore 

Resolved, That this College deeply deplore the loss they have sustained by 
the death of Wm. Procter, Jr. 

Resolved, That this College tender to the bereaved widow and immediate 
relatives their sincere condolence in their affliction. 

Resolved, That a page in our record book be dedicated to his memory with 
his name thereon inscribed. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, duly signed by the President and 
Secretary, be forwarded to the widow of our deceased friend, and the same be 
published in the '•Journal of Pharmacy" aud "Druggists' Circular." 

At the annual meeting of the College, held March 1 9th, the following persons 
were elected : Paul Balluff. President; Wm. Neergaard, Bernard H. Reinold 
and Wm. Wright, Jr., Vice-Presidents ; Theobald Frohwein, Treasurer; \I 
L. M. Peixotio, Secretary; H. A. Cassebeer, Geo. C. Close, David Hays 
William Hegeman, Ewen Mclntyre, Edward L. .Vlilhau. William N. Olliffe 
Gustavus Ramsperger, Charles Rice, Daniel C. Robbins John W. Shedden 
Trustees; Paul Balluff, P. W. Bedford, Charles Rice, Ewen Mclntyre, F 
Alfred Reichardt, Permanent Committee on U. S. Pharmacopoeia; Paul Bal 
luff, P. W. Bedford, M. L. M. Peixotto, Gustavus Ramsperger, D. C. Robbins 
Delegates to Meeting of American Pharmaceutical Association. 



200 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Apr. 1, 1874. 



New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association. — At the annual meeting held in 
Jersey City Feb. 11th, the following officers were elected for the current year: 
President, James R. Mercein, Jersey City ; Vice-Presidents, Randal Rickey, 
Trenton, and J. De la Cour, Camden ; Recording Secretary, Geo. H. White, 
Jersey City; Corresponding Secretary, Chas. B. Smith, Newark. Executive 
Committee, A. S. White, Mount Holly; C. H. Dalrymple, Morristown ; P. Y. 
Levering and W. R. Laird, Jersey City. The next annual meeting will be held 
in the City of Camden. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. — The Twenty- second 
ment of the Maryland College of Pharmacy was held Mon 
23d, at Germania Maennerchor Hall, and the President, 
conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon the 
— the names in the order of merit: 



Annual Commence- 
day evening, March 
, John F. Hancock, 
following gentlemen 



Wm C. Schiller, 


Sanguinaria Canadensis, 


Maryland. 


E. W. Eilau. 


Asarum, 


(< 


Edward M. McComas, 


Cimicifuga Racemosa, 




Chas. F. Roehle, 


Ricinus Communis, 


Prussia. 


F. W Koss, 


Opium. 


Virginia. 


Chas. G. Smith, 


Helnoias Dioica, 


Maryland. 


I). E. Schoolfield, 


Notes on Chemistry, 


Virginia. 


Wm. Partlow Thompson, 


Scabiosa Succisa, 


Maryland. 


Oscar Hoffmann, 


Antimony, 


Prussia. 


Henry R. Horstmann, 


Hydrastis Canadensis, 


Maryland. 


Adolphus B. Long, 


Actinism, 


Ohio. 


Ernst Hasenbalg, 


Chloral Hydrate, 


Prussia. 


D. J. Clarke. 


Leonurus Cardiaca, 


Maryland. 


Thos. L. Beckenbaugh, 


Notes on Pharmacy, 




A. Schloss, 


Acidum Tannicum, 


< > 



Seven first course students received honorable mention. 
The Valedictory Address was delivered by Dr. Wm. Simon, Professor of 
Chemistry. 

The annual meeting of the College convened at 3 P.M., March 24th, John F. 
Hancock, President, in the chair, Dr. Edward Eareckson, Secretary, thirty 
members answering to their names. Mr. John F. Hancock presented the Col- 
lege with a copy of Squire's Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, and 
placed on exhibition the first edition of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, of 1820, also 
other old works on pharmacy. 

A. P. Sharp related reminiscences of the late Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr , locat- 
ing and describing the house (Cathedral street) in this city in which he was 
born. 

Dr. Joseph Roberts read a paper on conferring the degree of Doctor of Phar- 
macy, which elicited considerable discussion, participated in by Prof. Moore, 
L. Dohme and others. The resolutions embodied in the paper were referred 
to the Committee on Revision of By-Laws. 

Mr. Hancock called attention to the use of filtering paper pulp for division 



^Ap? 11 !; i874 RM "} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 201 

of essential oils in preparing medicated waters, claiming advantages over 
present method, and exhibiting several officinal waters so made. 

After some further discussion, of a conversational character, the meeting 
adjourned to the " Rose House," where President Hancock introduced to the 
company present B. Rush Roberts, Esq., formerly a professor of the College, 
who delivered an interesting address, descriptive of pharmacy as practiced half 
a century ago. On its conclusion the entire party, numbering near sixty f 
repaired to the supper-room, and demonstrated their appreciation cf the efforts 
of the Committee of Arrangements by doing ample justice to the substantial 
repast spread. A series of toasts were offered by the Chairman and appro- 
priately responded to. 

J. Newport Potts, Rep. M. C. P. 



Louisville College of Pharmacy. The third course of lectures was 

attended by 26 students, five of whom, all from Louisville, have received the 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. Their names are placed in order of merit: 
John Rudell, Henry W. Preissler, Charles P. Frick, Charles 0. Frick and 
William Tafel. The summer course, which is devoted exclusively to botany, 
will commence on the first Wednesday in April. 

The Legislature of Kentucky has passed a pharmacy act applying to all 
towns and cities of 5000 or more inhabitants. The State Board of Pharmacy 
is to consist of seven pharmacists, at least four of whom are to be members of 
the Louisville College of Pharmacy, the selection to be made out of ten nomi- 
nated by the College. At the annual meeting of March 10th, the following 
gentlemen were nominated : Emil Scheffer, Fred. C. Miller, Hugh Preissler, 
Vincent Davis, G. H. Cary, John Colgan, W. W. Smith, S. F. Dawes, W. G. 
Schmidt, C. Lewis Diehl. 

The following gentlemen were appointed a committee to aid Prof. K. Schef- 
fer, the Local Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Association, in 
making preparations for the meeting in September next : Lee Beckham, Wiley 
Rogers, J. A. McAfee, H. A. Pfingst and Ferd. Lingelbach. 

The election of the Board of Directors resulted as follows : E. Scheffer, C. 
Lewis Diehl, Vincent Davis, W. G. Schmidt, S. F. Dawes, Lee A. Beckham, 

F. C. Miller, W. W. Smith, J. R. McAfee, John Colgan, Ferd. J. Pfingst, 

Shafer. The meeting then adjourned. 

The Board of Directors then assembled and elected the following officers : 
C.Lewis Diehl, President ; E. Scheffer, Vincent Davis, Vice- Presidents ; S. 
F. Dawes, Treasurer; F. C. Miller, Recording Secretary; W. G. Schmidt, 
Corresponding Secretary; J. A. McAfee, Curator. 

At a stated meeting of the Board of Directors, held Monday, March 9th, 
1874, a special committee was appointed to report at the annual meeting, on the 
following day, and to draft suitable resolutions as a tribute of respect to the 
memory of the late Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., of Philadelphia, which, upon pre- 
sentation, were unanimou c ly adopted. 

Whkreas, It has pleased an All wise Providence to remove from his sphere 
< ^usefulness our highly esteemed brother Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., of Phila- 
delphia; and 



202 



Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. \ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Apr. 1, 1674. 



Whereas, The loss of his valuable services for the advancement of pharma- 
ceutical knowledge will be felt and lamented throughout the whole land ; be it 
therefore 

Resolved, That the members of the Louisville College of Pharmacy deeply 
mourn the loss of one who stood highest and foremost in his profession as 
pharmacist, instructor and journalist, ever faithful, thorough and persevering 
in the cause which he represented. 

Resolved, That we tender to his bereaved family our deepest sympathy and 
condolence in this their hour of sorrow; but, while we lament with them the 
irreparable loss, we know that his name and his deeds of merit will live after 
him among us. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread on the journal of our College, and 
a copy of the same be forwarded by the Corresponding Secretary, to the family 
of the deceased, and also to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, with the 
request of its publication in the next number of the ''Americau Journal of 



Chicago College of Pharmacy — At the commencement, held March 10th,. 
the President conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon the follow- 
ing gentlemen: Chas. M. Ford (lacto-phosphates), Littleton Thompson (dilute 
phosphoric acid), L. C. Hogan (pink root), and E. L. Stahl, Jr. (wild cherry)] 
The valedictory address was delivered by Professor D. B. Trimble. 

At the special meeting held February 19th, 1874, the President, Mr. Thos. 
Whitfield, in a few feelin£ remarks, announced the death of Professor William 
Procter, Jr. On motion, a committee was appointed to draft resolutions expres- 
sive of the sentiments of the College. Messrs. Sargent, Ebert and Trimble 
were appointed, and subsequently reported as follows : 



Whereas, The members of this College have learned, with profound sorrow, 
that Professor William Procter, Jr., departed this life on the 10th instant, 
and 

Whereas, We, in common with all pharmacists, mourn the loss of our friend, 
who has so long maintained the honorable and well-deserved title of the 
" Father of American Pharmacy," and who has in a busy and eminently useful 
life done so much to enrich the profession in its literature and in its practice \ 
it is therefore 

Resolved, That in the death of Prof. Procter a material loss has been sus- 
tained, and the cause of education loses one of its most experienced and ablest 
champions. 

1 hat we deplore the loss of so valuable a life and example to our sister in- 
stil ution and to the whole pharmaceutical body. 

That we respectfully offer to the sorrow-stricken family our warmest sympa- 
thy in their great bereavement, and will cherish with them the memory of one 
who has endeared himself to our hearts as a generous friend, a wise counsellor, 
and a benefactor of his race. 

That we extend to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy our earnest sym- 
pathy in their affliction in the loss of one who has so long and ably filled the 
position of Professor of Pharmacy and editor of their journal, causing the 
name of their College to be honored wherever pharmacy is recognized. 



Pharmacy. 1 




Wm. G. Schmidt, Corresponding Secretary, L. C. P, 



IN MEMORIAM. 



AM Ap? u f,'m4 EM "} Pharmceutical Colleges and Associations. 20$ 

That in the death of Professor Procter American pharmacists have lost their 
most honored and ablest leader, a just and noble man, worthy our imitation in 
all the relations of life. 

That as a College of Pharmacy we do hold his name in respectful memory as 
the first Professor of Pharmacy in America, as a constant friend to pharmacal 
organizations, and in an especial manner to our own College. 

That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of our deceased friend, 
and "to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and that they be published in. 
our proceedings. 

E. H. Sargent, 

Albert E. Ebert, Committee. 
D. B. Trimble, 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The commencement exercises were held 
March 12th, when the President, Dr. Judge, conferred the degree of Graduate 
in Pharmacy upon Messrs. L. Schwab, J. H. Sauns, L. Heister, M. Siereveld, 
T. F. Norwood, C. F. Keener, C. F. H. Laval, A. Delany, E. T. Harley, F. H 
Nenzel, and A. M. Knerze. An address was delivered by Rev. Thos. Vickers^ 
and the graduates' valedictory by Mr. Norwood, after which Mr. Schwab pre- 
sented to the faculty a copy of Chambers' Encyclopedia. 

At a meeting of the College, March 24th, Dr. Eaton suggested the propriety 
of taking some action in regard to the death of the late Professor Procter^ 
and presented the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, Professor William Procter, Jr.. has, by the inevitable decree of 
the All-wise Governor of the Universe, been removed from his sphere of labor 
and usefulness upon earth ; and 

Whereas, He was an honorary member of this College, and well known to 
all of us by his life-long devotion to the interests of pharmacy, as well as to 
some of us personally, we feel it our duty, as it is our pleasure, to bear testi- 
mony in an official manner to our appreciation of his gieat moral and profes- 
sional worth, to the inestimable benefits he bestowed upon the science and art 
of our profession by his long and unwearied efforts, and to the great loss all 
have sustained in his death ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Professor Procter pharmacy has lost one of 
its most honored, respected and devoted representatives, society one of the 
noblest and best of men, and his family a most tender and loving husband and 
father. 

Resolved, That to the afflicted family of the deceased, and to our brethren 
of the Philadelphia College, we tender our heartft.lt sympathy in their sad 
bereavement. 

Resolved, That we will, one and all, ever cherish his memory, respect his 
counsels, and strive to emulate his noble example in our daily lives. 



St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — At the commencement, on March 10th, 
the following gentlemen received the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy: Jas. 
O'Byrne (nickel), John Farrill (jalapa) , Robert C. Schrader (carbo ligni), Wil- 
liam Christman (emulsions), J. C. Weingsertner (lead), Robert S. Drake (cala- 
mus), John W. Tomfohrde (digitalis), W. R. Hind (powders and pills), Adolph 
Pfeiffer (hints on prescriptions), Lafayette Hill, Jr. (wild cherry), L. Meyers 
Connor (arsenic), H. Strassinger (carbonate of lead), F. H. Kenner (arsenic),. 



201 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A \p?!^ ml**' 

Werner Wendelstorff (leaves), Fred. Schmidt (arsenic and its preparations). 
The valedictory address was delivered by Prof. Hubert Primm. 



St. Clair Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois. — At the 
quarterly meeting, held March 10th, Prof. J. M. Maisch was elected to hono- 
rary membership. A memorial was then read, signed by Messrs. A. Rudolph, 
H. Steingoetter and A. G. F. Streit, setting forth the great utility of a prepa- 
ratory school of pharmacy, and offering to teach chemistry, materia medica and 
pharmacy. The report was accepted, and the signers of the report were 
appointed a committee, with power to take all necessary steps. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
iug held March 4th, Mr. Thomas H. Hills presiding, Professor Bentley gave 
an account of the origin and uses of coca leaves, of which, according to John- 
ston, 30,000,000 pounds are annually used in South America. 

Mr. Greenish read a note on a decomposed ginger lozenge, which had been 
made partly of potato starch, but had become mouldy, then absorbed moisture, 
and finally broke down into a soft granular mass; in the mould a fungus was 
found, belonging to the same genus as the one to which the potato disease is 
said to be due ; hence Mr. Greenish attributed the dextrin found in the lozenge 
to be the produce of diseased potatoes, spores of the fungus of which had 
clung to the starch. Messrs. Hills and Hampson attributed the decomposition 
to the ginger rather than to the starch ; by keeping them in dry, stoppered 
bottles the mould is prevented. 

Mr. Daniel Hanbury read a paper on the Ngai camphor from China, which, 
from botanical specimens sent by Mr. Fred. H. Ewer, was ascertained to be 
obtained from Blumea balsamifera, De C, a tall, coarse-looking herbaceous 
plant of Eastern Asia, an abundant weed in Assam, Burma and the Indian 
Islands. This camphor is sold there at $250 the pecul = 133^ lbs., about ten 
times the price of Formosa camphor, and at one -eighth the price of the best 
Malay camphor. It is used medicinally, and in the manufacture of the scented 
Chinese inks. Mr. S. Plowman, in a paper read at the same meeting, describes 
the crystals and its physical and chemical properties ; it is isomeric with Borneo 
camphor Cio His O, but has a different odor, is harder and more brittle, and 
volatalizes at a higher temperature (158° C), its boiling point being about 
210° C. 

Mr. F. Baden Benger, alluding to the paper of Mr. Towerzey,* read a paper, 
in which he proposes to keep medicinal hydrocyanic acid in a bottle shaped 
liked the barrel of an ordinary half-ounce syringe, drawn out into a long and 
fine point at one end, which is sealed in the flame of a spirit lamp or Bunsen 
burner ; it is then filled with the acid, and a piece of vulcanized sheet rubber 
is tied tightly over the mouth. When required for use, the point is scratched 
with a file and broken off; by pressiug the finger on the rubber any amount of 
acid may be taken out, only the same bulk of air entering the tube when pres- 
sure is removed. It is then placed with its point below the surface of mercury 



* See American Journal of Pharmacy. February, p 69. 



A V p n;i P 8 H 7t RM '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 205- 

contained in a little upright glass vessel. The diffusion of the vapor of the 
hydrocyanic acid is almost completely prevented by this contrivance, and no 
reduction of its strength can therefore take pjace. Pure rubber cannot be- 
used, the acid vapors diffusing through it. Professor Attfield suggested as an 
improvement, instead of placing the thin tube into mercury, to draw a rubber 
cap over a thick quilted extremity. 



Centro Pharmaceutics Portuguez. — At the meeting held January 3d, the 
following gentlemen were elected corresponding members: Antonio A. F. 
Santa Clara, of Abrunheira; Dr. Felix Martines, of Valencia; Charles Bul- 
lock, of Philadelphia ; E. Baudrimont, of Paris, and Dr. Davreux, of Liege r 
Belgium. 



Fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress. — A circular letter has- 
been issued, dated St. Petersburg, January 15 (24) 1874, and signed by the 
President of the Committee on Organization, R. von Schrceder, and the Sec- 
retary, E. Reonard. It informs, on behalf of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
St. Petersburg, that the Fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress will 
be held in the city of St. Petersburg in August next, and that the following- 
queries for discussion have been agreed upon : 

1. How far are assistants personally responsible in the exercise of their pro- 
fessional duties ? 

2. Bow may the Committee of Inspection (Revisions Commission) of Phar- 
macies be most suitably organized ? 

3d. Is it necessary that the professorship of pharmacy should be occupied 
by a pharmacist ? 

4th. Is it not time that an international pharmacopoeia be prepared ? 



EEVIEWS AND BIBIIO GEAPHIC AL NOTICES. 



Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Twenty -first 
Annual Meeting, held in Bichmond, Va., September, 1873. Philadelphia: 
Sherman & Co.,' Printers, 1874. 8vo, pp. 710. 

This volume is just ready, and will be distributed to all entitled early in 
April, two months later than the editor expected to have it out, notwithstand- 
ing the delay before going to press. After the last forms had been put in type, 
and nearly the entire work was in the hands of the binder, a fire occurring in- 
the building endangered the whole; and, though no loss or damage was done, it 
occasioned at least another unlooked-for delay. 

The volume is the largest ever issued by the Association, that for 1871 ex- 
cepted, which, together with the decennial index, has only a few pages more r 
but, without the index, falls about one hundred pages behind. In point of in- 
terest, we opine that its contents are even more creditable to the Association, 
and particularly to the working members thereof, and if, in its perusal, we have 
any regret to express, it is this — that most of even the most valuable papers 
elicited comparatively little discussion. Notwithstanding this, the phono- 



200 . Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^^Im^' 

graphic report is by no means the least interesting portion of the volume ; on 
the contrary, it contains numerous valuable facts nnd suggestions. 

Nearly all the Committee reports are filled with practical and scientific in- 
formation, and the papers written iu answer to queries, as well as the volunteer 
•essays are mostly of more than mere ephemerous value. The book contains 
several papers from the pen of Prof. Procter — his last contributions to pharma- 
ceutical knowledge. 

Such a creditable volume, it is to be hoped, will be an incentive to all mem- 
bers of this national association to aid in making the next one of equal if not 
greater value. 



Year Book of Pharmacy, comprising abstracts of papers relating to pharmacy, 
materia medica and chemistry, contributed to British and foreign journals, 
from July 1, 1872, to June 30, 1873, with the transactions of the British Phar- 
maceutical Conference at the Tenth Annual Meeting, held at Bradford, Sep- 
tember, 187 8. London: J. & A. Churchill. 8vo, pp. 588. 

On page 523 of the last volume, we have given an account of the Transactions 
of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, at which a number of interesting 
papers were read, several of which have been reproduced in this Journal, and 
others we hope to bring to the notice of our readers, if not entire, at least in 
the form of an abstract. Many of the papers are followed by very interesting 
•discussions, to condense which is next to impossible. 

The principal feature of the volume before us is the 'Year Book," which 
occupies nearly 350 pages, and consists of copious abstracts of the more im- 
portant papers relating to pharmacy, and contributed to or published in phar- 
maceutical and other journals; the most important papers have been repro- 
duced in extenso. There is, we think, a great improvement in the arrangement 
of the vast amount of material, as compared with former issues; in fact it 
leaves scarcely anything to be desired. 

The " getting up" of the volume is creditable alike to the Conference and to 
the Editors. 



Proceedings of the Vermont Pharmaceutical Association at the Fourth Annual 
Meeting held at Burlington, September, 1873. Rutland: Globe Paper Co., 
Printers, 1874. 8vo, pp. 57. 

In our la^t volume, on page 523, we have reported the meeting, of which the 
pamphlet before us gives a more complete account. It is a live body, the phar- 
maceutical association from the Green Mountain State, as is amply testified by 
the published Proceedings. The addresses and reports presented by the offi- 
cers and committees have always been to the point, and whatever may appear 
strange is easily rectified by the free discussion to which expressed opinions 
are subjected. A case in point, in this pamphlet, is the excellent response of 
Mr. Rider, of Middlebury, to a paper advocating the use of English instead of 
Latin for labels and prescriptions, and we expect that another paper, which 
has all the appearances of a panegyric on patent medicines, will receive a simi- 
lar good reply at the next annual meeting ; it elicited much discussion, as we 
are informed by the minutes. 

We hope that this Association may not be wanting in the council of the Na- 



Am a p?°i,' i P 874. RM ' \ Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 207 

tional Association, in September next ; more youthful bodies have presented 
themselves, and were pleased with their reception. 



Tenth Annual Report of the Alumni Association, with the exercises of the 53d 
commencement of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and the Prospectus 
for the ensuing course of Lectures Philadelphia : 1874. 8vo, pp. 76. 

At the last annual meeting a change was made in the admission to member- 
ship ; every graduate of the College becomes a member of the Alumni Associ- 
ation by virtue of the Diploma granted by the College, and without paying any 
fee. Certificates of membership are issued and the printed annual reports are 
sent to those members only who pay the sum of $5, no further payment being 
required. This money is used for printing the annual reports, the one before 
us containing the minutes of the Association and its Executive Board, reports 
of the different officers and committees, the commencement and the reception 
of the graduating class, the latter having for the first time been graced by the 
presence of ladies — and the following addresses : Introductory to the last Course 
of Instruction, A Historical Review, by Mr. W. C. Bakes; and an eulogy on 
the late Professor Procter, by Mr. Jos. P. Remington. 



A Manual of Botany ; including the Structure, Functions, Classification, Pi o- 
perties arid Uses of Plants. By Robert Bentley, F. L. S., M. K. C. S. Eng., 
Professor of Botany, etc. Third edition. Loudon : J. & A. Churchill. 1873. 
12mo, pp. 815. 

An excellent work, which is particularly adapted to the pharmaceutical and 
medical student, and well calculated to serve as an introduction to the study of 
materia medica, since the plants which are useful either medicinally or economi- 
cally, are treated of somewhat in detail, and many references descriptive of 
their use have been attached. The extensive material is well and practically 
arranged, and its adaptation and usefulness for the beginner and more advanced 
student is conclusively proven by its extensive sale, which rendered this revised 
edition necessary, only three years after the publication of the second edition. 
The work is embellished with 1138 wood-cuts illastrative of the matter treated. 



Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Yol. viii. From 
May, 1866 to May, 1873. Boston and Cambridge : Welch, Bigelow & Co., 
1873. 8vo, 680 pages. 

A handsome volume, containing many valuable essays and memoirs upon 
scientific subjects. If we should wish for any improvement, it is the addition 
of a table of contents, which, we think, is not rendered unnecessary even by 
such a copious index as the one appended to this volume. 



Half Yearly Compendium of Medical Science. Edited by S. W. Butler, M. D., 
and D. G. Brinton, M. I). Part xiii, January, 1874. Philadelphia: Office 
of the Medical and Surgical Reporter. 8vo, pp. 298. $3 per year. 



Braithwaite's Retrospect of Practical Medicine and Surgery. Part lxviii, 
January, 1874. American edition. New York : W. A. Townsend. 8vo, 
pp. 324. Price, $2-50 a year. 



208 Obituary. { A Y P °r!t mf"* 

Half Yearly Abstract of the Medical Sciences. Edited by William Domett 
Stone. M. D. Vol. Iviii, January, 1873. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea. 8vo,. 
pp. 296. Price, S2 50 a year. 

The editor of the last named work, which has been published for a period of 
29 years, announces that it will be discontinued : but the American publisher 
has made arrangements for supplying a semi annual digest of the improvements 
and discoveries in the medical sciences. 



Changes of Temperature and Pulse in Yellow Fever. By Joseph Jones, M.D., 
Professor of Chemistry and Clinical Medicine University of Louisiana. Louis- 
ville, 1873. 

A reprint from the American Practioner. The results of the author's inves- 
tigations are summed up in the following concluding sentence of his essay. 

"It is evident, therefore, that the cause of the rapid rise and sudden decline 
of the temperature in yellow fever must be sought chiefly in the changes in- 
duced by the febrile poison in the blood, and in those organs, as the heart, liver 
and kidneys, upon which the circulation and integrity of the blood depends.'* 



OBITUARY. 

Thomas Newborn Robert Morson was born at Stratford le-Bow, London, 
and having lost his parents while yet young, and being then left without a 
guardian or family connections, was thrown to a great extent upon his own re- 
sources; but he overcame all difficulties of his early life, became the founder of 
a widely known and well reputed business, and the personal friend of many of 
the leading scientists and artists of his time. 

At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to an apothecary in Fleet Market, 
(now Farringdon Street), and went afterwards to Paris, to the establishment of 
M Planche, where he lived for several years. On his return to England, he 
established himself in business in the house where he had been apprenticed ; 
and here the sulphates of quinia and of morphia were for the first time manu- 
factured in England, and sold to the wholesale trade at 8 shillings a drachm 
for quinia, and 18 shillings for the same weight of morphia salt. He subse- 
quently moved to Southampton Row and afterwards built a laboratory in 
Hornsey Road for the manufacture of chemicals, &c. 

He was one of the founders, for many years a member of the Council, four 
years Vice- President, and three years President of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain, from the Council of which he retired in 1870. He took an 
active part in the publication of the Pharmaceutical Journal, and articles pre- 
pared lor publication were frequently seasoned, to use an expression of Mr. 
Bell's, with the " Attic salt" from Southampton Row. 

Mr. Morson was a man of enlarged mind and cultivated intellect and his 
house was a place of resort for men of genius who, on Sunday evenings> found 
ample scope for the discussion of their favorite topics in his company. 

In the early part of January last, he had an attack of paralysis, from which 
he did not recover; he died at his residence on Queen Street, Bloorasbury, on. 
he third day of March, in the seventy- fifth year of his age. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MAY, 1874. 

• * 

ON LAWS INTENDED TO REGULATE THE PRACTICE OP PHAR- 
MACY IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

By Charles C. Fredigke. 

When we examine the efforts made thus far to regulate the business 
of selling drugs in our country, we find that they emanate from a de- 
sire to raise that business to the dignity of a profession. It is worthy 
of note, that these efforts, instead of being brought forward by the 
people, in every instance proceed from those engaged in the business. 
They make the protection of the people a prime reason, culminating 
in graduation and registration ; but the laws enacted in some of the 
States fail entirely of their intention and purpose, besides incumber- 
ing the business and imposing expenses on those engaged in it. They 
run counter in every instance to the civil rights of the citizen. They 
must do this of necessity so long as the Constitution of the United 
States of America is not amended so as to bring the practice of 
pharmacy within the concern of the Government at large. Under 
the present conditions, no government of any one of the States of 
this Union possesses the right to regulate the practice of pharmacy, 
except in so far as the welfare of the Commonwealth demands, which 
depends upon its polity, that is, its constitution — the fundamental 
framework upon which the various departments of a government are 
based ; therefore the State can do this only in such a manner as not 
to interfere in the free pursuit of any avocation an individual may 
prefer, whether qualified or not. This is a fundamental right 
possessed by every citizen, and secured by the Constitution of the 
United States of America ; it is as broad as the Union of these States, 
being one of those which made our country what it is. Nobody can 
be called upon here to show evidence how he came about his pro- 
fession. His ability to practise it is the only evidence required. The 
question of qualification, the degree of ability, is no concern of the 

13 



210 Laws intended to Regulate {%t™;m£"~ 

Government at all, at least it has not been thus far, for this simple 
reason, that as soon as the Government requires qualification it must 
establish and maintain a governmental standard ; it cannot acknowl- 
edge as such, by any process of circumvention, the private standard 
of an incorporated college, managed by private individuals and sus- 
tained by private means. 

The State can, however, enforce laws to regulate the promiscuous- 
huckstering of drugs, the manufacture and sale of quack nostrums, or 
the adulteration of articles of consumption, on the ground of public- 
policy, that is to ensure the safety of the citizen, and on this only* 
It can make these laws so stringent as to practically stop the present 
huckstering of drugs and prevent the people from " doctoring 
themselves. But professional qualification for the selling of such 
drugs, or the manufacturing of such quack nostrums, it cannot 
demand, much less enforce, for the reasons stated. 

It will be seen then, that pharmacy, meaning a systematic knowl- 
edge of the art of preserving, preparing and compounding substances 
for the purposes of medicine, is not necessary in the business ©f 
selling drugs, is not required of the " druggist," pharmacy being no 
concern of the government at large. It exists in individual instances, 
but forming exceptions, as compared with the great majority of 
" dealers in drugs," is not worthy of consideration here, because we 
speak here of the business at large, in general, as it exists de facto 
in our country. 

In order to prove and show more clearly what has been main- 
tained, we will give an example : 

" A bill for an act to regulate the practice of pharmacy and sale of 
poisons and to prevent adulterations of drugs and medicinal prepara- 
tions in the State of Illinois," was introduced by Mr. Lee, ordered to 
a first reading, referred to Committee on Judiciary, and ordered 
printed March the 13th, 1874, at the last session of the General 
Assembly of the State of Illinois. This bill for an act is only, with 
a few additions and omissions, a counterfeit in imitation of the one 
at present in force as a law in Kentucky, that is, it is tolerated in 
that State, existing as it were by permission. We will assume thia 
bill to be a law in Illinois, and what is said of it on the strength of 
this assumption applies equally to what is a fact in the State of Ken- 
tucky. 

The bill consists of only one section and 18 paragraphs, including 
the first section and two schedules designated A and B. 



AM MayT;i8?4 RM '} The Practice of Pharmacy in the U. S. 211 

Section one makes it unlawful for any person, unless a registered 
pharmacist, or a registered assistant in pharmacy, to retail, compound 
or dispense medicines or poisons. 

§ 2. A person, in order to be registered, must be either a graduate? 
a practicing pharmacist or a practicing assistant in pharmacy. 

§ 3, defines these several persons. 

§ 4, creates a Board of Pharmacy, 12 candidates for membership 
of which office are proposed by the incorporated colleges of this State, 
from among whom the Governor appoints three to constitute said 
Board. Its duties are : to examine candidates, to supervise registra- 
tion and to cause the prosecution of all persons violating its pro- 
visions. 

§ 8. Any person not a registered pharmacist, keeping open shop,, 
becomes guilty of a misdemeanor and liable to a penalty of no less 
than 50 nor more than 200 dollars, provided, however, that in rural 
districts where there is no registered pharmacist within two miles, it 
shall be lawful for retail dealers (in or of what is not mentioned) to 
procure licenses from the Board of Pharmacy, at a fee of one dollar,, 
to sell the usual medicines and poisons. 

It further provides, that nothing contained in this act shall apply 
to, or in any manner whatever interfere with, the business of a whole- 
sale dealer in drugs and chemicals, nor with the making and dealing 
in proprietary remedies, popularly called patent medicines. 

What has been quoted is the sum and substance, the essence by 
means of which this bill is going to meet the wants of the State and 
the profession. In its practical points it closely resembles all other 
laws thus far brought forward in any of the States. We will see now 
how it will operate as a law : After we have graduated, been ex- 
amined and registered, and paid all the various licenses and fees, a 
retail dealer in a rural district, who may be dealing in hardware? 
dry goods or groceries, pays one dollar and then can sell any medi- 
cines or poisons, which ever he pleases ! A wholesale dealer can sell 
and retail all the various drugs, medicines and poisons, which we are 
prohibited from selling, without paying anything whatever, without 
being registered and examined ! After we have been examined and 
registered, and paid all the various licenses and fees, this law 
especially provides against interference with the manufacturer and 
dealer in quack-nostrums — he may go on swimmingly ! 

Where the much talked of protection to the people, the protection 



212 Laws intended to Regidate Pharmacy. { AM May 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1874. 



to ourselves and the progress to pharmacy comes in, is difficult to see. 
But that is not all ; for if that Board of Pharmacy gets judgment 
against a poor " dealer in drugs," in a police court or other retail 
court of justice, he will have to close his shop and sell his business. 
In this free country of ours, poverty ought not to be a bar to justice, 
for if that dealer possesses the means he will appeal the case to the 
Supreme Court of Illinois ; or if a Kenfcuckian, to that of his State, 
and receiving an adverse decision there, he appeals it to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, where he will obtain a judgment that 
would stagger any Board of Pharmacy ! It will then be his turn to 
bring an action at law against that Board of Pharmacy and those in- 
corporated colleges for damages and costs caused him by their uncon- 
stitutional interference with his civil rights, and that Board would 
certainly ask, what are we going to do about it ? They might peddle 
licenses for selling drugs and poisons to all the dealers in hardware, 
dry goods and groceries in the rural districts of Illinois, but that is 
out of the question, it is unconstitutional. That their power of regis- 
tration and examination is practically equivalent to nihil, needs not 
to be mentioned. 

All that any one of the States can do, is to enforce a most compre- 
hensive law prohibiting the promiscuous sale of drugs, regulate the 
sale of poisons and the manufacture and sale of quack nostrums, 
popularly called patent medicines ; it may also comprise the adultera- 
tion of drugs but in doing so must entirely abstract from profes- 
sional qualification. Such an act might also include all those articles 
which under any circumstances or by accidents may become injurious 
or dangerous, on the ground, as has been said before, of public policy 
and for no other reasons. 

If a State would create, maintain and enforce a system of medical 
and pharmaceutical supervision, there might be such a thing as phar- 
macy, but then it would have to establish a pharmacopoeia, an official 
formulary, published according to its orders, containing all the 
medical and pharmacal preparations, which ought and can be kept on 
hand by the pharmacist. In securing the public health against the 
dangers of empiricism and the deceiving seductions of the charlatans, 
it would be at the same time a reliable guide to the practitioner, and 
to the administration a means to assure order and supervision. But 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America lacks all these 
essential particulars ; the majority of druggists do not spend the cost 



%iyM874 RM '} The Practice of Pharmacy in the U. S. 213 

for the paper on which it is printed, know nothing definite about it, 
may or may not keep on hand whatever they please, and may or 
may not graduate the quality and strength of their drugs and 
preparations so as to stand in a suitable relation to the strength of 
their pockets ; everything is left to the progressive ideas of the indi- 
vidual, and nobody can compel him to care at all about it. Pharmacy 
might be made more remunerative, and at the same time considerably 
elevated in the estimation of the people, by a close working union or 
national organization of the druggists of the United States of America, 
by such means for instance, as the establishment of a uniform tariff 
of prices in the prescription as well as retail trade, agreed to and 
conformed to by every member, said tariff to be altered monthly in 
accordance with the state of the market ; but such an association de- 
pending on individual consent, is almost Utopian, because it requires 
a certain degree of honesty, foreign to the spirit of unscrupulous 
competition possessed by the majority, which does not care to bind 
itself by rules, even if we succeed to convince it, by figuring them out 
in dollars and cents. 

We are, therefore, no nearer to pharmacy than we were forty 
years ago, and the question will recur again and again : What are we 
going to do about it ? 

Chicago, April, 1874. 



SOLUTION OF THE CITRATE OF MAGNESIUM. 
By Charles G. Polk, M. D. 

I find in the Report of the Committee of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association a very pointed criticism, by Mr. Diehl, of Louis- 
ville, on a formula (published by me a short time before the publica- 
tion of the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia) in the Druggists Circu- 
lar, for a cheap citrate of magnesium. At the time of publication, 
the extremely high price of citric acid and the competition of trade, 
had really created a demand for a formula for an article that would 
answer the purpose, and yet be within the price the large mass of 
people could afford to pay. To meet that demand, the objectionable 
article was furnished. 

The practical point at issue is whether one hundred and twenty 
grains of carbonate of magnesium, decomposed by two hundred and 
forty grains of citric acid, is sufficiently active to meet the wishes of 
those who take the citrate of magnesium. 



214 Solution of the Citrate of Magnesium. { A \ J ™lmT' 

My experience is, that most of the persons who take the solution 
are satisfied with one of that strength ; and, really, nine times out of 
ten the customer is better off than he would have been had he taken 
a more powerful cathartic. It is a universal law of the animal econ- 
omy that over-excitation is attended with a corresponding debility. 
Super-catharsis is almost ever attended with subsequent inaction of 
the intestinal canal and constipation, the only exception to this rule 
being those cases in which a degree of congestion is induced sufficient 
to maintain considerable serous and biliary secretion. The injury 
inflicted by the patent pills of Jayne, Morrison, etc., is very great ; 
the physician, who alone has an intelligent view of these consequences, 
can only deplore, without the ability to correct or even modify, this 
evil. He can, however, when publishing a formula for a commercial 
article which the community demand and will have, give one so modi- 
fied as to open the bowels when constipated in a gentle yet effective 
manner, without the corresponding debility the old officinal formula 
would induce on persons of susceptible bowels. And really this 
cathartic evil, like many others society must encounter, must be en- 
dured, and, if possible, modified, without a chance of being escaped. 
Super-catharsis is a weak point in regular practice, where homoeo- 
pathy gains decided advantage ; in fact, the leading men of the regu- 
lar profession are now realizing this, and while shunning the charyb- 
dis on which the Hahnemannian is so often wrecked, also steer safe 
from the scylla on which the allopath was formerly unfortunate. 
While I do not denounce in toto active purgation when the derivative 
effect is required according to the direction of a physician, I cannot 
too strongly deprecate the use of active medicines in the hands of 
ignorant and uneducated persons. I am aware that it will be objected 
that this weak citrate will not move the bowels of some persons ; I 
admit that— -but are the masses to pay ten cents extra for a bottle in 
order to meet exceptional cases, the few with obdurate bowels ? I 
cannot see the necessity of it. I know a drug store in this city that 
sells on an average thirty bottles a week made by my formula, and I am 
informed it is very seldom that a complaint is made. Mr. Diehl states 
that my formula is but half the officinal strength ; if he intends the 
present officinal formula, he says 240 is but one-half of four hundred 
— a calculation somewhat at variance with my arithmetic. In filling 
physicians' prescriptions, the officinal directions should never be de- 
viated from, unless specified by the prescriber ; and as we have now 



^mp^mt^'} Solution of the Citrate of Magnesium. 215 

an excellent officinal formula, the officinal article should alone be sold 
under the officinal name, and if a modification from it be necessary, 
-the fact should be stated on the label. 

It should, however, be recollected that the Pharmacopoeia is de- 
signed to meet the wants of the medical and pharmaceutical profes- 
sions, and not to direct preparations for popular use, although it is 
far better to conform in every respect to its requirements, with spe- 
cific directions for its use accompanying each bottle or package. The 
solution of tartrate of sodium would make a good cathartic for popu- 
lar use, and, if once introduced and sold at its relative cost, no doubt 
it would, in a larger measure, supersede the more elegant and costly 
titrate. Phosphate of sodium, dissolved in eight times its weight of 
water and flavored with an aromatic syrup, forms a preparation ther- 
apeutically superior to either the magnesium citrate or the sodic tar- 
trate, and but very little more disagreeable, acting as a stimulant to 
the functions of the chylopoetic viscera, and exciting the biliary secre- 
tion. The following is a good formula : 

1^. Sodii Phosph., gi 
Aquae, ..... ^viii 
Syrup. Acidi Citrici, . . . ^iss. M. 

Take at once. 

Citrate of sodium could also be used as a pleasant cathartic. A 
solution is quite permanent, and is equally as agreeable as the mag- 
nesium citrate, but it presents no inducement in point of economy, and 
consequently offers no advantages that especially recommend it to our 
consideration over the present officinal formula for the latter. 

In conclusion, I will add, the weaker solution by me furnished to 
the Druggist's Circular answers very well as a mild cathartic, as 
hundreds of cases to whom I had prescribed it evince, and as several 
druggists, were they disposed, could verify ; but that it was not de- 
signed to take the place of the officinal one is indicated by the accom- 
panying formula for a solution of greater strength, recommended as 
its superior, and which furnishes a more agreeable preparation than 
I have ever seen furnished by any other formula, but the deficiency 
in acid impairs its permanence. Stability, however, has never 
been attained by any formula yet adopted ; previous to the publica- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia, I was working out a formula by which the 
magnesium solution would be held more entirely in solution by the 



216 Note on Sulphuric Acid, U. S. P. {^5^1,18™' 

addition of a drachm of potassic citrate to each bottle, and I had 
quite well succeeded. 

I cannot deprecate too severely the sale of Epsom salt, disguised 
and called " Citrate of Magnesia," although it is a "trick of trade"" 
entirely too common everywhere — even our own city, the cradle of 
American pharmacy, is not exempt. 

Philadelphia, April, 1874. 

Note by the Editor. — We do not agree with Dr. Polk that the- 
practical point at issue in the above question is whether the citrate 
of magnesium of the strength given in his formula is sufficiently ac- 
tive for most persons ; but whether an article, containing only three- 
fifths (which is not much over one-half) of the officinal quantity,, 
should be sold under the officinal name. The fact that it meets with 
a satisfactory sale at one Philadelphia drug store does not remove the 
objection ; but we should like to inquire about this apothecary, who 
adheres so conscientiously to the Pharmacopoeia that he offers to his- 
customers an article forty per cent, less in strength than the officinal, 
whether he requires of them also (bottle excluded) forty per cent, less- 
money than his neighbor must demand who follows the officinal direc- 
tions ? Dr. Polk's excellent arguments are for the Pharmacopoeia. 
Committee to determine, whether the strength of the solution should 
be reduced ; but not for the apothecary to decide this question, even 
though recommended by a score of physicians. If twelve ounces of 
the officinal solution is too large a dose, it would be better to intro- 
duce again bottles of one-half or two-thirds of that size. 

We have heard it repeatedly charged that Epsom salt is frequently 
sold as citrate of magnesium, yet ever since the introduction of this 
solution in this country we remember but one positive proof, and that 
was furnished in a paper by Prof. G. E. H. Markoe, published in 
the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1871 r 
p. 532—538. 

NOTE ON SULPHURIC ACID, U. S. P. 
By W. H. Pile, M. D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 21st. 

This acid, according to the present and previous Pharmacopoeias, 
should be of specific gravity 1*843. As remarked by Dr. Squibb* 
several years ago and repeated at the late meeting of the American 



A Va7i;i8 H 74 RM '} Hydrocyanic Acid as a Medicine. 21? 

Pharmaceutical Association, it is impossible to procure sulphuric acid 
of this density. Upon actual trial with recently made acid, none was 
found to be over 1*835 at 60° F. The question has arisen, why give- 
the officinal gravity of an acid, which druggists cannot make for 
themselves, at a higher density than the manufacturing chemists can* 
furnish ? 

I suggest as a reason for this, that the manufacturers of sulphuric 
acid always advertise and sell their acid as being of a standard den- 
sity of 66° B,, and the framers of the Pharmacopoeia, knowing this 
to be so, gave the corresponding specific gravity at 1-843, that being 
the usual number given in many chemical works as equivalent to 66° 
B. At any rate I am quite certain that if the specific gravity of the 
acid, so called 66°, had been experimentally taken it would have 
proved to be only 1-835. It is just here that a source of trouble 
arises. Any one upon examination of the tables appended to various 
chemical works, will be struck with the discrepancy which occurs in 
giving the specific gravity of Beaume"s hydrometer — England, France, 
Germany, each have a different scale. In this state of uncertainty 
one of our fellow-members, Wm. H. Pemberton, in 1851 selected a 
scale on this very account, namely, that the strongest sulphuric acid 
which manufacturers could readily make had a gravity of not over 
1*835; calling this gravity 66°B., all the remaining degrees were readi- 
ly calculated. From this scale, which will be found in the U. S. Dis- 
pensatory, I have always graduated my hydrometers, and have for 
23 years and over supplied nearly all the acid works of our country, 
thus fixing the density of sulphuric acid at 66° B., equal to 1*835 
specific gravity, and which density should certainly be that of the of- 
ficinal sulphuric acid. 



A PROPOSITION TO ABANDON THE PRESENT FORM OF 
HYDROCYANIC ACID AS A MEDICINE. 
By G. A. Zwick. 

In the February number, page 69, of the American Journal of 
Pharmacy, a series of examinations are reported on the strength of 
hydrocyanic acid as met with in commerce. The results of Mr. Tow- 
erzey's experiments prove what always has been surmised ; in fact any 
one dispensing hydrocyanic acid must have observed that the acid be- 
comes steadily weaker at each successive occasion to use it, even though 
not actually decomposed. 



218 Hydrocyanic Acid as a Medicine. { A Va7i',wi? M ' 

Of all the samples tested not one proved of standard strength ; even 
IsTo. 1, from a first class house, was below two per cent. This failing 
should be considered, in connection with the uncertainty of the drop- 
dose, in this case a matter of the utmost importance, and too often lost 
sight of. The vials in which hydrocyanic acid usually comes have thick 
necks and often no lip at all, and are about as awkward for dropping 
as they could be made ; this reminds of a label which I could never 
comprehend clearly ; it reads : " Hydrocyanic acid, minimum dose, 
one drop." How a minimum dose could be limited, considering the 
infinitesimals of Homoeopathy, can scarcely be imagined. 

Would it not be preferable to state the maximum dose, or, if this 
he not desirable, call it the dilute hydrocyanic acid of the U. S. P., 
or say simply that the contents are the two per cent. acid. But if all 
these objection had been removed, and the most scrupulous accuracy 
observed by the manufacturer, the most essential point, i. e., the 
•stability of the preparation, is not assured, nor is it even claimed by 
any of the modes of preparation or preservation ; there is then but 
one alternative left, which is, in fact, pointed out by the Dispensa- 
tory. It is noted that the more concentrated the hydrocyanic acid, 
the more it is inclined to chemical changes. Here then would be a way 
out of this dilemma, viz., to exhibit this medicine in a more dilute 
form. To do this and not multiply preparations would be very feasible, 
and I should think very satisfactory to physicians. This course has been 
adopted in the latest German Pharmacopoeia (vide Deutsche Reichs 
Pharmacopoe) in which hydrocyanic acid, as such, has been dismissed, 
and the "Aqua amygdalarum amararum concentratum" directed to con- 
tain one-tenth of one per cent, of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid. This 
being then just one-twentieth the strength of our officinal dilute two 
per cent, acid, a proportion at once convenient and admitting of pos- 
itive measurement, one scruple contains one minim of our present of- 
ficinal acid, and in this condition it is yet sufficiently strong for all 
practical purposes. It may be contended that bitter almond water is 
also prone to change, which to some extent is true, but if kept in a 
dark bottle and in a dark place it will certainly keep for six months, 
and I know of one sample that retained its full strength for one year. 

Our present bitter almond water made with the essential oil, as well 
as the hydrocyanic acid, would then be displaced by a valuable and 
reliable preparation, for if the oil of bitter almonds possess any medi- 
cinal virtue, the carbonate of magnesium will be pretty certain to 
remove it. 



A Miy t ?,'i P 874 RM "} Notes 071 Sugar-coated Quinia Pills. 219 

By referring to page 204 of the April number, I find a plan for 
keeping hydrocyanic acid, which need only be tried to be condemned : 
mercury at one end, with vulcanized rubber at the other, and the ele- 
ments of ammonia in the middle, will require a very short time to 
develop a fine odor of hydro-sulphuret of ammonia. This was proven 
to me some years ago, a Boston firm having put this acid up in blue one 
ounce bottles with vulcanized rubber stoppers. The style was splendid, 
but the contents of the bottle would never be mistaken for hydrocy- 
anic acid. 

Covington, Kg., April 15, 1874. 



NOTES ON SUGAR-COATED QUINIA PILLS. 
By A. B. Lyons, M. D., Detroit, Mich. 

At the request of a physician I recently made an examination of 
some samples of sugar-coated quinia pills, which are offered for sale 
in this city. The principal objects sought in the investigation were 
three, viz : 1st, to ascertain whether the pills contained the full 
amount of quinia claimed on the labels. 2d, to determine to what ex- 
tent other alkaloids of bark are substituted for quinia in their manu- 
facture. 3d, to arrive at some simple plan for estimating approxi- 
mately the quantity of quinia they contain. 

The pills examined were from five prominent manufacturing houses, 
which are designated in this paper simply by numbers. The results 
as tabulated below, show that such an investigation was not uncalled- 
for. Physicians who prescribe quinia in the form of sugar-coated pills 
«an no longer wonder at the uncertainty of the effects obtained there- 
from. 

The method pursued in the research was a simple one. The pills 
were digested in a little water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 
until completely dissolved or disintegrated. Caustic potash was then 
added in excess, and the mixture was repeatedly shaken with ether 
to dissolve out the precipitated alkaloids. The residue from the 
evaporation of this ethereal solution, after drying in a hot air-bath 7 
was accurately weighed, and thus the total amount of alkaloid soluble 
in ether was determined. 

If the quinine were tolerably pure, ether would extract the alkaloid 
perfectly, and the solution would exhibit no tendency to crystallize, 
and would leave, on evaporation, an easily fusible residue of a gummy 



220 Notes on Sugar-coated Quinia Pills. { *i*ftj5g* 

or resinous appearance. Cinchonia, being nearly insoluble in ether-,, 
would remain suspended in the aqueous solution. Quinidia and cin- 
chonidia would be dissolved only with difficulty by the ether, separat- 
ing from the solution on slow evaporation, or even without evapora- 
tion, in distinct crystals. 

Judged by the behavior of the ethereal solution, samples 1 and 2 were 
tolerably free from admixture of the cheaper alkaloids, a trifling 
amount of cinchonia alone showing itself. In No. 3, a large quantity 
of ether was required to dissolve the alkaloid, which was in part 
thrown down during the evaporation as an amorphous precipitate. 
Its characters did not in fact correspond exactly with those of any 
of the common bark alkaloids, but were, perhaps, such as might be 
exhibited by quinia after the action of excessive heat. No. 4 con- 
tained no alkaloid except quinia. No. 5 contained a very large pro- 
portion of the less soluble alkaloids. The ethereal solution crystal- 
lized freely, even without evaporation. The pills themselves were of 
a dark color, and, even after extraction with ether, the alkaloids 
yielded, on treatment with dilute sulphuric acid, a strongly colored 
solution. Evidently the "quinine" employed was an extremely 
crude article. These pills also, alone out of the five samples examined,, 
contained an excess of acid. 

In a second series of experiments, made by way of confirming the 
results already obtained, the amount of quinia was estimated from 
the sulphuric acid contained in the pills. Since sulphuric acid 
is easily estimated by a volumetric process, this method might be 
employed by those who have not the apyliances for making gravime- 
tric analyses. (Ten grains of quinia sulphate requires for precipi- 
tation 2-814 grs. of barium chloride.) For obvious reasons, however, 
this plan cannot be recommended as affording by itself any reliable 
information in regard to the amount of quinine present. 

The sparing solubility of the neutral sulphate of quinia, and the 
facility with which it crystallizes from a solution in hot water, suggests- 
a simple method of determining whether the pills contain the full 
amount of quinine claimed by the label. If two grains of quinine be dis- 
solved in six fluidrachms of hot water, crystals form sparingly in the 
fluid within a few hours after cooling. With a smaller quantity of 
water the crystallization is, of course, more rapid and abundant. I 
found that two grain pills from samples 1 and 2 yielded crystals when 
dissolved in five and a half fluidrachms of water. No. 3 crystallized 



\m. Jour. Phaem ) 
May. 1, 1874. j 



Helenium Autumnale. 



221 



only sparingly from a solution in one fluidrachm, and that in short 
massive crystals, totally unlike the delicate fibres and needles of 
genuine quinia. No. 4 crystallized very sparingly from three flui- 
drachms. No. 5 from two and a half, after the excess of acid had 
been carefully neutralized with dilute water of ammonia. 

It will be seen, by inspecting the table, that these results harmonize, 
except in the case of No. 3, with those obtained by actual analysis. 
I can hardly think that anything likely to be used as an excipient 
can interfere with the success of this test, which is moreover so sim- 
ple that it can be applied by those who make no pretensions to skill 
in chemical manipulation. The test may be applied practically thus : 
Dissolve a two grain pill in a fluidrachm of water, by boiling in a 
test tube. On cooling, the fluid should set into a dense network 
of fibrous crystals. Add a fluidrachm of water, or a larger quantity, if 
the first crystallization has been satisfactory, and heat till the crys- 
tals redissolve. In this way proceed until crystals form in the solu- 
tion only sparingly after cooling. The volume of fluid, in drachms, 
multiplied by 100, and divided by six, will give now, approximately, 
the percentage amount of true quinine in the pill. 

The annexed table exhibits the results of my experiments, and 
requires, perhaps, no further explanation or comment : 





Gross weight of 
2 gr. pill. 


Alkaloids solu- 
ble in ether, 
from five 2gr. 
pills. 


Sulphate of 
quinia from 
five 2gr. pills. 


One 2gr. pill 
crystallizes 
from water. 


No. 1 


4-8 grs. 


7-15 grs. 


9-55 


grs. 


5.5 drachms. 


No. 2 


4-7 " 


7.1 " 


9-5 


u 


5-5 " 


No. 3 


3«8 " 


5-55 " 


7-4 


a 


1- 


No. 4 


3-7 " 


4-65 " 


6-2 


(6 


3- 


No. 5 


4- " 


5.7 " 


4-3 


Ci 


2-5 " 



HELENIUM AUTUMNALE. 
By Francis J. Koch, G. P. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
This plant, belonging to the natural order Compositse, is a peren- 
nial plant, indigenous to this country, growing more abundantly in the 



222 Helenium Autumnale. {^JXu™" 

Southern and Southwestern States. It has a very hitter taste, and. 
is recommended by some in intermittent fever. 

PROCESS PURSUED IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE PLANT. 

Treatment with Ether. — A small quantity of the air dry plant wa& 
pulverized moderately fine, and macerated with stronger ether for four 
days ; at the expiration of this time the temperature was raised to* 
+110° F. for a short time, and then the substance was allowed to mace- 
rate for two days longer at the former temperature. The whole was 
then transferred to a percolator, and, after the liquid portion had run 
through, the dregs were entirely exhausted with stronger ether. The 
ethereal solution, which was of a dark-green color, with a blood-red 
hue in reflected light, had an acid reaction and a very bitter taste. 
It was allowed to evaporate spontaneously, lastly assisted by a gentle 
heat over a water bath. A small quantity of distilled water wa& 
added, and the heat continued until the whole was entirely free from 
ethereal and alcoholic odor, and then allowed to cool. The superna- 
tant liquid was poured off, and the undissolved resinous substance 
repeatedly washed with small quantities of distilled water. The liquid 
and washings were concentrated to about one-third their bulk and set 
aside to clear. 

The resinous substance undissolved by the water was then freed 
from adhering moisture by a gentle heat over a water bath. It had 
a dark-green color, a soft consistence and a bitter taste. (The bitter 
taste was subsequently found to be due to the insufficient exhaustion 
of the ethereal extract with water, the bitter principle being entirely 
soluble in water.) It was then warmed with a small quantity of 70 
per cent, alcohol, and allowed to digest ; the dissolved portion was 
then poured off, the residue washed repeatedly with 70 per cent, alco- 
hol ; the washings and solution evaporated to dryness left a resinous 
substance, of a light-brown color and a bitter taste, thereby proving 
the bitter principle to be soluble also in alcohol. The following sol- 
vents were applied to the resinous substance obtained with the 70 per 
cent, alcohol : H 2 S0 4 dissolved it entirely, the solution being light- 
brown ; on diluting with water it was changed to a beautiful rose 
color, and on further dilution the color disappeared with the produc- 
tion of a gray flocculent precipitate. Solution of KHO dissolved it, 
the hot solution more readily. NH^HO and HN0 3 dissolved it par- 
tially. In HC1 and CS 2 it was insoluble. In chloroform and benzin 
it was only slightly soluble. 



Eelenium Autumnale. 22$ 

A small quantity of the resinous substance was next subjected to 
the test for a glucoside. It was heated for fifteen minutes with diluted 
H 2 S0 4 (one part of acid to ten parts of water), then rendered alka- 
line by the addition of solution of NaHO, and a few drops of alka- 
line solution of CuS0 4 added, and the whole heated to the boiling 
point, whereby a precipitate of Cu 2 was formed, proving the pres- 
ence of glucose. 

The substance undissolved by the 70 per cent, alcohol was next 
treated with hot 90 per cent, alcohol, which dissolved it almost 
entirely, leaving only slight traces of fat. The alcohol, upon cooling r 
deposited all it had taken up, which consisted of wax, chlorophyll, 
and other coloring matter ; the deposit, after thoroughly washing 
with alcohol of the same strength, and then drying, was of a soft 
consistence, having a grayish-green color and a bland taste. 

The aqueous solution of the ethereal extract, which had been set 
aside to clear, was separated from a slight resinous deposit, concen- 
trated, filtered and set aside to crystallize. At the expiration of two 
days, no crystals having been formed in the liquid during this time r 
it was treated with the following reagents : NH 4 HO produced no 
change except deepening the color of the liquid. NH 4 HC0 3 had the 
same effect. CaCl 2 produced no change. Fe 2 Cl 6 produced a black 
coloration. Gelatin caused a turbidity. Neither Pb2C 2 H 3 2 nor tan- 
nic acid effected a change in the liquid. 

Treatment with Alcohol. — The dregs, after having been exhausted 
with stronger ether, were freed from all traces of ether by exposure 
to the air, and then digested in 95 per cent, alcohol for three days, 
at a temperature of +150° F., and then allowed to macerate for one 
day longer at an ordinary temperature, the whole thrown into a perco- 
lator, and the dregs thoroughly exhausted with alcohol of the same 
strength ; the washings added to the percolate, and the whole evapo- 
rated over a water bath. The resulting extract was treated with a 
small quantity of distilled water at a gentle heat, the whole allowed 
to cool, after which the solution was filtered off, the residue thoroughly 
washed with distilled water, the washings added to the solution, and 
the whole concentrated to one-half its bulk, and set aside in a cool 
place. The liquid was slightly bitter, having a faint acid reaction 
and a light-brown color. 

The portion of the alcoholic extract insoluble in water was dried 
and again dissolved in alcohol, treated with animal charcoal, filtered 
and evaporated. The resulting resin was of a dark-brown color, and 



224 Selenium Autumnale. \ Aw £™\mT' 

-entirely tasteless. It was soluble in CS 2 , less soluble in chloroform, 
insoluble in oil of turpentine, benzin and HN0 3 . The quantity ob- 
tained, being very small, allowed of no further experiments. 

The aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract, which had been con- 
centrated and set aside to crystallize, no crystals having been formed 
in two days, was subjected to the following reagents : NH 4 HO, KHO 
and Na 2 C0 3 deepened the color of the liquid, producing no further 
•change. CaCl 2 produced a copious yellowish white precipitate, solu- 
ble in HC 2 H 3 2 , rendering the presence of H 3 P0 4 probable. Fe 2 Cl g 
produced a black coloration and a slight black precipitate ; the black 
eolor did not disappear on the application of heat. Gelatin produced 
a turbidity, thereby confirming the presence of tannic acid, although 
in a small proportion, as no astringency was perceptible in the plant, 
nor in any of the extracts thus far obtained from it. Pb2C 2 H 3 2 
produced a dense precipitate, entirely soluble in HC 2 H 3 2 , thereby 
proving the absence of H 3 P0 4 , the presence of which had been ren- 
dered probable by the precipitate, soluble in HC 2 H 3 2 , which had 
been obtained on the addition of CaCl 2 to the solution. 

On application of Trommer's tet,t for glucose, a precipitate of Cu 2 
was formed. To convince myself in another manner of the presence 
of glucose, a decoction was made from a small quantity of the herb, 
the decoction treated with Pb2C 2 H 3 2 , the resulting lead compounds 
separated from the liquid by filtering, the excess of lead removed from 
the filtrate by H 2 S and filtering, the excess of H 2 S expelled by boiling 
and filtering ; the resulting clear yellow filtrate was evaporated to a 
syrupy liquid, which had a decidedly sweet taste, and on further evap- 
oration and heating it gave off the peculiar odor and possessed the 
taste of caramel. 

The remainder of the aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract was 
then treated with Pb2C 2 H 3 2 , the precipitate collected on a filter and 
washed ; the filtrate and washings were neutralized with NH 4 HO, 
whereby only a very slight turbidity was produced. 

The Pb2C 2 H 3 2 precipitate was treated with boiling water and fil- 
tered, the filtrate concentrated to a small bulk, and allowed to stand 
in a cool place to crystallize. After standing twenty-four hours, a 
small quantity of crystals of malate of lead were obtained. 

The portion of the Pb2C 2 H 3 2 precipitate, insoluble in boiling 
water, was dissolved in dilute HC 2 H 3 2 , then neutralized with NH 4 HO, 
whereby a precipitate was formed, which was washed, suspended in 



Am. Jour. Phabm > 
May 1, 1874. J 



Heleniam Autumnale. 



225 



alcohol, and treated with H 2 S, filtered, and then evaporated, which 
left a yellowish coating, which, on solution and application of Fe 2 Cl 6 
and gelatin, proved to be tannic acid. 

Treatment with Cold Water, — The substance, after having been ex- 
hausted with alcohol, was dried and then macerated with cold water, t 
in a cool place, for six days, and strained, which yielded a turbid . 
liquid of a light-brown color, tasteless, and neutral to litmus. On 
standing, a small quantity of inulin was deposited. The clear liquid 
was poured from the sediment, and heated to the boiling point, where- 
by a considerable amount of albumen was separated, which was fil- 
tered off, and the filtrate evaporated to one-half its bulk, after which 
the following reagents were applied : 

NH 4 HO and Na 2 C0 3 deepened the color of the solution. Fe 2 Cl 6 
produced no change. Pb2C 2 H 3 2 produced a slight flocculent precip- 
itate, soluble in HC 2 H 3 2 , which was afterwards proven to be color- 
ing matter. Trommer's test for glucose showed its absence in this 
solution. 

Treatment with Boiling Water, — The substance, after having been 
exhausted with cold water, was next treated with boiling water for 
one hour, then strained and concentrated to a small bulk, and sub- 
jected to the following reagents : 

NH 4 HO, Na 2 C0 3 , KHO, CaCl 2 , Fe 2 Cl 6 and tannic acid produced 
no change in the liquid, except that the color was deepened by the 
alkalies. Pb2C 2 H 3 2 produced a copious brown precipitate. 

The whole of the liquid was then treated with Pb2C 2 H 3 2 , and the 
precipitate separated by a filter and washed. The filtrate and wash- 
ings were neutralized with NH 4 HO, producing a slight yellowish-white 
precipitate, which was filtered off and the filtrate treated with 
Pb 2 02C 2 H 3 2 without producing any further change. 

The Pb2C 2 H 3 2 precipitate was then treated with boiling water, 
filtered, and the filtrate evaporated, which left a small crystalline resi- 
due, an organic acid in combination with lead, apparently malic acid. 

The portion of the Pb2C 2 H 3 2 precipitate insoluble in boiling water 
was digested in diluted HC 2 H 3 2 and filtered, the filtrate treated with 
NH 4 HO, which produced no precipitate, showing that nothing had 
been dissolved by the acid. The precipitate was then boiled with a 
solution of NallO and filtered, the filtrate tested with solution of 
Ca2HO for oxalic acid, giving a negative result. 
14 



226 



Helenium Autumndle. 



{Am. Jour. Phar . 
May 1, 1874. 



The slight yellowish-white precipitate, obtained by treating the fil- 
trate resulting from the precipitation of the decoction by Pb2C 2 H 3 2y . 
and filtering, was suspended in alcohol and treated with H 2 S and fil- 
tered ; after removing the excess of H 2 S and evaporating, no residue 
was left. The original precipitate apparently consisted of gum in 
combination with lead, and which evidently did not pre-exist in the 
plant as gum, but as inulin, which, by boiling, was converted into gum. 

A larger quantity of the herb was subjected to distillation with 
water, and yielded a perfectly clear and transparent distillate, neutral 
to test paper, tasteless, and possessing but a very faint odor, thereby 
proving the absence of volatile acids and bases, and the presence of 
a very minute quantity of volatile oil. 

The decoction remaining in the still was of a dark-brown color, 
having a very bitter taste and an acid reaction. It was evaporated 
to a solid extract, over a water bath, and treated with alcohol, which 
took up the whole of the bitter principle, leaving a brown extract-like 
mass, consisting of gum, fat, coloring matter, &c. 

The alcoholic solution was evaporated to a solid extract, over a water 
bath, and a portion treated, in several small portions, with NH 4 HO, 
KHO, Na 2 C0 3 and KHC0 3 , with a view of obtaining a crystallizable 
salt, but without success. 

The remainder of the extract was boiled with diluted HgSO^ (one 
part of acid to ten parts of water) for fifteen minutes, the acid solu- 
tion neutralized with BaC0 3 , the BaS0 4 removed, and the clear liquid! 
tested for glucose by Trommer's test, which produced the characteris- 
tic precipitate of Cu 2 0. The portion left behind by the diluted acid' 
was of a liver-brown color, pulverizable, yielding a light-brown pow- 
der, of an exceedingly bitter taste, producing violent irritation and 
sneezing when drawn up into the nostrils. 

It is supposed by some that the plant possesses poisonous properties. 
Whether or not the bitter, amorphous substance which I obtained 
from the plant possesses such properties I did not undertake to deter- 
mine. 

From the results of the above experiments, it seems that the bitter 
principle is a glucoside, soluble in ether, alcohol and water, freely in 
the first two menstrua, and boiling water dissolving it more readily 
than cold water ; and by application of diluted H 2 S0 4 , with heat, 
splitting up into glucose and an uncrystallizable, bitter amorphous 
substance, having an acid reaction. The herb contains also some 



k %™'Jm™'} Resina Podophylli. 227 

malic acid, traces of tannic acid, inulin, albumen, traces of fat and 
volatile oil, resin, chlorophyll, and other coloring matter. 

A small quantity of the herb was incinerated, and found to contain 
sulphate, chloride and carbonate of iron, calcium, magnesium and 
potassium. 



RESINA PODOPHYLLI. 
By Frederick B. Power, G. P. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Eight troy ounces of powdered podophyllum were treated as per 
formula for resina podophylli, U. S. P., 1870, until the alcoholic 
percolate ceased to cause a precipitate when dropped into water, and 
passed perfectly colorless ; the residue contained in the percolator was 
dried and found to weigh seven troy ounces and two drachms, the 
amount of moisture in the powder having been previously ascertained 
and found to be 5 per cent., leaving the amount of soluble matter 
abstracted by the alcoholic menstruum about 4 per cent. 

The precipitated resin was allowed to drain, and washed with suc- 
cessive portions of cold water until freed from acid, and the washings 
upon evaporation left no residue ; the yield of resin thus obtained 
after careful drying was two drachms or three per cent. ; it was of a 
light yellowish brown color, and presented a marked contrast with 
some of the commercial specimens examined. The percentage of 
resin seeming small, a larger quantity of selected rhizomes was 
operated upon, but the percentage in both instances was the same ; 
the rhizomes, however, had been previously deprived of the radiclert 
and it being known that these are at least quite as rich in resin, the 
operation might have led to different results had they not been 
detached. 

The mother liquor remaining after the precipitation of the resin, 
together with the washings therefrom, was concentrated by evapora- 
tion, when a portion of resinous matter separated, which was found 
to be entirely soluble in alcohol, being precipitated by water ; but by 



228 



Resina Podophylli. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
| May 1, 1874. 



treatment with ether, was divided into two portions, soluble and 
insoluble, therein maintaining about the same degree of solubility as 
the precipitated resin. The exact amount of this substance was not 
ascertained, but must be at least ten per cent, of that originally ob- 
tained by precipitation. The portion of alcoholic resin insoluble in 
ether thus separated by the concentration of the mother liquor, was 
taken in doses of five grains, producing only a slight cathartic action, 
attended by no unpleasant effects, while the ethereal resin taken in 
tb e same amount proved to be an active emeto-cathartic, very violent 
in its action, producing vomiting and purging, attended with severe 
griping, sense of dryness in the throat and dilation of the pupils, the 
effects lasting for about twenty-four hours ; the latter effect I have 
never seen recorded, and may possibly only be produced by an exces- 
sive dose ; but it was plainly marked in this instance, affording con- 
clusive evidence that the substance thus separated is identical with the 
precipitated resin, at the same time establishing the fact that the so- 
called resin of podophyllum is not a true resin, which term, as applied 
by the older chemists in its widest sense, distinguishes those substances 
insoluble in water, generally soluble in alcohol, for the most part un- 
crystallizable, and melting when warmed ; it might with some degree 
of propriety be called a resinoid, from its resemblance to a resin, but 
this in turn is so vague in its meaning, that the nomenclature adopted 
by our Pharmacopoeia may be more conveniently used until its true 
composition is more definitely determined. 

The concentrated mother liquor when filtered was of a yellowish 
red color, possessing a slight bitter taste and strong acid reaction ; no 
precipitate was produced by iodohydrargyrate of potassium, tannic 
acid, mercuric chloride or tincture of iodine, indicating the absence of 
any organic alkali ; the statement of berberina having been separated 
from this liquid must have been applied with reference to the former 
officinal resin, precipitated without the agency of hydrochloric acid, 
as in the present process it was found to have been entirely pre- 
cipitated. 

The liquid, however, when quite dilute, frothed strongly upon 
agitation ; the color was rendered much brighter upon the addition of 
alkalies, Ferric chloride colored it olive green, baryta water pro- 
duced a dense precipitate, but it was not precipitated by a solution of 
gelatin ; when mixed with anhydrous alcohol, a perfect solution was 
formed, which however did not froth ; added to an alkaline solution 



Am. Jou». Pharm ) 
May 1,1874. J 



Resi7ia Bodophylli. 



229 



of cupric oxide, it became of a bluish green color, forming upon 
standing, a slight flocculent precipitate, "which upon boiling turned to 
reddish brown. The liquid, when freed as much as possible of color- 
ing matter by ether, was precipitated by barium hydrate, the precipi. 
tate collected and washed with a solution of the same, dissolved 
in a small portion of water and the barium removed by C0 2 , the 
resulting solution upon evaporation possessed the peculiar odor of 
saponin, tending to confirm the statement of Professor Mayer as to 
the presence of this substance, to which is no doubt partially due the 
extremely irritating effect upon the eyes and skin, experienced by 
those engaged in the manufacture of the resin on a large scale. 

The residue contained in the percolator, after exhaustion by alcohol, 
was macerated with cold water for five days, filtered and evaporated 
to the consistence of an extract, possessing a sweetish odor, in color 
and taste closely resembling the English extract of taraxacum. This 
was taken in doses of from ten to twenty grains, producing only 
slightly laxative but decided tonic effects. Although proving that 
the rhizome after exhaustion by alcohol is almost entirely destitute of 
cathartic properties, yet the extract thus obtained may, upon trial, 
merit some application. 

This extract was again liquified and treated with purified animal 
charcoal, which nearly deprived it of color ; the solution gave a dense 
precipitate upon the addition of alcohol, which, when separated, by 
treatment with ferric chloride and solution of borax, was found to 
consist principally of gum. The solution, after the removal of the 
gum, contained extractive matter with some sugar ; the latter, after 
separation by ether, was indicated by Trominer's test, and upon evap- 
orating the solution and heating the odor of caramel was evolved. 
The charcoal was then exhausted with boiling alcohol ; this liquid, 
however, upon evaporation, left but a slight amorphous residue. 

Upon the officinal resin, as previously obtained, sulphuric and 
hydrochloric acids produce no change of color in the cold; nitric acid 
colors it deep reddish brown ; when heated with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid it is partially dissolved, forming at first a yellowish solu- 
tion, which soon changes to a deep blood red, and upon dilution with 
water, separates flocks of a brownish red color. The portion undis- 
solved by the concentrated acid is dissolved by alcohol with the 
formation of the same blood red color. The resin, when boiled with 
diluted sulphuric acid, is also partially dissolved, forming a red solu- 



I 



230 



Retina Podophylli. 



{ Am. Jour. Phaem. 
t May 1, 1874. 



tion, though more slowly, and the filtered liquid is not capable of 
reducing cupric oxide in alkaline solution. 

The resin fuses at 220° F., which was ascertained by placing a 
portion upon the surface of mercury, with a thermometer immersed 
in the liquid, and applying a carefully regulated heat ; when heated 
on platinum foil it melts to a brownish liquid, and upon increasing 
the heat, takes fire and burns with a bright sooty flame with consider- 
able empyreuma, leaving light porous charcoal. Two grams of the 
resin were boiled with a fluidounce of water, imparting thereto a light 
yellow color, while the resin ran together, forming a soft brownish 
mass, becoming brittle on cooling. The liquid was filtered while hot, 
by means of an arrangement for hot filtration, it was transparent 
while hot, but became turbid upon cooling, and upon evaporation of 
the liquid, separated resinous flocks. Upon weighing the resin after 
this treatment it was found to have lost 0*03 grams. The ethereal 
resin yielded similar results. 

The resin is entirely soluble in amylic and methylic alcohol, acetone, 
officinal solution of potassa, forming, when diluted, a bright yellow 
solution ; it is also soluble in carbolic acid, with which it seems to 
combine, depositing, upon evaporation, reddish yellow crystals, but is 
insoluble in turpentine. 

Supported by a series of experiments made with the alcoholic and 
ethereal portions of this resin, I can confirm the statements that have 
been previously made, that while the portion of resin insoluble in 
ether is not without some activity, the ethereal resin is very much 
more active, and is to be preferred for medicinal use. 

By the following tabular statement, the relative value of the offici- 
nal resin, as compared with some commercial varieties, will be seen 
based upon the relative activity of the ethereal and alcoholic resin ; 
all were found to be free from admixture, and with one exception 
were found to be superior to many specimens of western manufacture ; 
the difference in color is probably due to various modifications in the 
process of preparation, by the application of heat in the separation of 
the resin, which no longer becomes necessary with the use of hydro- 
chloric acid, or by the addition of a greater or less amount of muriate 
of berberina. 

No. 1. U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 1870; light yellowish brown. No. 2. 
B. A. Hance, Philadelphia : bright yellow. No. 3. Manufacturer 
unknown : dark brown. No. 4. B. Keith k Co., N. Y. : yellowish. 



A Va y U i, r8 H 74 EM '} Remarks on Resin of Podophyllum. 231 

"brown. No. 5. Charles Ellis, Son & Co., Philadelphia : bright 
yellow. No. 6. Tilden & Co., New Lebanon, N. Y. : bright yellow. 

Action of Solvents upon five grams of Resin. 



Soluble in Turpentine, 
" Ether, . . 
" Chloroform, 
" Carb. Bisulph. 
"Petrol. Benzin 
" Officinal solu- 
tion Potassa re-pre- 
cipitated by HC1 in 

excess, 

Loss, 



Insoluble 

4-6 
0-02 



017 
0-21 



Insoluble 

3-95 
0-01 



0.77 
0-27 



3 



Insoluble 

2-95 
001 



1-65 
0-39 



Insoluble 

3-55 
0-015 



1-2 

0-235 



Insoluble 

4-2 
0-005 



0-52 
0-275 



Insoluble 

4-3 
0-02 



0-51 
017 



Solubility of two grams of Ethereal Resin. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Soluble in Chloroform, . . 


14 


1-25 


1-6 


1-32 


1-15 


1-2 


" " Carbon Bisulphide, . 














u " Petroleum Benzin, 














" " Ether or Alcohol, . 


0-45 


0-55 


0-3 


0-45 


0-70 


0-6 




0-15 


0-20 


0-1 


0-23 


0-15 


0-2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 



Some experiments were made with a view of isolating the white 
alkaloid, stated some time since by Professor Mayer to be contained 
in that portion of the former officinal resin which is insoluble in ether, 
but by the present process, should its hydrochlorate be soluble in 
water, it should have been present in the mother liquor, remaining 
after the precipitation of the resin, but was not there detected. 



REMARKS ON RESIN OF PODOPHYLLUM. 
By J. M. Maisch. 

Five or six years ago, while attempting to ascertain the amount of 
berberina in the officinal resin of podophyllum as prepared by myself 
by the process of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia for 1860, I obtained, by 
treatment with boiling water, on cooling the filtrate, a light brownish- 



232 Remarks on Resin of Podophyllum. {^gft^KP 

yellow powder, which was at first supposed to be the native berberina 
salt, but was found to be entirely free from this alkaloid. On con- 
tinuing the treatment of the undissolved residue with boiling water, 
the filtrate, on cooling, continued to deposit a powder, at first of the 
same color as that previously obtained ; but subsequent portions of 
the clear filtrate separated a much darker colored powder. A com- 
paratively small amount only of the officinal resin appeared to be in- 
soluble in the hot water, but its percentage was not ascertained. 

This observation was conclusive proof that the term resin is a mis- 
nomer for this officinal preparation, although it is the best descriptive 
|term that, in our present state of knowledge, can be applied. But 
the behaviour to water, as indicated above, appears also to point to 
a method whereby the constituents of this so-called resin may be 
separated from each other, or their complete separation be verified. 
To the above facts I have since called attention in my lectures, en- 
deavoring to induce some one having sufficient time at command to 
investigate the true chemical nature of this preparation. It is to be 
regretted that Mr. Power's time did not permit him to pursue the 
subject further. 

The complete solubility of the active portion of resin of podophyl- 
I lum in water being conclusively proven, it may perhaps be taken ad- 
vantage of in such cases where it is to be given in very small doses, 
and in a pleasant liquid form. But the precise extent of this solo^ 
bility in water of different temperatures requires to be ascertained. 

In a paper by Mr. C. Bullock (see American Journal of Pharmacy y 
1862, p. 114,) it is stated, upon the authority of the "Journal of 
Materia Medica," that the resin soluble in ether varies considerably 
with the season in which the officinal rhizome is collected ; careful 
assays of the latter as collected monthly, (in the Middle States) from 
April to October, can alone determine the extent of this variation, 
and may then, perhaps, also clear up the contradictory statements re- 
lating to the activity of the portion insoluble in ether; of this solvent 
not only the commercial name (washed or concentrated ether) should 
be given, but its correct specific gravity at 60° F. should always be 
ascertained. Those interested in this investigation are referred also 
to a note by Prof. Procter, in the American Journal of Pharmacy y 
1860, p. 210. 



An. Jour. Pparm. \ 
May 1,1874. j 



Aqua Camphor ce. 



233 



AQUA CAMPHORS 
By Franklin T. Hartzell, G-. P. 
Extract from an Inaugural Essay. 

The officinal formula for this preparation seems theoretically de- 
fective. The Pharmacopoeia merely directs that the camphor, re- 
duced to a pasty mass with alcohol, be rubbed with the carbonate of 
magnesium and water, and filtered. In practice I have found that 
the resulting milky liquid, however carefully rubbed, becomes more 
or less lumpy or gritty in consequence of the precipitation of the 
camphor among the particles of the magnesia on the addition of 
water. It is obvious that the particles of camphor enveloped in these 
little lumpy masses are not in a favorable condition for solution in 
the water. This difficulty is easily obviated. In making camphor 
water I discard the use of alcohol entirely. With a few drops of 
ether I reduce the necessary quantity of camphor, in a mortar, to an 
impalpable powder in a few moments. The ether evaporates instantly 
and is not open to the same objection as the alcohol, that of contami- 
nating the resulting medicated water by its presence. I then rub the 
powdered camphor with the magnesia and a part of the water, and 
pour the liquid through a funnel sieve into a bottle of the requisite 
size, returning to the mortar the lumpy portions that at first refuse to 
pass through the sieve, and rubbing them with more of the water. If 
the resulting milky liquid be now thoroughly agitated, and filtered 
immediately, the camphor water will be found to be decidedly stronger 
than many specimens, made by the ordinary process, that have stood 
some time and received occasional agitation before filtering ; and if it be 
allowed to stand in the stock bottle, occasionally agitated, and filtered 
off when wanted for use, its superiority to that made in the officinal way 
will be perceived to be unquestionable. In making large quantities of 
camphor water, the powdered camphor might first be passed through 
a tolerably fine sieve, dry, so as to avoid the annoyance, when rubbing 
it with the magnesia and water, of encountering any lumps, which, 
through the carelessness of the operator, might have been left undis- 
solved by the ether. But in making either large or small quantities, 
the milky liquid should be poured through the funnel sieve, and the 
lumpy portions rubbed down in the manner previously described. 



334 Gleanings from the European Journals. { kH u*™\m¥*' 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

The constitution of Tannic Acid. — Hugo Schiff gives a critical re- 
Tiew of the researches on this subject, particularly since the investi- 
gations of Strecker,* and from these as well as his own experiments 
arrives at the conclusion that the presence of glucose is entirely un- 
important for the reactions generally ascribed to tannic acid, and 
that, therefore, this compound, if perfectly pure, is not a glucoside. 

Gallic acid was slowly heated with oxychloride of phosphorus to 
between 115 and 120° C, and kept at this temperature for several 
hours ; during this process only hydrochloric acid gas was evolved; 
The residue in the flask was purified from gallic and phosphoric acids 
by washing with absolute ether, dissolving in cold water, filtering and 
precipitating by table salt. After further purification an amorphous 
and inodorous mass was obtained, possessing all the chemical reactions 
of tannic acid, and which, by boiling with dilute muriatic or sulphuric 
acid, was completely converted into gallic acid, from which tannic acid 
was again obtained by treatment with phosphor-oxychloride. This 
reconversion of one substance into the other was repeated three times ; 
the wash waters collected in the proceess contained neither glucose 
nor any other saccharine body. Ultimate analysis gave results agree- 
ing with the formula (C u H 10 O 9 ) for tannic acid, and it is accordingly 
formed from gallic acid by the abstraction of water (2C 7 H 6 5 — H 2 0) ; 
being the first anhydride of two molecules of gallic acid, it is digallic 
acid. 

The same result was more easily obtained when gallic acid was 
treated with arsenic acid, which is not reduced thereby. Commercial 
tannin contains glucose ; on dissolving it in a solution of acetanhydride 
in an equal volume of glacial acetic acid, heating to boiling and then 
pouring into water, triacetylglucose is dissolved and pentacetyltannic 
acid precipitated. The latter yields, by recrystallization, white wart- 
like crystals, from which the digallic acid may be obtained by plumbic 
hydrate. 

The tannin of galls appears to be C 34 H 28 22 , that is C 6 H 12 6 (glucose) 
-{- 2C u H 10 O 9 (digallic acid) — 2H 2 0. This compound is readily sol- 
uble in ether diluted with water and alcohol ; but if absolute ether 
containing little alcohol is employed, the gallotannin is decomposed, 



See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1855, 49. 



AM Mi7iii8 fl 74 RM } Gleanings from the European Journals. 235 

and but little glucose enters into solution. The variable composition 
of commercial tannin is, therefore, due to the menstruum employed 
in its preparation, and the different amounts of glucose obtained by 
various investigators are thereby satisfactorily explained. — Annalen d. 
Chem. und Pharm. clxx, 43-88. 

Buchu Leaves. — Professor Fluckiger obtained from the volatile oil 
of Barosma betulina, by exposure to cold, a stearopten, crystallizing 
in handsome needles and resembling the stearopten of peppermint oil ; 
the elseopten, rectified over sodium, has the composition C 10 H 16 O. 
The aqueous infusion of the leaves contains, besides mucilage, a body 
allied to quercitrin or rutin, which is not altered by ferrous salts, but 
•colored brown-greenish by ferric chloride. The mucilage is contained 
in a thin layer of cells (collenchyma) situated immediately beneath 
the epidermis of the upper surface. This layer expands very consider- 
ably if the cross-section of a leaf is immersed in glycerin, or more 
rapidly in water. The expanded collenchyma has one-half the thick- 
ness of the leaf of Barosma betulina ; but fully two-thirds of the 
thickness of the leaves of B. crenulata, B. serratifolia and Empleurum 
serratifolium, all of which are much thinner than those of the first- 
named species.— 2V. Repert. f. Pharm., 1874, p. 102-105. 

Adulteration of Volatile Oil of Mustard.— Dr. Hager (Pharm. 
Central Halle) has obtained a sample of this oil which was heavier 
than water, and was probably adulterated with oil of gaultheria, for 
its solution in alcohol was colored violet by ferric chloride. 

Balsam of Tolu. — P. Carles obtained the acid from soft and hard 
tolu balsam by digesting it with water and cooling. After recrystal- 
lizing from alcohol and water, the nature of the acid was determined 
volumetrically and the figures 147*85 and 148*40 were obtained for 
the acid as obtained from hard and soft tolu respectively. The combin- 
ing weight of benzoic acid, C 7 H 6 2 , being 122, and that of cinnamic 
acid, C 9 H 8 2 , = 148, the author concludes that tolu balsam contains 
only cinnamic, but no benzoic acid. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 
1874, Feb., 112. 

Iodine Caustic is prepared by Bieseberg by dissolving four grams 
of iodine in eight grams of glycerin. It is used in lupus by applying 
it once every other day, and covering the parts with gutta percha. 
This treatment is continued for several weeks. — Ibid. 140. 



236 Gleanings from the European Journals. { k *K^,mt* m 

Fluid extract of Chestnut Leaves. — Dr J. Eisenmann, assistant 
physician at the policlinic of Vienna, has experimented with this 
preparation, made from the leaves of the European variety of Castanea 
vesca, collected during the months of June, July and August. The 
remedy was tried only in such cases of whooping-cough which had but 
recently entered into the spasmodic stage, and in which the subse- 
quent course of the disease could be well ascertained. Tried in com- 
parison with belladonna, extr. cannabis indicse, chloral hydrate, inha- 
lation of petroleum vapor, etc., the results were such that the author 
calls the attention of European physicians to this remedy, which was 
prepared by the formula published in this Journal, 1871, p. 530. — - 
Zeitschr. d. Oesterr. A path. Ver., 1874, 192, from Wiener Mediz. 
Presse. 

Permanganic Acid and the Volatile Oils. — A mixture of two parts 
of perfectly dry permanganate of potassium with two or three parts of 
concentrated sulphuric acid is a most powerful oxidizing agent, owing 
to the separation of permanganic acid and its immediate decomposition 
with the liberation of oxygen, Volatile oils are violently affected by 
this mixture, if about ten drops are placed in a little dish and then 
touched with a stout glass rod previously dipped into the mixture. 
The following produce explosions, often most violently : oils of thyme, 
mace, turpentine rectified, spike, cinnamon, origanum, rue, cubeb and 
lemon. The following oils are simply inflamed, particularly if poured 
upon blotting paper and then touched with the mixture, though under 
certain still unknown circumstances explosion may occur : Oils of 
rosemary, lavender, cloves, rose, geranium, gaultheria, caraway, 
cajuput, bitter almond and rectified petroleum. The following sub- 
stances are ignited without explosion : alcohol, ether, wood spirit, ben- 
zole, chlorelayl, sulphide of carbon and cotton. Gun cotton and gun- 
powder are not ignited. — N. Bepert. f Pha?-m., 1874, 177. 

lodo-Bromide of Calcium Compound, By J. R. Black, New York, 
recommended as an alterative and in cholera, cutaneous diseases, etc., 
has been analyzed by Dr. Goddefroy of Vienna and found to contain 
the chlorides of calcium, aluminium, magnesium and sodium ; bromide, 
iodide, sulphate, phosphate and silicate of sodium, and nitrate of po- 
tassium. It is probably identical with the so-called chloralum. — 
Pharm. Zeitung, 1874, No. 22. 

Neutral Iodide of Potassium.* — T. B. Groves finds the following 
* See page 141 of the March number of this Journal. 



AM Ma°y D t i?74 RM " \ Gleanings from the European Journals. 237 

the simplest method for obtaining the salt entirely neutral; the com- 
mercial salt is dissolved in just sufficient water, its alkalinity is neu- 
tralized with dilute sulphuric acid, a small quantity of alcohol is added 
to remove the sulphate of potassium, and the liquid filtered and evap- 
orated to crystallize. The crystals are small, colorless and speedily 
turn yellow in contact with the air. The neutral iodide seems to be 
unable to withstand the combined attacks of ozone and carbonic acid, 
until a certain degree of alkalinity has been established. 

Alfred Southall, in manufacturing this chemical, finds it necessary 
to have the solution as nearly neutral as possible in order to obtain 
semi-transparent crystals ; in the presence of an excess of acid opaque 
crystals are obtained. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Feb. 21, p. 669. 

(Our limited experience with iodide and bromide of potassium 
points to the necessity of having the solutions alkaline in order to 
obtain opaque crystals. — Editor Am. Journ. Pharm.) 

Fused Nitrate of Silver, as met with in commerce, is variable in 
color and often quite black. £. Bouilhon regards as the principal 
causes the presence of some chloride of silver, the decomposition dur- 
ing fusion of a portion of nitrate of silver, or the presence of some ox- 
ide of copper. White lunar caustic is sometimes even more impure 
in consequence of the addition of potassium nitrate. The author ob- 
tains unobjectionable results by the following manipulation : 20 grams 
pure nitrate of silver, five grams distilled water and one gram pure 
nitric acid are heated, with the precaution that the margin of the so- 
lution is not overheated. After the evaporation of the liquid the 
heat is carefully regulated and after the salt has commenced to fuse 
it is often stirred with a glass rod to detach the solid mass when ad- 
hering to the sides. When about three-fourths of the salt has lique- 
fied, it is at once poured into a perfectly clean suitable copper-mould, 
when the sticks are obtained of unobjectionable solidity and opaque 
whiteness. The residue in tie capsule should be treated with water 
and nitric acid as before. — L Union Pharm., 1874, Feb., 35. 

Potassium Nitrate in Amarantus.* — A. Boutin has obtained from 
Amarantus melancholicus ruber, after drying at 100^ C, 16 per ct. 
nitrate of potassium, equal to 22 grams of nitrogen and 72 grams of 
potassium for each kilogram of the herb. A. atropurpureus yielded 
22.77 per cent, potassium nitrate, equal to 31 grams of nitrogen and 

* See also American Journal of Pharmacy, 1873, p. 266. 



238 Chloral Hydrate and Camplior. 

103*5 grams potassafor one kilogram of dry herb. — Journ. de Pharm. 
et de Chim., 1871, April, p. 285. 

Ointment for prurigo. — Norwegian tar 15 grams, Rousseau's laud- 
anum* 2 grams, lard 60 grams. Mix. To be used morning and 
evening. Dr. Girou de Buzareingnes. — Ibid. p. 299. 

lodated Sprup of Coffee. — Dr. Calvo recommends syrup of coffee 
as the best vehicle for disguising the taste of iodide of potassium, and 
proposes for the administration of this salt, a syrup made by dissolving 
16 grams of the iodide in 500 grams of syrup of coffee. Dose, a table- 
spoonful, twice or thrice daily. — Ibid. p. 299. 



CHLORAL HYDRATE AND CAMPHOR. 
By J. F. Brown. 

When camphor in fine powder is rubbed in a mortar with an equal 
weight of pure crystallized hydrate of chloral, the mass becomes 
damp, and slowly dissolves to form a syrupy liquid, strongly resem- 
bling glycerin in appearance. 

A rise in temperature of about three degrees Fahr. accompanies 
this change, showing that a chemical reaction of some kind must 
evolve heat more than sufficient to counterbalance the loss of sensible 
heat which always attends the passage of a substance from the solid 
to the liquid state. 

No acid or irritating fumes, however, were perceptible during the 
solution, and the resulting liquid was neutral to test paper. i 

It was unaffected by solution of silver nitrate, left a greasy stain 
when dropped upon paper — permanent for some hours — and retained 
the taste and smell of its components. 

A slip of paper dipped into it did not ignite very quickly when 
brought near a light, but burnt with a bright white flame, having 
emerald green edges. 

It was readily soluble in alcohol and ether, but distilled water con- 
verted it into a soft translucent solid, from which, after some time, 
hydrate of chloral appeared to be dissolved out, leaving the camphor 
in crystalline grains. 

* Rousseau's laudanum is made by fermenting 1 p. opium, 3 p. honey and 15 
p. water, with some yeast, expressing, filtering and evaporating to 3 p., after 
which 1 p. alcohol is to be added. — Paris Codex. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.1 
May 1, 1874. J 



Meat Extract. 



239 



These facts appear to point to an abstraction of water by the cam- 
phor, and solution of the latter in the liberated chloral ; but such an 
avidity for water , is not shown by camphor under ordinary circum- 
stances, and the cause of this curious liquefaction is not easily dis- 
cernible. 



[*** Some time since the Medical Record quoted from an Ameri- 
can source a statement that if camphor be powdered by rubbing it in 
a mortar with a few drops of spirit, and an equal weight of chloral 
hydrate added, a liquid is produced which is a valuable local anaes- 
thetic. Mr. Lennox Browne, writing to the British Medical Journal 
(March 7th, p. 304), confirms this statement, and says that it is of 
the greatest value as a local application in neuralgia. Mr. Browne 
having employed it during several months, has found great and some- 
times instantaneous relief to follow its application in every case. It 
is only necessary to paint the mixture lightly over the painful part 
and allow it to dry. The application never blisters, though it may 
occasion a tingling sensation of the skin. The compound has also- 
been found of great service in the relief of toothache. — Ed. Phakm. 
Journ.] — Pharm. Journ. and Travis., March 14, 1874. 



EXTRACT OF MEAT. 
By C. F. Chandler, Ph. D., and F. A. Cairns, A. M. 

The following analyses were made for the purpose of determining,, 
as fully as possible by analysis, the comparative value of the meat 
extract made by the " Liebig Company " (Fray-Bentos Extract) and 
that made at the " San Antonio Meat Extract Factory." The most 
important test of the comparative value of these extracts is probably 
the percentage of nitrogenous matter soluble in alcohol, and the per- 
centage of nitrogen in this matter. This is largely due to the fact 
that gelatin is not soluble in this liquid. 

Liebig's Fray San Antonio Meat 
Bentos Extract. Extract Factory. 

Water (expelled at 212° F.), . . 17-21 14-78 

Ash, 13-01 18-16 

Substances soluble in 88 per cent, alcohol, 

dried at 212° F., . . . 33-09 44-57 

Fat, etc., soluble in ether, . . 0-14 0-18 



240 



Improving Wines. 



J Am. Jour. Pha em 
\ May 1, 1874. 



Liebig's Fray 
Bentos Extract. 



Total nitrogen, . 

Nitrogen in portion soluble in alcohol 

Soda, 
Potassa, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Oxide of iron, 
Chlorine, 
Sulphur, . 
Sulphuric acid (S0 3 ), 
Phosphoric acid (P0 5 ) 
JSchool of Mines, Colui 



San Antonio Meat 
Extract Factory. 

9-12 



. 8-18 
3-19 
. 2-44 
9-20 
. 0-05 
0-56 
. 0-02 
2-98 
. 0-29 
0-03 
. 8-20 
bia College, N. Y., Feb. 4, 1874. 

■ — American Chemist, April, 1874 



4- 75 
2-35 
7-55 
0-06 
0-50 

0- 07 

1- 95 
0-22 
0-03 

5- 64 



IMPROVING WINES. 
By J. M. Merrick, B. Sc. 



The process of Pasteur for improving wines by gently heating 
them is well known and practised in France. I have not heard of 
its application in this country, nor have I been informed that the 
use of neutral tartrate of potash is here in vogue to remove by pre- 
cipitation a suitable fraction of the excessive amount of tartaric acid 
present in the juice of our native wines. 

I call the attention of the readers to these two well-known methods, 
because I have practised both on a small scale, and can testify to 
their practical value. 

In the autumn of 1871 I made from Concord grapes of my own 
raising a cask of about 120 gallons of wine, adding one and one-half 
pounds of sugar to each gallon of juice. This gave a beautiful bright 
red, clear wine, of not unpleasant flavor, and containing by my analy- 
sis, made in June, 1873, 17*5 per cent, of alcohol. The fault with 
it was that it was undrinkably sour, good judges asserting that it had 
gone over so far that it could not be cured. On analysis, I found it 
to contain a little more than one per cent, of free acid, mainly tar- 
taric. I added in September last about seven pounds of neutral tar- 
trate of potassa to the cask with gratifying results. The color of the 
wine is lightened, the flavor uninjured, and the hardness and sourness 
diminished, so t'lat the work of four or five years seems to have been 
done in as many months. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May. 1, 1874. j 



Minutes of the College. 



241 



Mr. E. W. Bull, of Concord, Massachusetts, the originator of the 
"Concord grape, has produced a seedling from the Concord, called the 
Cottage, and from this new grape the past season I made about one 
gallon of wine, which a week ago was harsh, crude and not palatable. 
By the addition of a trifling — unweighed — amount of neutral tartrate 
of potassa, and by heating the wine to about 50° C, its character has 
been so changed and improved that no one recognizes in the present 
mild, high flavored, and not acid wine, the former harsh, crude, and 
repulsive product. 

Laboratory, 59 Broad St., Boston, Jan. 15, 1874. 

— American Chemist, March, 1874. 



Pmrtes jof i\t f paMgp College 0f formats. 



Philadelphia, 3d Month 30th, 1874. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this 
afternoon, at the Hall of the College. Twenty-eight members were present. 
Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair. 

The miuutes of the meeting in December last, and of the special meeting 
held in February, were read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the past three months were read 
by William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board. They inform us that at the 
late Commencement, held at the Academy of Music, the Diploma of the Col- 
lege was conferred upon eighty-one graduates. They also further state that 
the Board have purchased the three houses adjoining the College, fronting on 
Tenth Street, making our lot an equal width throughout its entire length, for 
sixteen thousand five hundred dollars. The minutes of the Board were, on 
motion, unanimously approved. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian, made the following report, which was ac- 
cepted and approved : 

" The Librarian respectfully reports that since the last annual meeting there 
have been added to the library about fifty new volumes, most of them being 
exchanges with other scientific bodies, which, being of permanent interest to 
the pharmacist, have been bound. The binder has uow in hand forty more volumes 
which will be finished in a short time. The theses of all who graduated in the 
spring of the past year have been bound, and there are now forty-seven vol- 
umes of manuscript of this kind in the library. By direction of the Board of 
Trustees the library was opened one afternoon and two evenings each week 
during the past lecture season, and over one half of the volumes in the library 
have been arranged in accordance with the subjects treated of, preparatory to 
making a new catalogue." 

The following report of the Curator was read and accepted : 

15 



242 



Minutes of the College. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm„ 
\ Miiy 1. 1874. 



"The Curator would respectfully report that the work of refitting the cab- 
inet is still progressing. The New England Glass Company, who are making 
some sample glass jars, have not finished their work, but they expect to for- 
ward the remaiuder of the jars in a few days. Quite a number of donations to- 
the cabinet have been, and still continue to be, received through the pharma- 
ceutical meetings, and it is hoped that when the new cases have been fitted-up 
with the glass jars there will be a large increase in the contributions. 

Joseph P. Remington." 
Professor J. M. Maisch, on behalf of the Publication Committee, made the 
following report, which was read and approved : 
To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 

"The Publishing Committee respectfully reports that its duties have heen duly 
and successfully attended to during the past year, as will be seen from the an- 
nexed reports. The editor refers in his report to a few unavoidable delays in 
the publication of the monthly numbers of the Journal, which elicited inqui- 
ries from many subscribers, in the belief that their copies had miscarried ; the ar- 
rangements with the printer are such that similar delays are not likely to oc- 
cur during the ensuing year. The editor also states that original articles in the- 
Journal during the past year have been contributed by sixty authors, and 
bespeaks for the future a renewed interest on the part of its readers by 
original contributions, either directly or through the medium of the pharma- 
ceutical meetings of the College. 

The General Index of the Journal, compiled by Mr. Hans M. Wilder, 
was issued shortly after the last annual meeting, and has elicited the approv- 
ing comments of all who have examined it. Its sale has not been so large- 
as might have been anticipated, and many copies must still be sold merely to 
reimburse the Committee for the cash expenses incurred. It is to be hoped 
that most of the readers of the Journal will procure a copy, through which, 
the usefnluess of all the volumes published prior to 1871 is greatly enhanced, 
and their consultation facilitated. 

The Committee cannot close its annual report without alluding to the great 
loss sustained in the death of Professor William Procter, Jr., who, for thirty- 
two consecutive years, has been its most efficient member, and since is reor- 
ganization in 1871, its chairman, while during a period of nearly twentyone^ 
years he had acted as the sole editor of the Journal. 

James T. Shinn, Chairman pro tern. 

Chas. Bullock, 

John M. Maisch, 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Secretary. 

The Editor's report to the Publication Committee was also read, giving a 
detailed statement of the labor performed. The following is an extract from 
it : 

" The pharmaceutical meetings have within the last few years been growing 
in interest, notwithstanding the papers presented there have not been so 
numerous as might be expected. But even in this an improvement is 
noticed, which would leave nothing to be desired, if all members would en- 
deavor to be present and to communicate their observations and discoveries, 
either in writing or verbally. The published records of these meetings have- 
attracted considerable attention, not ouly in this country but also abroad, and it 
would seem to be but a duty each member owes to the College and its reputa- 
tion to feel interested in the success of these meetings, from which he is likely 
to derive considerable information of usefulness and direct benefit in his bus- 
iness." 

John M. Maisch, Editor. 



A Ma J y!T; i P 87t BM - } Minutes of the College. 243 

Charles Bullock, Treasurer of the Publication Committee, read the annual 
report, which was accepted and approved. It sets forth the moneyed opera- 
tions of the past year in a very favorable light, and shows this department of 
the College to be in a very prosperous condition. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Chairman of the Committee on the Sinking Fund, 
made a report showing the balance of cash in his hands to be $292. 

The following letter from Peter Williamson, Esq., one of the founders of the 
College, to the President, was read: 

804 Pine Street, March 10th, 1874. 

To Dillwyn Parrish : 

Dear Sir, — In reply to your note of this morning, I will merely say that I 
give the sum of five hundred dollars (the check for which you will find enclosed) 1 
to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, in trust for the creation of an 
endowment fund, the interest of which to be applied for the benefit of such 
needy and deserving applicants as the Trustees may select, in defraying the 
requisite expenses attendant on the lectures and other modes of instruction 
adopted by the College. 

With my thanks for the interest you have evidenced in the carrying out of 
his design, which I have for some time entertained, 

I remain, truly, your friend, Peter Williamson. 

The donation was accepted, and the check passed over to the Treasurer of 
the College. 

Joseph P. Remington offered the following resolutions, which were unani- 
mously adopted, and the Secretary was directed to send a copy to Mr. Wil- 
liamson : 

Resolved, That the College gratefully appreciate the warm interest mani- 
fested by our esteemed friend Peter Williamson, and direct that the donation 
be placed in the hands of the Trustees, to be invested by the Treasurer, and 
kept as an endowment fund, the interest of which is to be applied in accord- 
ance with the wishes of the generous donor. 

Resolved, That the letter of Peter Williamson be filed among our records, 
and that a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to him with the thanks of 
the College. 

A motion that the further consideration of the subject, relative to the fulfil- 
ment of the wishes of Mr. Williamson, be referred to the Board of Trustees 
for their action, was adopted. 

The following letter was read from Joseph C. Turnpenny: 

813 Spruce Street. 
Dillwyn Parrish, President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

My dear Friend, — I send herewith an extract from the Will of our lamented 
friend the late William Procter, Jr., deceased, which please receive and pre- 
sent to the next meeting. 

Thy obliged friend, Jos. C. Turnpenny. 

3d mo. 20th, 1874. 

Extract from the Will of the late William Procter, Jr., deceased. 

I give to the Trustees of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy the sum of 
five hundred dollars, in trust, to be permanently invested, and the interest to 



244 



Minutes of the College. 



5 Am. Jour. Pharm 
I May 1, 1874. 



be annually expended, either for a medal, for books, for instruments, or for any 
other appropriate object that may be deemed best by the Board, and the same 
given as a reward to the most meritorious Graduate in Pharmacy, when in its 
opinion such a reward is deserved. 

The Executors of the late Prof. Procter not being prepared to hand over 
the bequest, no action of the College thereon was deemed requisite at this time. 

The Treasurer reported the names of six members of the College who are in 
arrears for over four years. A motion ordering their names to be stricken from 
the roll of members, under a rule of the By-Laws, was unanimously adopted. 

Resolutions relative to the death of Professor Procter, received since the 
publication of the March number of the Journal, from the Chicago and Louisville 
Colleges of Pharmacy, were read by Prof. Maisch, and, on motion, referred to 
the Publication Committee. (These resolutions appeared in the April number 
of the Journal.) 

This being the annual meeting, an election for officers was ordered, a recess 
being granted for the purpose. William B. Webb and Edward C. Jones act- 
ing as tellers, reported the following gentlemen elected to the respective sta- 
tions enumerated below, viz. : 

President — Dillwyn Parrish. 
First Vice President — Charles Bullock. 
Second Vice-President — Robert Shoemaker. 
Treasurer— Samuel S. Bunting. 
Recording Secretary — William J. Jenks. 
Corresponding Secretary — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board of Trustees — Robert Bridges, M.D., John M. Maisch, Daniel S. Jones, 
Thomas S. Wiegand, James T. Shinn, T. Morris Perot, William B. Webb, 
Joseph P. Remington. 

Publication Committee — John M. Maisch, Charles Bullock, Thomas S. Wie- 
gand, James T. Shinn. Henry N. Rittenhouse. 

Sinking Fund Committed — Thomas S. Wiegand, T. Morris Perot, James T 
Shinn. 

Editor — John M. Maisch. 
Librarian — Thomas S. Wiegand. 
Curator — Joseph P. Remington. 

There being a vacancy in the Board of Trustees, caused by the election of 
Charles Bullock as First Vice-President, Edward C. Jones was nominated to 
fill his place. There being no other nomination, the President was, on motion, 
requested to cast an affirmative ballot for him, which being done, Mr. Jones 
was declared unanimously elected a Trustee for the unexpired term of Charles 
Bullock. 

There being no further business, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



AM Ma? u i!'i874! RM '} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 245 



On April 21st, 1874, a regular monthly meeting was held at the College, fif- 
teen members present. The meeting was called to order by Mr. Charles Bul- 
lock, Yice-President. The registrar being absent, the meeting appointed J. 
K. Hecker, Secretary pro tern. 

Under the head of donations to the libary, Prof. Maisch presented a copy of 
the Year Book of Pharmacy and Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, for 1873; also the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, for 187 3, and a bound volume of the Public Ledger Almanac, 
1870-73, which were accepted and the thanks of the College tendered. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a handsome specimen of the flowers of Pyrethrum 
roseum, obtained from Messrs. Bullock & Crenshaw. The plant grows in Asia 
Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, etc., and when powdered constitutes the so- 
called Persian insect powder, 

Dr. Pile read a paper on the proper specific gravity of sulphuric acid of the 
U. S. P.* Tn the discussion which followed, attention was drawn to some in- 
consistencies of the pharmacopoeia in directing the use of absolutely pure 
chemicals, and in some processes taking notice of the usual impurities; sul- 
phuric acid and oil of wine were mentioned among other instances. 

Prof. Maisch inquired whether aay member present had had any experience 
in mixing camphor and chloral, and to what extent the mixture is prescribed. 
Messrs. Heinitsh and Boring replied that they had occasionally to prepare the 
mixture, which, after some trituration, forms a liquid, or more slowly by leaving 
the two articles in contact with each other.f In regard to the cause of lique- 
faction a short discussion ensued, but no definite or satisfactory explanation was- 
given. 

A communication from a member of the college was read by Prof. Maisch, sug- 
gesting that a prescription bottle be devised with a lip of such shape that liquids 
might be dropped from it with greater facility than can be done from those at pre- 
sent in use. It was then stated that Messrs. Whitall, Tatum & Co. undertook to* 
make bottles with thin lips, from which liquids could be dropped readily enough, 
but if the lips have too thin an edge they are very liable to splinter or 
crack off, making such bottles impracticable. 

Mr. Boring exhibited a syrup of orange peel made by the process of the Ger- 
man Pharmacopoeia, by treating the fresh orange-peel with German white wine. 
The syrup was perfectly clear, had a fine odor of wine, and when dilute a very 
agreeable flavor of orange. 

Mr. Bullock inquired whether any of the members had noticed a precipitate 
in the tincture of chloride of iron, U. S. P. He said that he had noticed it 
himself, examined into the cause of precipitation, and considers it to be due- 
to a deficiency of acid.;}: Prof. Maisch then stated that the Pharmacopoeia di- 



* See paza 216. 



t See also the paper on page 239. 



X See also page 248. 



246 Pharmaceutical Colleges, and Associations, ^Va^'mtf*' 

rected an excess of acid to be used, and that a deficiency thereof could only 
occur by overheating. Mr. Boring remarked that he saw it stated in Attfield's 
Chemistry, that the alcohol in the tincture is unnecessary, useless and delete- 
rious, and causes the gradual precipitation of a basic iron salt. Prof. Maisch 
said that the preparation, in its usual doses, could not be considered deleterious ; 
unpleasant effects arising therefrom may most likely be refered to the presence 
of excessive proportions of amylic alcohol and the subsequent formation of 
compound amylic ethers ; the compound formed from muriatic acid and alcohol 
are used in medicine and officinal in some pharmacopoeias. Dr. Bridges then 
remarked that the diuretic properties of the tincture are due to the chlorinated 
ether which is slowly formed in the officinal preparation. 

Mr. Hazard exhibited a suppository mould invented by L. R. Blackman, of 
Newport, Rhode Island. It is made of bell metal, nickel plated, and consists 
of two plates of about equal thickness, the upper one perforated and the lower 
containing depressions equal in number to the perforations in the upper plate ; 
the two plates are separable and adjustable by means of set-pins and grooves, 
so that the openings in the upper plate register with the depressions in the 
lower plate, forming when taken together a conical mould. Mr. Hazard also 
stated that there are two sizes made, one making twenty-four suppositories of 
thirty grains each and one making thirty of fifteen grains each. 

The meeting theu adjoarned. 

J. K. Hecker, Secretary pro tern. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The vacancy in this college, occa- 
sioned by the sudden death of Professor Procter, has been filled by the Board 
of Trustees by the election of Joseph P. Remington, Professor of Pharmacy. 
Mr. Remington, already favorably known by his contributions to the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, and his labors for the American Pharmaceautical Asso- 
ciation, has had unusual advantages in fitting himself for this position, having 
for the last three or four years acted as assistant at the lectures of the 
late Professors Parrish and Procter, and being, therefore, thoroughly familiar 
with the lecture plans and system of instruction of both these teachers of 
pharmacy. Another important advantage of his is his former connection with 
the well-known laboratories of Dr. E. R. Squibb, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
Messrs. Powers & Weightman, of this city. He brings to his new position, 
therefore, a large practical experience, and we doubt not he will use his best 
efforts for sustaining the reputation of the chair in which he follows two such 
eminent men. 



Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The commencement took place 
in Horticultural Hall, April 22, Professor Markoe delivering the valedictory. 
President Concord conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon the 



A Vay U ii i874 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 247 

following gentlemen : Silas Stone Bradford, (Lime water); Paul John Brown, 
(Digitalis) ; Horace Mann Burnham, (Tincture of Belladonna) ; John Edward 
Connor, (Weight and Yolume of Finished Products of some of the Officinal For- 
mulae) ; George Henry Oowdin, (Cinchona); Lebbeus Curtis, Jr., (Opium and its 
Alkaloids) ; Frank A. Davidson, (Coffee); John Granville Godding, (Cubebs) ; 
Edward Bartelle Gordon, (Citric Acid) ; Jeremiah Thomas Leary, (Lac Sul- 
phur) ; William Thomas Lee, (Pareira Brava) ; Benjamin Franklin Kiddle, 
(Anthelmintics) ; James Bradbury Small, (Mistura Ferri Composita) ; Austin 
Edward Wallace, (Formulae of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia in Metrical Weights 
and Measures) ; Frank Granville Winn, (Hydrocyanic Acid), The Alumni 
Association prize was awarded to J. T. Leary. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — The annual commencement took place 
at Association Hall, March 31. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was 
conferred by President Balluff upon the following gentlemen: G. Nolton 
Ashley, (Strychnos Nux Yomica) ; Alexander Beck, (Commercial Hydrocy- 
anic Acid); Joseph R. Bond, (Nickel) ; Adolph Boyken, (Phosphorus) ; Louis 

E. Braun, (Analyses of Glycerins); John S. Broas, (Aconitum Napellus) ; 
Louis F. Buchhop, (Scale Preparations of Iron) ; Richard B. Cassebeer, 
(Hydrocyanic Acid) ; Max Clausius, (Strychnos Nux Yomica); Louis S. Co- 
hen, (Synopsis of the History of Zinc) ; J. W. Dougan, (Ergota) ; H. Adolph 
Engel, (Sugar); Clemens L. Eschmann, (Potassii Iodidum) ; Sidney Faber, 
(Pharmaceutical Manipulations); John Ferrier, (Anaesthetics and Chloral); 
William H. Griffith, (Baric Compounds) ; I. M. Hussa, (Glycerin) ; Richard 
Kuehne, (Analysis of Urine) ; C. Axel F. Lagerstedt, (Syrup of Iodide of Iron) ; 
Gottlieb Meier, (Foliage, its Functions and Morphology) ; Charles Mitzenius. 
(Best mode of extracting Yegetable Substances) ; Frederick C. Nadler, (Adul- 
teration of Cinchona Micrantha) ; Henry M. O'Neil, (Poisons) ; Charles Perck, 
(Citro-Sesqui-Iodide of Iron and Potassa) ; Albert C. Smith, (Digitalis); W. I. 
Townsend, (Carbon and its Compounds) ; C. Ernst Yetter, (Morphine in Resi- 
dues from Laudanum); Bernhard Wendler, (Specific Gravities); Gustav 

F. Werner, (Products from Destructive Distillation of Wood) ; Robert G. 
Weyh, (Atropa Belladonna) ; Frederick Wichelns, (Poisons and their Anti- 
dotes) ; John L. Yatman, (Pepsin) ; George Zellhoefer, (Chromium and its- 
Compounds) ; Robert G. L. Zoeller, (Quinia and its salts). Prizes in money 
were awarded to R. Kuehne, B. Wendler, and G. F.Werner. The valedictory 
was delivered by Professor Bedford. 

This College has issued a pamphlet of 50 pages, containing historical notes 
of its progress, the charter and by-laws, the pharmacy acts of 1871 and 1872, 
code of ethics, lists of members, officers, professors, graduates and of the reg- 
istered pharmacists and assistants ; also a catalogue of the library, and obituary 
notices of members recently deceased. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmrceutical meet- 
ing held April 1, President Thos. H. Hills in the chair, Mr. W. Martindale 



248 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A Va°y i i m£ v ' 

read a dispensing note on chloro-mercuriate of morphia. Eight grains corrosive- 
sublimate and four grains muriate of morphia were prescribed to be dissolved in 
one ounce of water, to be used for subcutaneous injection. After the salts had 
been dissolved in hot water, a large deposit of silky acicular crystals occurred 
on cooling, which were recognized as the double salt mentioned. By using a 
mixture of seven parts of water to five of glycerin as a solvent, the same salt 
crystallized in a few days, and the solution, which had been used hypodermically 
in the meantime, neither lessened the pain nor inconvenience which a simple 
solution of corrosive sublimate would have produced. A solution of alkaline 
chloro-albuminate of mercury made from Staub's formula,* but more concen- 
trated, was made and found to cause less pain and to enter more readily into 
circulation than a simple solution ; but after some time it became curdy. 

JVIr. E. M. Holmes read a paper entitled Materia Medica Notes, after which 
Mr. B anbury stated that he had seen a drug sold as arnica root which did not 
contain any arnica at all, but consisted entirely of a root unknown to him. 

Dr. De Vrij brought up the subject of perchloride of iron; he objected to 
have the liquor substituted for the tincture, and stated that a really neutral 
solution of the salt may be obtained by passing chlorine gently through a solu- 
tion of ferrous chloride and driving off the excess of chlorine in a water-bath ; 
if now mixed with alcohol the tincture remains bright and clear if exposed to 
the sunlight, but yields a precipitate if kept in the dark. 

Prof. Attfield expels the excess of chlorine, instead of by heat, by passing 
through the solution a steady current of air; if the tincture is exposed to the 
light, a reduction of ferric to ferrous chloride takes place and ethereal compounds 
containing chlorine are formed. Alcohol, therefore, does not preserve ferric 
chloride, but decomposes it, and the tincture is not a definite preparation, 
while the aqueous solution may be kept for any length of time without spoiling. 

After some reference to Bestucheff ' s golden tincture, J. W. Umney read a 
paper on the British Pharmacopoeia Addendum, and a discussion took place in 
relation to variations in different issues of the same. Professor Redwood 
stated that the proposed additions had been printed with the title "addendum " 
merely for circulation among the members of the Medical Council, whilst the 
official publication has only recently been issued under the title of "Additions 
to the Pharmacopoeia." 

* Staub's formula directs to dissolve 1-25 grams each of corrosive sublimate and chloride of 
ammonium, and 415 grams chloride of sodium in 125 grams of water. A solution of the white of 
one egg is made in sufficient water to obtain 125 grams ; the two solutions are mixed and filtered.. 
—Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim.,1873, p. 382. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May 1, 1874. j" 



Editorial. 



(fMtorial Department 



Pharmaceutical Legislation. — On pages 209 to 213 we publish an article 
upon this subject, written by Mr. Charles C. Fredigke, of Chicago, in which 
the ground is taken that the laws, as they have been passed in several States 
within the last four or five years, are contrary to the Constitution of the United 
States. This is a new argument, which we do not remember to have met with 
since 1867, when this question for the first time came up before the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. We do not profess to be well versed in law, but 
we are aware that legal advice has been taken in several places, and that the 
answer invariably has been that the right of the Legislatures to pass such laws 
cannot be construed into an unconstitutional interference with the business of 
an apothecary; but that a law regulating the practice of pharmacy is simply a 
regulation of sanitary police, and as such rests on the same basis as, for in- 
stance, laws and regulations concerning the abatement of nuisances, the man- 
ufactnre, storage and sale of gunpowder, etc. We have never heard the 
right of States questioned to make and enforce sanitary regulations, and pre- 
sume that this is one of the powers which, by the Constitution, is not dele- 
gated to the United States, nor prohibited to the States ; and that it is there- 
fore reserved to the latter. This must certainly be the correct view, since the 
prosecutions, which were instituted under the pharmacy acts in Baltimore, 
New York and Rhode Island, have invariably resulted in the conviction of the- 
offenders. 

Mr. Fredigke's position is probably correct, that nobody can be called upon 
to show how he came about his profession : that his ability to practice it is the 
only evidence required. Yet it must be borne in mind that lawyers are no- 
where in this country admitted to practice their profession in the courts until 
they have studied a certain length of time and have passed a satisfactory ex- 
amination. Moreover, their names may be stricken from the roll of attorneys 
for unprofessional conduct, when they will be absolutely debarred from appear- 
ing before the courts on behalf of clients, although no power can prevent them 
from giving legal advice to those who may consult them after they have lost 
their standing in court. Similar regulations, we believe, are in force in all the 
States, and it seems to us that since most of the cases entrusted to lawyers in- 
volve only questions of money or property, that the State should certainly have 
the power to prescribe certain regulations for a trade or profession, to the fol- 
lowers of which the health and even the life of the public is daily entrusted. 

Pharmacy is no concern of the Government at large, neither is medicine- 
and surgery; for the general Government does nothing towards maintaining 
medical colleges. Yet the aspirant for a position in the medical corps of the 
United States army is required (and this is one of the first conditions) to fur- 
nish proof that he has graduated at a reputable college ; this, among other 
qualifications, must be produced before the applicant is admitted to an exam- 
ination. The Government, through its officers, has established a standard,, 
which is in advance of the accomplishments required by most medical col- 



250 



Editorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May 1, 1874. 



leges as sufficient to entitle the student to the legal right to affix to his name 
the coveted M. D. A similar standard would doubtless have been established 
if pharmacy had as yet been recognized as an essential branch of the hospital 
service of the national army and navy. At present, in both services, such ap- 
plicants are preferred for the position of hospital steward, who are well versed 
in, or at least acquainted with, pharmacy; but any intelligent soldier may be 
selected to fill an occurring vacancy. 

It is an entirely different question whether the pharmaceutical laws, as far 
as enacted, can be or have been carried out. While we do not believe that 
the Supreme Court of the United States could declare these laws unconstitu- 
tional, it is nevertheless true that their effectiveness does not solely depend 
upon either a favorable or adverse legal decision, but, to a very considerable 
degree, upon those who may be called upon to carry them out. If their ap- 
pointment rests with a political officer, he will probably, in many cases, be 
more influenced by party considerations than by the professional fitness of the 
aspirants. The administration of such laws should therefore always be en- 
trusted to incorporated pharmaceutical associations or colleges. 

The measures advocated by Mr. Fredigke tend towards a system similar to 
those which have been in force in the greater portion of Europe; but which, 
it seems to us, are fast losing their hold to make room for others more in ac- 
cordance with the progressive spirit of the present time. The very stringent 
laws by which pharmacy in Germany has been regulated, have been unable to 
prevent the retailing of many drugs by others than pharmacists, and the so- 
called "wild apothecaries" appear in some places to do a thriving business, to 
the detriment of the " approved apothecaries," who are hemmed on all sides 
by regulations going into minutiae. The monopolies there created by the State 
in the limitation of pharmacies, have enhanced the price of these establishments 
much beyond their real value, so that many are heavily mortgaged. This fact 
appears to be one of the principal causes that have thus far operated against 
the removal of many restrictions, and against the reformation of pharmaceuti- 
cal matters more in concord with the principles of free trade. But already in- 
fluential voices are being heard advocating a gradual relinquishment of ancient 
privileges, and in order to stave off a sudden abrogation, to inaugurate a sys- 
tem of redemption of these fictitious values similar to that lately adopted in 
Sweden, whereby every new establishment will have to contribute a certain 
sum towards that end, until at a previously fixed time the restrictive measures 
cease. The pharmaceutical supervision by the State will then hardly mean 
anything else, but to insure the thorough qualification of the pharmacist and 
his personal responsibility. Towards this end, it seems to us, pharmacy is grav- 
itating in Continental Europe from its isolated position of restriction, and in 
this country from its place in the ranks of unrestricted trade. 

The suppression of the manufacture and sale of quack nostrums has not been 
accomplished in Continental Europe ; prohibitory measures will always be more 
or less inoperative, particularly in large communities; but we agree with Mr- 
Fredigke that it is an evil requiring regulation. It will be better, however, we 
think, if this question is not mixed up with the former — the qualification of the 
pharmacist. 



Am Jour. Phaem. 1 
May 1, 1873. J 



Editorial. 



251 



Laws, it should be remembered, cannot alter men ; that is a question of time 
and of the correct use of the educational means at our command ; if these are 
judiciously employed, we believe that the progress of pharmacy in the United 
States will, in the future, be even more marked than it has been during the last 
three or four decades. 



Articles of Immoral Use. — Our readers are undoubtedly aware that an act 
of Congress forbids the sending by mail of obscene articles ; but how far phar- 
macists and druggists may be affected thereby is probably not generally known, 
and we should hardly believe it possible, if we had not learned from a reliable 
source, that recently an apothecary was found guilty, and fined under this act, 
for no other offence than that of having sent by mail a female syringe. 

The conviction was based upon the literal construction of the law, though it 
is scarcely possible that the judgment should not be reversed if the case was 
carried to a higher tribunal. 

Below we give a coyy of the section in question, the portion italicized being 
the one under which the conviction took place, and under which almost any 
article sent by mail might be condemned. 

An Act for the suppression of trade in, and circulation of, obscene literature 
and articles of immoral use, approved March 3, 1873. 
Be it enacted, etc., 

Section 2. That Section 148 of the act to revise, consolidate and amend the 
statutes relating to the Post-Office Department, approved June 8th, 1872, be 
amended to read as follows : 

Sec. 148. That no obscene, lewd or lascivious book, pamphlet, picture, paper, 
print or other publication of an indecent character, or any article or thing de- 
signed or intended for the prevention of conception, or procuring of abortion, 
nor any article or thing intended or adapted for any indecent or immoral use 
or nature, nor any written or printed card, circular, book, pamphlet, advertise- 
ment or notice of any kind, giving information, directly or indirectly, where or 
how, or of whom or by what means either of the things before mentioned may 
be obtained or made, nor any letter upon the envelope of which, or postal card 
upon which, indecent or scurrilous epithets may be written or printed, shall be 
carried in the mail. And any person who shall knowingly deposit, or cause to 
be deposited, for mailing or delivery, any of the hereinbefore mentioned arti- 
cles or things, or any notice, or paper containing any advertisement relating 
to the aforesaid articles or things, and any person, who in pursuance of any 
plan or scheme for disposing of any of the hereinbefore mentioned articles or 
things, shall take, or cause to be taken, from the mail any such letter or pack- 
age, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall, 
for every offence, be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five 
thousand dollars, or imprisoned at hard labor not less than one year nor more 
than ten years, or both, at the discretion of the Judge. 

Sec. 5 directs the seizure and condemnation of such articles or things, war- 
rants for the same to be issued by a Judge of a District or Circuit Court of 
the United States, upon a complaint in writing of any violation of this act and 
founded on knowledge or belief, and, if upon belief, setting forth the grounds 
of such belief. 



252 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { 




V 



EEVIEWS AND BIBLIO GKAPHIO AL NOTICES. 



A Treatise on Pharmacy ; designed as a text-book for the student, and as a 
guide for the physician and pharmacist, containing the officinal and many 
unofficinal formulas, and numerous examples of extemporaneous prescrip- 
tions. By Edward Parrish. Fourth edition, enlarged and thoroughly re- 
vised by Thos. S. Wiegand, G. P. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea, 1874. 8vo, 



This work has been in the hands of the pharmacists of this country for so 
long a period that we may well assume that all our readers are familiar with the 
previous editions, so that it is mainly necessary for us to notice the difference 
in the arrangement of the matter of the present edition, and the changes made 
necessary by the appearance of the new Pharmacopoeia and by the general pro- 
gress of science. 

The preliminary matter has been arranged in two parts, the first of which 
treats of shop furniture, implements, store-room, cellar and laboratory, and 
introduces several new topics, like ice vault, furnace heat, &c. Part II is 
devoted to pharmacopoeias, weights, measures, specific gravity, and the gene- 
ration and application of heat. Part III is taken up with inorganic pharma- 
ceutical chemistry ; Part IV with pharmacy in its relation to organic chemis- 
try ; Part V with pharmacy proper (galenical pharmacy), and Part VI with 
extemporaneous pharmacy, which is followed by an appendix similar to that 
contained in former editions. 

Each part, as heretofore, is divided into several chapters, and the various 
preparations, pharmaceutical as well as chemical, are conveniently grouped 
together into syllabi, thus showing their most important relations to, and their 
striking differences from each other at a glance. One of the most acceptable 
features of the work, through its various editions, has been the generalization 
of facts, whether scientific or elaborated merely for convenience of study, and 
the grouping together, under such general headings, of the chemical and phar- 
maceutical preparations used in, or merely of interest to pharmacy and medi- 
cine. This plan has been adhered to in the edition before us, which will be 
found of equal usefulness as the preceding ones. 

Several chapters of the work have been almost entirely rewritten, and the 
entire book gives evidence of the care bestowed upon its revision. The 
recent pharmaceutical literature and the new Pharmacopoeia have received 
due attention, although a few changes in the latter have escaped the editor's 
notice, as, for instance, the sources of Levant wormseed, which is erroneously 
given on pages 412 and 437 ; and of gamboge, on page 425, which is not in 
accordance with the results of Daniel Hanbury's researches and the facts 
accepted by all recent pharmacopoeias. 

We should have preferred, in this as well as in the previous edition, to see 
the working formulas of the Pharmacopoeia not merely mentioned, but like- 
wise briefly commented upon, and the short criticism on page 753, of which we 
approve, we consider of sufficient weight to have warranted the omission of 
nearly all the preparations of the so-called eclectic school. We miss, on pages 



pp. 977 



A *M^;i8 H 74? M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 253 

476 and 512, the researches of Chas. Bullock concerning the alkaloids of Ye- 
ratrum viride ; aconella and pseudaconitia are not mentioned among the aco- 
nite alkaloids p. 474), nor the different species of Eucalyptus, on p. 411, as 
yielding volatile oil. On page 516 the old term propylamina is still used, in- 
stead of the correct one of trimethylamina, and on p. 528 Fumouze's process, 
based upon that of Procter, for the preparation of cantharidin, has been 
omitted. 

The usefulness of the work is well expressed in the words of Prof. Procter, 
when reviewing its third edition, in 1864: " The work is well adapted to the 
wants of the classes for whom it is written, by simplicity of arrangement and 
great absence of technicality, except in those divisions where it is necessary 
to express tersely much information by means of formulas. 



Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte dcr Pharmacognosie und Toxicologie. Yon 
Dr. Wiggers, Prof, in Goettingen, und Dr. A. Husemann, Prof, in Chur. 
7 Jahrgang, 1872. Goettingen: Yandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1873. 8vo, pp. 
660. 

Annual report on the progress of pharmacognosy, pharmacy and toxicolology. 
For the year 1872. 

This well-known repository of investigations and discoveries in the branches 
named, sustains the reputation which it has acquired during a period of thirty- 
two years, twenty-five of which it was issued in connection with Oanstatt's 
annual report on the progress of medicine and the allied sciences. The phar- 
maceutical literature of most countries is carefully studied, and the results are 
always given in a comprehensive and at the same time very instructive manner. 



Medical and Pharmaceutical Notes. By Edward R. Squibb, M. D., and Ed- 
ward H. Squibb. 8vo, pp. 66. 

A reprint from the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion for 1873. Although disguised by the appellation " Notes," the reader 
will find that the papers here published in pamphlet form are a great deal more 
than mere " notes," but give us in the few pages the results of many hours of 
patient and accurate observation. Though some of the details may be re- 
garded by some as superfluous, yet their instructive character is such as to 
make them always not merely acceptable, but really welcome. The papers 
republished are entitled: On the preservation of hypodermic solutions; on 
ergot and its preparations ; on rhubarb ; on buying alcohol and distilled spirits ; 
on a general apparatus stand, upright condenser, pinchcock and burette stand. 
The pamphlet is embellished with a number of excellent woodcuts. 



Annual Report of the Supervising Surgeon of the Marine Hospital Service of 
the U. S. for the Fiscal Year 1873. Washington: Government Printing 
Office, 1873. 8vo, pp. 154. 

The statistical and other information contained in this report does credit 
alike to the Marine Hospital Service and to the compiler and digester, Dr. J. 
M. Wood worth. The report proper is followed by an appendix of nearly 100 



254 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. \ A ^y™; £}!**' 

pages, containing special medical and surgical reports, by Dr. J. M. Toner, Dr. 
J. M. Woodworth, and other surgeons of the Marine Hospital Service. 



Contributions to the Study of Yellow Fever. Washington, 1874. 8vo, 51 
pages. 

A reprint from the annual report noticed before, and containing a paper by 
Dr. J. M. Toner, entitled The Distribution and Natural History of Yellow 
Fever in the United States ; with chart showing elevations of localities where 
it has appeared from A. D. 1668 to A. D. 1874; also a paper by Dr. J. M. 
Woodworth, entitled The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1873 ; Reports from Med- 
ical Officers U. S. Marine Hospital Service, with Notes by the Supervising 
Surgeon. 



Dictionary of Elevations and Climatic Register of the United States; contain- 
ing, in addition to elevations, the latitude, mean annual temperature, and the 
total annual rainfall of many localities ; with a brief introduction on the olo- 
graphic and other physical peculiarities. By J. M. Toner, M. D. New 
York: D. V^an Nostrand, 1874. 8vo, pp. 130. Price, S3 in paper, $3.75 in 
cloth. 

When it is considered how completely altitude, in every part of the world, 
controls the natural productions of a region, and modifies or limits the types 
and species of animals and plants that exist and thrive there, it will not be 
thought strange that elevation should powerfully affect the health, vigor, hab- 
its, pursuits, and longevity of man. The student of social science, in fact, 
every intelligent person, is therefore no less interested in this work than the 
physician, for whom, as the author tells us, the work of compilation has been 
undertaken, chiefly for the purpose of placing within the reach of the medical 
profession a record that may enable and induce professional men, in different 
localities of the United States, to observe, record and contrast the influence of 
elevation, if it has any, on health and disease. 

Among the places enumerated in the dictionary, we observe quite a number 
located beyond the limits of the United States, in Mexico, Guatemala, Canada 
and even Europe. The introductory part abounds in valuable facts and sug- 
gestive ideas in relation to the influence of altitude, and deduced from all 
periods of history and all sections of the globe. The data referring to the 
percentage of deaths and the prevalence of pulmonary and other diseases are 
particularly interesting, and should excite to extended observations, and to the 
collection of statistics in all parts of the country. 



Discours sur Us reactions chimiques de la Picrotoxine dans la Bilrt. Par H. 
Bonnewyn, pharmacien a Ixelles. Bruxelles : H. Manceaux, 1874. 8vo, 16- 
pages. 

A discourse on the chemical reactions of picrotoxin in beer. 

A former paper on the same subject was noticed on page 384 of this journal 
for 1871. Mr. Depaire has objected to the sulphuric acid test for picrotoxin, 
proposed by the author, on the ground that a similar yellow color is produced 



Am. Joto. Pharm. 1 
May 1, 1874. J 



Obituary. 



255 



by some of the extractive matter contained in beer. The author admits that 
ether, on account of the water it contains or dissolves, will take up from the 
extract of beer some extractive along with the poisonous substance in question ; 
but the latter may afterwards be obtained, free from these compounds, if the 
ethereal extract is treated with chloroform, in which picrotoxin is perfectly 
soluble. 



Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado. By Thomas C. Porter and John M. Coul- 
ter. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874. 8vo, pp. 180. 

This is one of the " miscellaneous publications" from the U. S. geological and 
geographical survey of the territories, Department of the Interior, and pos- 
sesses great value for the student of botany. The collections of various ex- 
plorers, made since 1861, were placed at the disposal of the authors, both of 
whom have spent some months in the territory. Not only all the survey, but 
science, is indebted to Professor Porter for his share in the work, occupying 
several months in its preparation without compensation from the Governments 



Public Ledger Almanacs for the Years 1870 — 1873. Philadelphia: Geo. W, 
Childs. 

The four almanacs, some of which we have noticed before, are here presented 
in a reprint, forming a neat little volume of 233 pages, whichjs filled with 
interesting information. 



The following pamphlets have been received : 

Thirty-first Annual Report of the Managers of the State Lunatic Asylum, Utica, 
N. T. } for the Year 1873. Transmitted to the Legislature January 8, 1874. 

Forty -eighth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear 
Infirmary. 1874. 



OBITUARY. 

J. Parker Milburn died in Washington, D. C, March 4th, after a brief ill- 
ness, of pneumonia. Born in Alexandria, Ya., July 20th, 1835, he was edu- 
cated in his native city, and commenced his pharmaceutical career under the 
instruction of his brother J. A. Milburn. In 1855 he removed to Washington, 
where he entered into business in 1857. Well educated, honorable in his deal- 
ings, industrious and persevering, he soon won for himself the confidence of 
the community. He was one of the most active members of the Columbia 
Pharmaceutical Association and of the National College of Pharmacy. 

Francis E. Suire senior member of the firm F. E. Suire & Co., Cincinnati, 
died there April 13th. The deceased had been long a sufferer, so that his 
death was not unexpected. He had been for many years in business in Cincin- 
nati, and was honored and esteemed as a pharmacist and as a man. 



256 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 May 1, 1874. 



James S. Aspinwall, formerly a prominent druggist in New York, died April 
"23d, at Douglastown, L. I., in his 67th year; he had been a member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association since 1855, and served as its treasurer 
in 1856-57. 



Henry Deane, F.L.S., died suddenly at Dover, April 4th, in the 67th year of 
his age, while on his way to visit his son in Hungary. He was born at Strat- 
ford, near London, on the 11th of August, 1807. At the age of eighteen he 
was apprenticed, for three years, to Joseph Fardon, at Reading, and afterwards 
became an assistant at John Bell & Co.'s, and attended then a course of lec- 
tures, at the Royal Institution, by Faraday and Brande. In 1837 he commenced 
business at Clapham, and on the formation of the Pharmaceutical Society, m 
1841, became one of its first members. He became one of the Board of Ex- 
aminers in 1844, and in 1851 was elected a member of the Council, with which 
he was connected for nearly twenty years, serving as vice-president from 1851 
to 1853, and as president for the two years following. During this time the 
publication of a national pharmacopoeia assumed a more definite shape, and 
Mr. Deane acted as chairman of the committee appointed by the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society until the Medical Council was formed for the purpose indicated. 

In 1840 the Microscopical Society was formed, and Mr. Deane joined it on 
the foundation. The observations to which he was induced thereby led to a 
friendly intercourse with many of the most talented scientists of Great Britain. 

At the formation of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, in 1863, he was 
elected President, and this position, as well as every other which he occupied, 
he filled to the satisfaction of all. 

He possessed by nature an inherent love of science, and in youth and man- 
hood improved every opportunity of acquiring sound scientific knowledge, thus 
making up for any deficiencies he might have had in consequence of inability 
to attend higher schools earlier in life. Simple in his habits, indomitable in 
pursuit of knowledge, thoroughly practical in matters of business, too high- 
minded to stoop to anything mean or dishonorable, Mr. Deane was possessed 
of that sound, practical sense which teaches that a man should never shirk his 
duty, that it would never be the duty of a man to perform a dishonorable act, 
and that consequently there is never any excuse for neglecting duty ; his motto 
was: "There is nothing beneath the dignity of a man that is not dishonorable." 

His professional attainments and moral worth were well known throughout 
England, and recognized in this country; the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and most of the local pharmaceutical societies in this country have 
placed his name upon their roll of honor, and in him lose one of their own 
members. 

The remains of the deceased were interred in the village of Cheriton, near 
ShorneclifFe, many friends, and officers and members of the different societies 
paying their last tribute of respect by being present at the funeral. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JUNE, 1 874. 



MACLURA AURANTIACA, NUTTALL. 
By Alexander King, G. P. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The proximate analysis of the bark of the root of this tree was 
undertaken in the hope of proving therein the existence of the color- 
ing matters known as morin and morotannin. These acids were ob- 
tained by R. Wagner from the wood of Morus tinctoria, or fustic, and 
to them is due the value of this wood as a dye-stuff. Fustic has no 
use whatever in medicine, but is very largely consumed in the arts for 
dyeing yellow, and for this purpose alone large quantities are 
imported from the West Indies and South America. The Madura 
aurantiaca is very abundant in the southern portions of our republic, 
and has been used to some extent as a substitute for fustic, some even 
asserting its superiority over the latter. A coloring matter sold 
under the name of aurantin has been looked upon as an extract from 
the wood of Madura aurantiaca,* and is said to be much stronger 
than the yellow dye known as flavin, and also nearly five times the 
strength of Persian berries. In some portions of the South, the 
wood of Madura aurantiaca is not only used for dyeing, but also for 
tanning. From these facts, as also from the physical properties of 
the wood of the Madura aurantiaca, and its close botanical relation 
to Morus tinctoria, it was thought the same acid principles could be 
obtained from it. With this object in view, the following examina- 
tion was made in the laboratory of the College, and the results show 
conclusively that these principles exist in Madura aurantiaca, though 
not in large quantity. 

Madura aurantiaca, Nuttall, natural order Urticaceae, is a small 
bushy tree, rising to the height of 25 or 30 feet, dividing near the 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 299. 
16 



258 Madura Aurardiaca, Nuttall. { k "'*Ti fSf"' 

ground into numerous slender branches. Leaves petiolate, entire, 
five to six inches long, and two to three inches broad, ovate, acumi- 
nate, smooth and shining on the upper surface, on the under side 
minutely pubescent. Fruit, when ripe, resembles the largest oranges, 
composed of numerous coalesced, rather woody carpels, giving the 
surface a tuberculated appearance. Seeds imbedded in the fibrous 
mass, about the size of those of a quince. 

In the Southern and Western States this tree abounds, and is well 
known under the names of osage orange and bois d'arc, or bow wood, 
the latter name being given it on account of the uncommon elasticity 
of the wood, thus affording the material mostly desired by Indians 
for bows. In some localities it is cultivated for hedges. 

The root as obtained presented the following appearance : In vari- 
ous sized pieces, from \ to 1J or two inches in diameter, heavy and 
compact ; the woody portion of a yellowish-white color ; bark resin- 
ous, of a lighter appearance than the wood, where cut "by the knife 
showing a green-black color, and having a slight bitter and astringent 
taste, freely exfoliating in thin papyraceous layers, of a handsome 
orange color. 

Preliminary Examination. — Of the fresh bark a decoction was pre- 
pared by repeated exhaustion with boiling water. By the aid of 
paper pulp this was filtered, and then gave a clear brown-red solution, 
which was submitted to the following tests : 

Iodine, added to a diluted portion, gave slight blue coloration, 
showing the presence of starch. 

Upon the addition of two bulks of alcohol to a portion of the 
decoction, a copious precipitate was formed. This, being separated 
upon a filter, and treated with cold water, was found to be entirely 
soluble, the absence of pectin being thus shown. By reprecipitation 
from the aqueous solution by alcohol, separation from the fluid, and 
thorough washing with alcohol, this matter was obtained nearly white, 
and upon trial showed the characters of gum. 

By Trommer's test, the decoction showed abundant evidence of the 
presence of glucose. 

Upon the addition of ferric chloride to the decoction, a green-black 
coloration was produced, which was not evanescent upon being heated, 
thus proving the absence of gallic acid, and seeming to indicate the 
presence of tannin. When solution of gelatin was added to a por- 
tion of the decoction no precipitate was produced, thus showing that 



^junTi'.mT'} Madura Aurantiaca, Nuttall. 259 

gallotannic acid was not present. (According to Chevreul, moric 
acid is precipitated by solution of gelatin, but this is denied by Wag- 
ner. Further experiments made with moric acid obtained from Ma- 
dura aurantiaca proved that it is not precipitated.) 

Upon addition of an alkali to the decoction, a bright yellow color 
was produced, this seeming to indicate the presence of moric acid. 
To litmus the decoction gave a decided acid reaction. 
With iodohydrargyrate of potassium no precipitate was produced. 
When digested with animal charcoal, the decoction was entirely 
deprived of all bitter taste and coloring matter, alkalies not striking 
a shade of color with the liquid filtered from the charcoal. Experi- 
ments having in view the separation of the coloring principles from 
the charcoal gave no satisfactory results. 

The decoction, upon evaporation, gave a soft extract, of a brown 
color, and having a sweet, astringent taste, with a trace of bitterness. 

A cold infusion of the fresh bark, when heated to boiling, was not 
coagulated, showing the absence of albumen. With alkalies and fer- 
ric chloride the infusion gave the same reactions as the decoction. 

By distillation of a portion of the fresh bark with water, a liquid 
was obtained having the odor of the bark, but being perfectly clear 
and transparent. This would indicate the presence of but a small 
amount of volatile oil. 

The distillate gave no coloration with alkalies, showing the non- 
volatility of the coloring principles with the vapors of water. 

Final Examination. — Eight troyounces of the fresh bark were cut 
up small and boiled with successive portions of water until exhausted. 
The dregs from this boiling were dried and then reduced to powder. 
The mixed decoctions were filtered by aid of pulp of paper, and evap- 
orated to eight fluidounces. Upon the addition of alcohol, the gummy 
matter was precipitated, and separated by filtration, the filter being 
washed with alcohol, and the washings added to the liquid. This 
hydro-alcoholic solution was then evaporated to a soft extract and 
redissolved in about four fluidounces of alcohol. To this was added 
ether in sufficient quantity to precipitate the glucose as a thick syrupy 
fluid, from which the ethereo-alcoholic solution was separated. To 
this was added eight fluidounces of water, and by careful distillation 
the ether and alcohol were separated, the aqueous liquid then being 
set aside. After standing for two or three days a deposit of a brown 
color was found. This was separated upon a filter, the mother water 



260 Madura Aurantiaca, Nuttall. { k VTi\mT' 

concentrated and again set aside. A second deposit was thus obtained, 
which was separated and mixed with the first. Upon applying some 
of the tests as laid down by Wagner for moric acid, this product was 
found to agree with them. The mother water gave strong evidence 
of containing morintannic acid. The substance supposed to be moric 
acid was then purified by repeated solution in alcohol and precipita- 
tion by water. After this treatment the product was quite small,, 
being less than one gram. It was of a dark-greenish color, readily 
soluble in alcohol, giving a brown red solution, sparingly soluble in 
cold water, more so in hot. To litmus it gave a strong acid reaction* 
Upon applying the tests for moric acid, it was found to agree with 
them, except in that with ferric chloride. This test should give a 
garnet-red coloration, but the color produced was a greenish-black. 
This was ascribed to the presence of a small quantity of morin- 
tannic acid, as, according to Wagner, ferric chloride produces this 
coloration with moric acid, if the latter is contaminated with any 
morintannic acid. The following tests for moric acid proved its pres- 
ence in the substance extracted : 

1st. Sparing solubility in cold water. 

2d. Free solubility in alcohol and ether. 

3d. Precipitation from its alcoholic solution on the addition of water. 
4th. Solubility in H 2 S0 4 , and precipitation on the addition of 
water. 

5th. Lemon colored precipitate in aqueous solution by SnCl 2 . 

6th. Non-precipitation in aqueous solution by gelatin. 

7th. Olive-green color of aqueous solution by FeS0 4 . 

8th. Yellow color by alkalies and alkaline carbonates. 

Upon examination of the substance for bases, calcium and iron in 
the ferric state were clearly proven, thus showing it to consist of these 
metals with excess of moric acid. The presence of morintannic acid 
in combination with iron would explain the dark-green color of the 
moric acid. 

The coloring power of the acid was tested by making an aqueous 
solution, and immersing in it a piece of mordanted cotton cloth. A 
fine yellow color was acquired, which, however, was not entirely per- 
manent. * 

The mother liquor from which the moric acid was obtained showed, 
by the following tests, the presence of morintannic acid : 

1st. Astringent taste. 



AM jun°ei,i87 A 4 RM '} A Visit to Shaw's Gardens. 261 

2d. Free solubility in water, alcohol and ether. 
3d. Yellow color upon addition of alkalies. 

4th. Non-alteration in aqueous solution by H 3 P0 4 , H 2 S0 4 and HC1, 
thereby distinguishing it from gallotannic acid. 
5th. Green-black coloration with Fe 2 Cl 6 . 

The dregs left after exhaustion of the bark with water, being dried 
and reduced to powder, were exhausted with alcohol by percolation, 
and yielded a resinous tincture, of a dark-red color. By pouring this 
into a large quantity of distilled water, the resin was copiously pre- 
cipitated, and when collected, washed and dried was of a brown color 
and almost devoid of taste. 

One gram of this resin treated with ether lost -65 gram, showing 
that ether dissolved of it nearly two-thirds by weight. 

In the fixed alkalies, the resin was entirely soluble, giving a deep- 
red color, from which solution it was precipitated by acids. 

Five grams of the fresh bark lost, by careful drying, 1*8 gram., 
showing 28 per cent, of moisture. 

Examination of the ash from a portion of the bark showed the 
following constituents : carbonic, phosphoric, sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric acids ; calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron. 

Summary. — From the foregoing analysis of the bark of the root of 
Madura aurantiaca its constituents may be said to be : starch, glu- 
cose, gum, resin, volatile oil in minute quantity, moric and morintan- 
nic acids. 

A partial examination of the woody portion of the root gave evi- 
dence of the presence of coloring matter, though seeming in much 
smaller quantity than in the bark. 



A VISIT TO SHAW'S GARDENS. 
By Richard V. Mattison, G. P. 

The Missouri Botanical Gardens, or Shaw's Gardens, as they are 
familiarly termed by the citizens of St. Louis, are situated at Shaw 
and Tower Grove avenues. A few days since, while visiting the city 
on business, opportunity was given the writer to pay a visit to this 
beautiful place, and, while spending a pleasant afternoon, a few notes 
were taken, which are here presented, with the hope that they will 
prove interesting enough to the readers to cause them, when visiting 
the " future great" city, to also pay a visit to the beautiful gardens 
adjoining Tower Grove Park. 



262 A Visit to Shaw's Gardens. { A 5^f mf* 

Upon entering the gate the visitor is struck by the beautiful shrub- 
bery upon every side, with handsome hedges bordering on paths lead- 
ing to the Arboretum, or portion devoted to the culture of various 
forest trees. 

This portion is intensely interesting to a lover of nature, even if 
not botanically inclined. Long rows of the handsome Pinus strobus y 
or American white pine trees, are upon either side of the walks, and 
these are interspersed with silver-leaved maples and thrifty oaks and 
elms, all carefully pruned and cared for. 

Juglans einerea and niger stand side by side with Larix europosa, 
while in turning in from the gateway a very fair specimen of English 
elm stands almost opposite the Scotch elm, or Ulmus montana, 
and the Acer platanoides, from Norway, leans complacently toward 
the Acer saccharinum of our own country, while scattered here and 
there are fine specimens of the Japanese maiden hair tree, Salisburia 
adianttfolia, intermingled with basswood, Tilia americana ; lime, 
Tilia rubra ; and white linden, Tilia alba. 

Of the genus Pinus the collection is particularly fine ; within a few 
paces of each other the writer noticed Pinus strobus, P. austriaca, P. 
sylvestris, P. mugho, P. rubra, P. Benthamiana, P. edulis, P. rigida y 
while in P. inops we recognize the familiar Jersey pine by the side 
of a specimen from the Pyrenees mountains. 

Juniperus communis and J. virginiana are in company with the 
Chinese variety, J, chinensis ; while the cypress and white cedars of 
Lebanon are drawing sustenance from the same soil with Salix alba y 
and Abies balsamea, and A. excelsa. 

The effect of this mixture of different foliage is very striking, and 
this alone is well worth coming some distance to see, while for botan- 
ical students the advantages which these groups afford for study are 
excellent. 

Passing alongside of the conservatory, we noticed several interest- 
ing specimens ; one of the Laurus nobilis is particularly fine, and 
reminds us of the leaves of the same variety frequently met with 
upon opening cases of Calabria licorice extract. Next to this are the 
lemon trees and common laurels from the Levant. Fine specimens 
of Acacia longifolia, A. verticillata, A. melissina, A. Farnesiana y A. 
angustifolia (New South Wales), and A. cultriformis (Australia), are 
also found here. The guava tree, Psidium cattelianum, and African 
Baobab, Adansonia digitata, are also here, with a fine female specimen 
of the Cephalotaxus fortunei. 



A jui°eT'm4. RM '} A t° Shaw's Gardens. 263 

One thrifty specimen particularly engaging our attention is the at 
present medicinally fashionable Eucalyptus globulus, and by its side 
the famous Banyan tree, Ficus indica. Equally interesting is a fine 
healthy specimen of Camphora officinarum, from Japan, the product of 
which is in such active demand at this season at our dispensing 
counters. 

We notice also Melia azederach, which brings fresh to our memory 
our student days under Professor Maisch, and our inability to rightly 
place the habitat of this plant ; to the right we find Piper nigrum 
with Ficus elastica (India rubber tree), and Isonandra gutta (gutta 
percha tree), neither of which are " Goodyear's patent." Further 
on we find probably forty specimens of cactus and other Mexican 
and South American plants. 

Upon entering the Conservatory the first plant noticed is the New 
Zealand flax, Phormium tenax, and next to it is the Egyptian pepper 
plant ; next, the Australian fig. A specimen of Aralia angustifolia 
nearly reaches the ceiling, and upon either side are fine specimens of 
Coffea arabica, and also one solitary specimen of Cinchona alba. The 
Musa chinensis, or sweet banana tree of China, is the central figure 
of the groups of plants in this room, and surrounding this are eleven 
species of Ficus. 

The central room of the Conservatory is mostly devoted to ferns 
and palms. The most prominent are the Talipot palm (Ceylon ) 
Royal palm (Cuba), Fan palm (China), Areca palm (New Holland), 
and Sago palm — of the latter, several fine specimens, besides one 
curious specimen from the Sandwich Islands. Intermingled with 
these are two fine specimens of Aloe arbor escens from the Cape of 
Good Hope, and the banana tree, Musa sapientum, from the same 
locality, is found with the African dragon tree, and Chinese fragrant 
olive, Ficus carica, while numerous species of Cassia and screw pines, 
from Java and the Isle of Bourbon, with elegant bamboo cane, com- 
plete this group. 

In the next room are several varieties of aloes, the most prominent 
being Aloe socotrina and A. spiralis; not less interesting are several 
specimens of ribbon sugar cane from Otaheite. 

Fronting the Conservatory are the flowering and herbaceous plants, 
arranged in beds, each of which is devoted to a particular natural 
order. The beds are arranged concentrically with borders of Arbor 
vitos, which gives the whole a very attractive appearance. We noticed 



264 Samples of Cream of Tartar. {^j^iSfT' 

particularly the orders Solanaceoe, Plumbaginacese, Labiatae, Verben- 
aceas and Composite. 

For the student of materia medica, botany, etc., these gardens offer 
advantages unequalled in this country, being greatly superior to the 
Government Botanical Gardens at Washington, and should be highly 
appreciated by the embryo druggists in attendance upon the lectures 
of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Should they profit by the 
suggestions thrown out from time to time by the eminent botanist of 
this city, Dr. Engelmann, we may hope for valuable contributions to 
the materia medica of the Western States. In conclusion, I hope all 
our Eastern pharmacists visiting here may find much pleasure and 
profit intellectually in a visit to Shaw's Gardens. 

St Louis, Fifth month 18th, 1874. 



EXAMINATION OF FOUR SAMPLES OF CREAM OF TARTAR. 
By Thomas 0. Hilton, G. P. 
Abtract from an Inaugural Essay. 

Two of the samples were obtained from drug stores, Nos. 3 and 4 
from groceries, all being recommended as perfectly pure. None an- 
swered the pharmacopoeia test of being completely soluble in hot 
solution of potassa.* 

The samples were analyzed by being treated with excess of ammo- 
nia, boiled, cooled and filtered ; the undissolved portion was treated 
with dilute hydrochloric acid and any insoluble portion was removed 
by filtration. 

The ammoniacal solution of No. 1 contained potassium, little cal- 
cium, and tartaric acid ; the muriatic acid solution contained calcium 
and tartaric acid. 

In the ammoniacal solution of No. 2 was found calcium, magnesium, 
potassium and tartaric acid ; in the muriatic acid solution, calcium, 

* This test appears to us as hypercritical, since cream of tartar cannot be 
completely purified from tartrate of calcium by recrystallization, and its puri- 
fication by acids involves considerable trouble and loss. The British Pharma- 
copoeia very properly admits a small quantity of the calcium compound, 
w^ich does not appreciably interfere with the medicinal properties. If 
an absolutely pure cream of tartar is considered necessary, a formula for its 
preparation from the commercially pure article should be given. — Editor Am. 
Jo urn. Pharm, 



A ju J n°e U i;r8 H 74 RM '} Constituents of Sage } s Catarrh Remedy. 265 

magnesium, tartaric and carbonic acids, the latter producing efferves- 
cence. 

No. 3 yielded to the ammoniacal solution calcium, magnesium, so- 
dium, potassium, tartaric and hydrochloric acids ; and to the muriatic 
acid solution calcium, magnesium, tartaric and carbonic acids ; a small 
insoluble residue of starch remained behind. 

No. 4 furnished an ammoniacal solution containing calcium, mag- 
nesium, postassium, sulphuric and tartaric acids ; a muriatic acid 
solution containing aluminum, calcium, magnesium, tartaric and car- 
bonic acids ; and an insoluble portion consisting of starch. The sample 
was free from ammonia compounds. 

The following are the results of the examination of these powders : 

The first was found to be commercially pure, containing only po- 
tassium bi-tartrate and some calcium tartrate. It had a fine white 
appearance, and an agreeable acid taste. 

The second, beside potassium bi-tartrate and calcium tartrate, con- 
tained magnesium carbonate, as an impurity. It was rather whiter 
than the first, probably due to the magnesia ; it had also an agree- 
able acid taste, the magnesia being scarcely perceptible to the taste. 

The third contained as impurities magnesium carbonate, sodium 
chloride and starch. This powder, though nearly as white as the first, 
did not have the fine appearance which characterized that sample, 
and had besides a different taste. 

The fourth contained as impurities alum, magnesium carbonate 
and starch. This was the most impure of all, had a much darker 
appearance than any of the others, was inclined to cake and had a 
disagreeable musty odor, and a sour, somewhat astringent taste. 



THE CONSTITUENTS OF DR. SAGE'S CATARRH REMEDY. 
By Adrian Bowens, C P. 
Condensed from the Author's Inaugural Essay. 

This popular nostrum is manufactured in Buffalo, N. Y., and is put 
up in bottles containing half an ounce of a dark green powder having 
a strong odor of carbolic acid and camphor, the taste being in addition 
salty and lastingly bitter. 

For the purpose of obtaining a clue to the composition the follow- 
ing preliminary experiments were made : 

The powder, heated on platinum foil, gave off vapors of carbolic 



266 Constituents of Sages Catarrh Remedy. { A "jZ™*m" m 

acid and camphor ; an increased heat caused a portion of the powder 
to burn ; the residue was treated before the blow-pipe, when, after the 
carbonaceous matter had been completely burned off, the powder 
finally fused, thus showing that there were present three distinct 
classes of bodies, viz., 1st, a volatile ; 2d, an organic ; and 3d, an 
inorganic body, non volatile, but fusible. 

About a drachm of the powder was exhausted with distilled water, 
and the resulting filtrate evaporated to one-half; a portion of the 
liquid was tested for the presence of an ammonia compound, and 
then successively treated with hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, ammonia and sulphhydrate of ammonium, carbonate and phos- 
phate of ammonium, all giving negative results. 

The other portion was then evaporated and ignited, the residue 
dissolved in distilled water and tested in divided portions with per- 
chloride of platinum and antimoniate of sodium, the latter only giving 
a white precipitate, proving the presence of sodium. 

Another portion was examined for acids, but only one, hydrochlo- 
ric acid, was found. 

The residue left in the percolator was next exhausted with 95 per 
cent, alcohol, the percolate evaporated to a small bulk and allowed to 
stand for twelve hours ; it was then found to have produced a large 
number of beautiful needle-shaped crystals of a yellow color and a 
bitter taste. Perrin's test gave the very characteristic and beautiful 
green spangles of an iodo-compound of berberina. 

This exhausted powder was carefully examined by the microscope, 
and was found to be partly of a cellular structure and to contain starch; 
the latter was subsequently confirmed by the appropriate tests. This 
body I do not hesitate to call Hydrastis canadensis. 

About two drachms of the catarrh remedy were subjected to distil- 
lation, which yielded a distillate having a strong odor of carbolic acid 
and camphor and separating gradually oily-looking globules, which 
were carefully separated and subjected to cold, after which they be- 
came solid and crystalline ; this, together with the blue color pro- 
duced on the addition of neutral sesqui-chloride of iron solution, is 
quite sufficient to distinguish carbolic acid from the closely allied 
creasote. 

To another portion of the globules dissolved in water was added 
caustic potassa ; immediately a white flocculent precipitate rose to the 
surface ; this was separated by means of a filter and washed with hot 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
June 1, 1874. J 



Mistura Assafoetidce. 



267 



water, to remove adhering carbolic acid ; by the odor and tase it was 
found to be camphor. 

The powder operated upon, after being exhausted with water and 
alcohol, was blue, and, upon examination, was found to contain indigo ; 
this, therefore, accounts for the green color of the original powder, 
the yellow hydrastis and blue indigo producing green. 

A number of experiments were now made, by which it was found 
that a mixture in the following proportions very closely resembled 
Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy. 

1^ Hydrastis canadensis, . . gr. v. 

Indigo, gr. ss. 

Camphorae pulv., 

Acidi carbolici, aa gr. ij. 

Sodii chloridi, . . . . gr. 1. 

Powder the camphor by means of a drop of alcohol and mix with 
the salt, previously reduced to a moderately fine powder ; rub the 
indigo and carbolic acid together, mix with the salt and camphor, and 
lastly add the powdered hydrastis, and mix intimately, without much 
pressure, in a mortar. 

The above manipulations I found necessary to follow in order to 
obtain the powder in the same degree of fineness as the commercial 
article. 

MTSTURA ASSAFCETIDiE. 
By David Ackerman, Jr., Gr. P. 
Condensed from an Inaugural Essay. 
In the earlier part of the hot summer months a mixture was pre- 
pared by selecting 240 grains of fine tears of assafoetida. These 
were rubbed to a uniformly fine mass, then triturated with a fluidounce 
of glycerin to a thick paste, a fluidounce of water added, and the 
whole incorporated thoroughly by being well triturated. The dis- 
solved portion was decanted, and the residue treated in like manner 
with the same quantity of glycerin and water, and mixed with the 
previous portion. 

A portion of this was diluted to the officinal standard, which, after 
standing exposed to heat and light for a few days, assumed a faint 
reddish tint, which gradually deepened, on standing a week, to a deep 
red color. 

A similar quantity of officinal mixture was prepared, of similar 



268 



Mistura Assafcetidce. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm 
| June 1, 1874. 



quality of assafoetida, and at the same time as the foregoing. This, 
also, assumed a faint reddish tint, but remained sweet for several 
weeks. 

The concentrated mixture also became oxidized, and assumed the 
red color of the former, after standing about the same length of 
time. 

Another lot was prepared, using one-half the quantity of glycerin 
employed in the former, and adding instead another part of water, 
using the same mode of preparation as before. 

About the same time some selected tears were reduced to powder 
by the process recommended by Mr. S. B. Proctor, namely, by soft- 
ening the gum resin in a vessel, by means of a water-bath, and incor- 
porating with it, by stirring, six per cent, of magnesia, and reducing 
it to powder. This, when mixed with water, gradually changed from 
white to green, the color continuing to deepen and change, until, at 
the end of ten or twelve hours, it was a blue black. The idea of this 
preparation was to obtain a powder of pure assafoetida, with which 
the mixture could be made by shaking in a bottle, without needing to 
resort to the mortar, and, as the powder prepared in this manner was 
recommended not to agglutinate in the manner of the ordinary pow- 
der, could be kept on hand as wanted, and a mixture formed with 
very little inconvenience ; but my experience with it cannot recom- 
mend it. 

Finding the last mixture with glycerin tending to spoil, I mixed 
with it a small portion of diluted acetic acid. This appeared to im- 
mediately arrest oxidation, and the mixture remained in a compara- 
tively good condition for some time. This suggested the idea of using 
the following formula, which, so far as my researches and present 
knowledge go, has proved successful : 

R. Assafoetidae (finest tears), . ' . 240 grs. 
Sacchari Albi, . . .90 grs. 

Acidi Acetici Diluti, . . . f^i, 

Aquae Fluv., . . - . f^iij. 

The assafoetida, after having been rubbed uniformly fine, was mixed 
with the sugar, and the two well rubbed together. Sufficient w T ater 
was added to bring it to a paste, and the remainder of the water 
added in successive portions, until the soluble matter was all taken 
up, each portion being carefully decanted. To this was added the 
diluted acetic acid, the whole well shaken together, and kept pro- 



A ju J n°e!;m A 4 RM '} Pharmacy Laws in the U. S. 269 

tected from the action of the light, the heat being the same as in the 
previous experiments. 

This at the end of three months was found to have retained all the 
characters of the fresh mixture, the deposit being easily mixed by a 
little shaking, the color being nearly white with a very faint tinge of 
pink, and the odor of the volatile oil being well developed and natu- 
ral ; altogether the general appearances indicating that the mixture 
had remained unchanged. 

This mixture, properly diluted, has been dispensed with the sanc- 
tion of the prescribing physician, and gave entire satisfaction, it con- 
taining nothing in any way detrimental to its therapeutic value. The 
author believes that the concentrated mixture as prepared above may 
be kept from year to year, and by diluting with three times its bulk 
of water will readily yield an assafoetida mixture equal in quality 
with the officinal. The selection of the finest assafoetida, the use of 
pure water, thorough trituration, exclusion of light, and protection 
from heat, are considered requisites for the successful preparation and 
keeping of the proposed mixture. 

For the cleaning of mortars in which assafoetida has been used, the 
author recommends potassa solution, to be followed by a paste of bit- 
ter almonds, peach kernels, or cherry laurel leaves, and afterwards by 
soap and water. 

ON LAWS INTENDED TO REGULATE THE PRACTICE OF PHAR- 
MACY IN THE UNITED STATES. 

By Charles C. Fredigke. 

With reference to the article on the same subject in the previous 
number of this Journal, and in order to explain more fully our posi- 
tion, it is necessary to enter into this matter more minutely. 

In the statutes or codes of these States we can find nothing about 
pharmacy ; we are there referred to as " dealers in drugs or any 
other person." This is in perfect accord with the position which the 
Government occupies towards the drug business, and vice versa. 
Pharmacy, not being recognized by the Government as a profession, 
not existing, as it were, must first be established before it can be 
regulated. The same is true with regard to medicine, with this ex- 
ception, however, that when the Government needs a physician for 
its army, that physician must prove his qualification, noc according 
to the standard of the incorporated college where he graduated, pro- 



270 Pharmacy Laws in the U. S. { A j u S; mT' 

bably with the highest honors, but according to the standard of the 
Government ; his diploma is not and cannot be accepted as a proof 
of professional qualification, it being received as evidence of academi- 
cal acquisition of having arrived at his profession in a systematic man- 
ner ; he must qualify according to the standard of the Government, 
which demands professional experience. Here, then, the Government 
does for the army what it must do for the people ;, but, before it goes 
about regulation, it must first establish, or at least recognize, such a 
thing as medicine or pharmacy, and maintain and enforce its Govern- 
mental standard ; it cannot, even if it wished, recognize as such, the 
private standard of an incorporated college, which is only a private 
institute, maintained by private means and established for private 
ends. 

Medicine, or the business of healing diseases, and pharmacy, or the 
business of selling drugs, occupy no other position towards the peo- 
ple than any other trade ; they are not considered as professions in 
our country, though nobody can deny that they are, in the most noble 
sense of the term. Jurisprudence being considered a profession by 
the Government, it maintains a standard ; for after a student has 
graduated at an incorporated or private school of law, he is not ad- 
mitted to the bar unless he has proved his professional qualification, 
because the Government wants law and order, not according to what 
is law in England, France, Germany, etc , but according to its own 
standard, which, in this case, is its constitution. If a foreigner was 
ever so proficient at the bar in those countries, he could not be ad- 
mitted to practice his profession here unless he had proved his quali- 
fication according to the Governmental standard. If medicine and 
pharmacy were professions, and so acknowledged by the Govern- 
ment, then a foreign physician or apothecary would not be allowed 
to practice unless he had proved his professional qualification ac- 
cording to our rules. An American physician or pharmacist, after 
he has graduated in our colleges, is considered entirely incompetent 
to practice his profession in France, England or Germany, unless he 
has conformed to the requirements of those States. We are re- 
ceived with the greatest politeness and respect, but practice we can- 
not ; even if we step across our border into her Britannic Majesty's 
dominion of Canada, we cannot do this. There are those who say that 
this is a free country, that we have no king here, etc. ; yet what is 
sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Besides, these and simi- 
lar reasons are but sinister, having no weight in this matter. 



Am. .Jour. Pharm. 1 
June 1, 1874. J 



Pharmacy Laws in the U. S. 



271 



All laws with regard to pharmacy, thus far enacted, are but con- 
temptible compromises with free trade secured by the Constitution of 
the United States. As soon as a State establishes pharmacy, regu- 
lating it, etc., it also establishes a standard of qualification, and the 
diploma by a European university is no evidence of professional qual- 
ification at all, and cannot be admitted as such, as compared with our 
standard. 

In the year 1830, the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York prosecuted several dealers in drugs, because they did not con- 
form to the laws enacted by the Legislature of that State ; they had 
to close their business, but appealed this case of interference to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, which Court declared these 
laws contrary to free trade ; and the College of Pharmacy of New 
York had to pay an amount of damages, in consequence of which it 
came very near dying of anaemia.* 

There are certain branches in the Government from which politics 
must be and ought to be excluded— they are the educational, finan- 
cial and sanitary systems of a State — and since the effectiveness of 
such laws depends upon those who may be called upon to carry them 
out, and since their appointment rests with a political officer here, he 
is, as a matter of course, more influenced by party considerations 
than by the professional fitness of the aspirants. 

But pharmacy must be either a profession or it must be a trade ; 
if the former, then it forms an integral part of the sanitary system 
of the State. As a profession, it occupies a position distinct from 
any other business, free trade, free country and all to the contrary 
notwithstanding. If the State regulates pharmacy, it must, of neces- 

* The above reference to the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York 
is erroneous. This College was not incorporated in the year 1830 ; its first 
charter was dated April 25th, 1831. The first law relating to the practice of 
pharmacy in that city was passed March 11th, 1839; it could not be enforced, 
because the institution, for whose benefit the fines were to be collected, was 
incorrectly named in the law, and for that reason was unwilling to prosecute ; 
the New York College of Pharmacy had merely to register the apothecaries, 
free of charge, received no pecuniary benefit from this law, and could not 
prosecute under it; it could not, therefore, be liable for damages, even if the 
closing of several stores and the asserted legal decision had taken place, of 
which circumstances we have never been informed. The pecuniary troubles of 
the College arose from an entirely different cause, the lawsuit finally being de- 
cided in favor of the College of Pharmacy of the City of Neiv York. — Editor 
Am. Journ. Pharm. 



272 



Pharmacy Laws in the U. 8. 



( Am. Jour. Phakm. 
t June 1. 1874. 



sity, do it in accordance with its Constitution; and, if this is impos- 
sible, then that Constitution must be amended. It cannot do it by 
circumventing these principles, for such attempts are known by their 
fruits, of which we have a sample in our registration acts — this lame 
imitation, in our free country, of a still lamer English precedent, — a 
lame imitation, because in England they examine and register phar- 
macists, and prosecute them for accidents to the last degree, on one 
hand, and on the other they allow a dealer in groceries to huckster 
all medicines, drugs nnd poisons most generally in use. 

Pharmacy is a profession in France and Germany ; its practice is 
the concern of the Government of those States, and is regulated ac- 
cording to its orders. The movement which has been going on during 
the last few years in Germany towards the " Freigebung des Apothe- 
kergewerbes" is generally misconstrued in this country ; for it is no 
evidence at all of a tendency in the direction of that English prece- 
dent or our imitation of it. That movement has about as much in- 
fluence on the existing order of the profession of pharmacy in Ger- 
many as our registration act on the existing order of huckstering 
drugs in this country ; for it requires a " Beschluss" or an act of the 
"Reichstag" of the German Empire before those " Gewerbefreiheit' 7 
shriekers can reduce the profession of German pharmacy to a " Ge- 
werbe," that is a trade. The German Empire is a constitutional mon- 
archy; and it requires an act of Congress in our constitutional repub- 
lic to elevate that trade to the rank of a profession. If they should 
accomplish it, however, then it is true that pharmaceutical supervi- 
sion by the State will hardly mean anything else but to insure the 
thorough qualification of the pharmacist and his personal responsi- 
bility, but it will then also be true that a trade is no profession, and 
that when the dealer in groceries of Germany, the manufacturer of 
quack nostrums et id genus omne, stand on the same footing in all 
material points, then Continental Europe will form a striking exam- 
ple of English and American free trade. 

The Governmental machinery of those States is slow, but solid and 
compact ; nor can this be otherwise, because forty millions of people 
are living on an area not much larger than the State of Texas. It 
is not likely that German pharmacy will be reformed so as practi- 
cally to be a free trade. 

We here are and have been agitating to raise the free business of 
selling drugs to the rank of a profession, but the Constitution secures 



A junTi'.is™'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 273 

free trade to every citizen ; therefore, as we value free trade, it would 
be more consistent with our condition and position to let our calling 
take care of itself, because as soon as we claim to be more than deal- 
ers in drugs, we expose ourselves to exactions by the people, based 
upon assumptions to which at present they possess no right whatever. 
If they wish to saddle labors and responsibilities on us, there must 
be compensation, because we, a part of the people, cannot relinquish 
our civil rights to the benefit of the whole for nothing, for we are dei 
gracia sovereign citizens of a free country. The District of Colum- 
bia, the State of New York or Kentucky, cannot expect to obtain a 
system of pharmaceutical supervision at private expense. They pos- 
sess no pharmacopoeia, etc., and if pharmacy is so delicate a plant 
that it cannot be exposed to the free air, then its cultivation and ac- 
climatization had better be abandoned, because it will be a costly 
failure. Neither does a State possess the right to exact qualification 
and responsibilities from one portion of her citizens in a business, 
while allowing another portion to sell drugs ad libitum without con- 
ferring on the former certain well-defined prerogatives on account of 
such qualification, etc. ; but these prerogatives do not consist in 
keeping account of the sale of dangerous drugs for nothing, neither 
do they consist in paying more licenses and fees than the quack 
nostrum manufacturer or the retail or wholesale grocer-druggist, 
etc.; on the contrary, they must consist, for instance, in the preroga- 
tive that the latter is entirely enjoined from meddling with pharma- 
ceutical preparations, on account of his incompetence, and when the 
people buy drugs from him in their assumption "to doctor" them- 
selves — an assumption which they have been accustomed to so long 
that they consider it as a right — then they (the people) must be made 
to learn and know that they also assume all consequences of such 
doctoring, and that they are ipso facto et jure prevented from bring- 
ing suits for damages against such dealer in drugs. 

These are the main preliminaries, if our position shall be defined 
with reference to free trade, qualification, etc. 

Chicago, May, 1874. 

GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

On the Examination of Oil of Peppermint a valuable paper has 
been published by Prof. Fliickiger, in " Pharm. Handelsblatt," April 

17 



274 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM june R i. 



Pharm. 
1874. 



1st. The author calls attention to the fact that the optical behavior 
is no reliable criterion for the purity of volatile oils, the rotatory power 
of their proximate constituents being influenced and often reversed 
by various agents. Even the color reactions are more or less depen- 
dent upon the relative proportion of these compounds ; but some are 
so characteristic that they deserve attention. Thus oil of peppermint 
is colored beautifully green or blue by a very small quantity of nitric 
acid, and it acquires at the same time a fluorescence, appearing cop- 
per-red by reflected light.* 

The influence of chloral upon oil of peppermint has been noticed 
by Jehn.f The author found that his samples of the oil were colored 
but slightly brown or yellow by chloral hydrate, even after the appli- 
cation of heat ; but anhydrous chloral alters the oil gradually at ordi- 
nary temperature. Of two samples which showed exactly the same 
behavior to nitric acid, one acquired, with one-fifth volume of anhy- 
drous chloral, gradually a brown color, while the other turned green y 
the color being always purer and richer after a contact of some hours 
or days in the cold. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid or bromine also show peculiar colora- 
tions ; the reaction should be moderated by the addition of carbon 
bisulphide. Very remarkable differences are observed on agitating 
different samples of the oil with a saturated solution of bisulphite of 
sodium ; one was colored green, then blue ; the other rose-red, violet, 
&c. 

The author suggests to those having authentic samples of oil of 
peppermint, to endeavor to ascertain the cause of this different beha- 
vior. 

Ampelopsis hederacea. The juice of the berries was examined by 
Von Gorup-JBesanez, who found the same constituents previously 
obtained from the leaves,* except glycolic acid. — Buchner's N. Repert* 
1874, p. 181. 

The Flotvers of Tilia argentea, Desf., have been met with in Europe 
as a substitute for the flowers of T, parvifolia and grandifolia, Ehrh. 
The former species is cultivated in Europe as an ornamental tree ; its 
flowers have larger bracts, which are of a greener color than the offi- 
cinal, finely reticulate above, and underneath densely covered with 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, p. 164. 
f Ibid., 1873, p. 447. 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 165. 



A jun ™; mf u ' \ Gleanings from the European Journals. 275 

stellate hairs, which readily separate, when dry forming a woolly 
irritating powder ; the flowers have, particularly in the fresh state, 
an odor reminding of hyacinth and lily of the valley. — Pharm. Post, 
1874, No, 9, from Schweiz. Wochenschr. f Ph. 

Oil of Pill. R. Nietzki obtained from the fruit of Anethum grave- 
ohm a volatile oil, which commenced to boil at 155° C. (311° F.), 
the boiling point rising gradually to 260° C. (500° F.) About ten 
per cent, of the oil consists of a carbohydrogen C 10 O 16 , having the 
boiling point 155 to 160° C, 60 per cent, boiling at 170—175° C. 
(338 — 347° F.), of the same composition, and 30 per cent, with the 
boiling point 225—330° C. (437—446° F.), composition C 10 H 14 O, and 
identical with carvol. The odor of the first portion of carbohydrogen 
reminds of turpentine ; that of the second portion resembles oil of 
mace, but when mixed with a little carvol, the characteristic dill odor 
is at once produced. — Archiv d. Pharm., 1874, April, p. 317. 

A Simple Contrivance for Filteriiig at Elevated Temperatures has 
been suggested by A. Horwarth, and successfully tried in the labora- 
tory of Prof. Schneider, in Vienna. A soft lead pipe, about one 
centimeter in diameter, is coiled closely around a glass funnel, so 
that the windings remain in close contact ; both ends of the pipe are 
sufficiently long, the upper end being used for admitting the vapors 
from a retort or flask, and the lower end being connected with a suit- 
able receiver. By using liquids distilling at different temperatures, 
and passing their vapors through the coil, any desired temperature 
may be maintained in the funnel. — Pharm. Qentr. Halle, 1874, No. 
11. 

New Method of Administering Iodine. P. Collas reports that Prof. 
Boldeau has obtained very satisfactory results by using, in the hospi- 
tal of Beaujon, an iodated albumen, prepared as follows : A solution 
of albumen is continually agitated with iodine in very fine powder, or 
dissolved in a suitable vehicle ; the liquid assumes at first a deep 
brownish-black color, which disappears after several hours, and starch 
is then not colored blue by it. The solution is now evaporated to dry- 
ness, at a low temperature, and made into pills, each containing five 
milligrams (y 5 grain) of iodine, of which five or six may be taken in 
24 hours. — L' Union Pharm., 1874, April, p. 97. 



276 Ailanthus Glandulosa in Dysentery. { k "j*™imi!* 

AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA AS A REMEDY FOR DYSENTERY* 

In a recent issue of the Archives de Medecine Navale is published 
an official note, addressed by Dr. Robert, who is the medical chief of 
the naval division of China and Japan, to the inspector-general of the 
health service in the French navy, calling attention to a drug used 
by Chinese physicians in the treatment of dysentery. It consists of 
the root bark of the Ailanthus glandulosa, Desf., a plant belonging to 
the natural order Simarubaceae, very common in the North of China 
and less so in Japan. It is also frequently cultivated in France and 
Italy for the purposes of shade, whilst its leaves have been used as 
food for silkworms. 

The bark of the root is the only part employed. It is white when 
fresh, resembling mallow root, but it acquires a greyish tint in dry- 
ing. It is fibrous and loose in texture, and is almost without smell. 
An infusion of this bark however exhales a slightly nauseous odor, 
and posseses an excessive bitterness resembling that of sulphate of 
quinia. The Chinese physicians employ the root in the fresh state 
only ; but Dr. Robert, having been compelled to use some that had 
become dry, found no sensible difference in its action in the two 
states. 

For administration, 50 grams weight of the fresh root is cut into 
very small pieces and triturated with 75 grams of hot water for a few 
minutes in a mortar, in order to soften the bark, and then strained. 
A teaspoonful of this strong infusion is administered as a dose morn- 
ing and evening, alone or in a cup of tea. Taken in this form, it 
provokes vomiting. The medicine is administered in this manner 
during three days, the patient being kept upon full diet. After that 
time the ailanthus is omitted and the diet is altered to broths until 
health is restored. If after eight days' treatment the patient is not 
cured, the Chinese physicians recommence the use of the ailanthus ; 
but Dr. Robert states that he has not met with a single case in which 
this resumption has been necessary, although he has had under his 
notice some where the disease had lasted several months, as well as 
others of more recent origin. 

The principal symptoms which follow the administration of the 
ailanthus are said to be nausea, and sometimes vomiting, followed by 
a temporary lowering of the pulse. The disappearance of blood from 

* Abstract of a paper in the Repertoire de Pharmacie, vol. ii. p. 237. 



A j'un°eT;i874 RM } Ailanthus Qlaiidulosa in Dysentery \ 277 

the evacuations commences on the first day and is complete on the 
second ; the colic ceases a little later. The effect of the drug upon 
the color of the evacuations is variable. Dr. Robert sums up by ex- 
pressing his opinion that the administration of the Ailanthus glandu- 
losa, as witnessed by him in China and Japan, gave superior results 
to that of ipecacuanha, astringents, alone or combined with opiates, 
or calomel. The remedy, he says, is only known to a portion of the 
Chinese physicians, a circumstance which he attributes to their cus- 
tom of preserving the secrets of their practice. 

Dr. Robert states that the root of the Ailanthus glandulosa is not 
usually to be obtained in the Chinese pharmacies ; but that in the 
dialect spoken at Shanghai it is called " hiang v or " siang-tcham," 
and in the mandarin dialect spoken at Pekin and Tiensin, it is named 
" tchau-tchoun," which latter agrees with the name attributed to it 
by Dr. F. Porter Smith in his " Contributions to the Materia Medica 
and Natural History of China " (p. 6). The latter writer points out 
that the Pen Tsau includes Ailanthus fcetida or glandulosa with 
Cedrela odorata and other trees distinguished by their odor, under the 
common name " Chun-chu." He further remarks that "this species 
of Ailanthus grows all over China, and is met with on the walls of 
Pekin. The leaves are used to feed silkworms, and in times of scarcity 
are used as a vegetable, though much less agreeable than the young 
leaves of the Cedrela. They are said to be slightly deleterious, and 
are used as astringent, anthelmintic, and deobstruent remedies. They 
are given in diseases of the lungs, dysuria, tabes infantum, menstrual 
disease, spermatorrhoea, and fluxes in general ; and a wash is made 
to promote the growth of the hair and to wash scabious eruptions and 
ulcers. In most of these cases the bark both of the tree and the root 
is used, having precisely the same properties. The bark of the man- 
grove tree is sometimes adulterated with this inferior substitute." But 
he does not mention its use in dysentery. 

In the non-officinal portion of the Pharmacopoeia of India, the 
Ailanthus Malabarica, D. C, a large tree of Ceylon, Malabar, and 
Concan, is mentioned as yielding an aromatic gum resinous substance, 
known by the Tamul name of matti-pawl, which is used medicinally, 
especially in dysenteric cases and as incense. Dr. Gibson regards it 
as a good stimulant in bronchitic affections. The bark is rough and 
very thick, with a pleasant and slightly bitter taste ; it is studded 
with bright garnet-looking grains, apparently of a resinous nature, 



278 Methyl Alcohol in Wood Spirit. \ k ™j*Ti,lvt' 

but not burning like resin or dissolving either in spirit or water. A 
specimen of the extract prepared from this bark may be seen in the 
Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

The bark of another species of Ailantlius, A. excelsa, is mentioned 
as being used by the natives in dyspeptic complaints, and esteemed as 
a powerful febrifuge. This bark was the subject of an exhaustive 
treatise by Mr. Narayan Daji, read before the Grant College Medical 
Society of Bombay, in which its properties were attributed to the 
presence of ailanthic acid. JPharm. Jour. (Lond.) May 9, 1874. 



DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF METHYL ALCOHOL IN COM- 
MERCIAL WOOD SPIRIT. 

By G. Krell. 

The wood spirit of commerce, even when highly rectified, consists 
of a mixture in varying proportions of different substances, some of 
which have not yet been studied. Methyl alcohol is not always the 
chief constituent, but for technical purposes it is very important to 
know how much it does contain. The methods heretofore in use, such 
as boiling point, specific gravity, action toward sulphuric acid, caustic 
soda, salt solution, water and so on, give almost no idea of the real 
amount of methyl alcohol in the wood spirit. This fact induced the 
author to institute some experiments for finding the simplest possible 
method of determining the amount of methyl alcohol in wood spirit. 
Re has arrived at the conclusion that the conversion of wood spirit 
into methyl iodide is best adapted to give a clue to the quantity of 
methyl alcohol in it. 

By using the biniodide ef phosphorus instead of iodine and phos- 
phorus in the apparatus below described, it is easy to conduct each 
single investigation always under the same circumstances. Although 
the quantity of methyl iodide obtained gives no absolute report of 
the quantity of alcohol present, because such reactions never go off 
so smoothly as to produce the theoretical yield, yet this method fur- 
nishes the means of accurately comparing different specimens of wood 
spirit. If, for example, pure absolute methyl alcohol be subjected to 
this treatment, the yield of methyl iodide produced by this may be 
compared with that obtained from the wood spirit to be tested, and 
the proportions will show how much methyl alcohol is in the latter. 



^une^ml^} Methyl Alcohol in Wood Spirit 279 

The principal impurity of methyl alcohol, aside from adulterations, 
is aceton. The latter, if absolutely pure, when acted upon by the 
biniodide of phosphorus produces no substance similar to methyl 
iodide ; at the temperature of 100 p C. a few drops of a distillate is 
formed, which on shaking with water almost entirely dissolves. Ace- 
ton does not exert any perceptible influence on the yield of methyl 
iodide, as may be proved by experiment. 

It acts differently with another very common impurity of wood 
spirit, methylacetic ether. With biniodide of phosphorus this sub- 
stance also produces some methyl iodide, and the results of the expe- 
riments show that the methyl of the methylacetic ether is also con- 
verted into methyl iodide. This ether, when pure, on being treated, 
as proposed, with biniodide of phosphorus, yields at 100° C. a distil- 
late, about half of which is soluble in water; the insoluble portion of 
the distillate is methyl iodide. This method of testing is, of course, 
influenced by this, but when we consider that, in using wood spirit 
for methylating anilin, the methylacetic ether also aids in the action 
just in proportion as it contains methyl, we may disregard the error 
which this causes when testing for most practical purposes. 

There is also a very simple method of determining the quantity of 
methylacetic ether in wood spirits, by adding a measured quantity of 
normal soda solution, warming slightly and titrating with normal 
hydrochloric acid. The difference in the amount of acid required 
from that indicated by the soda added furnishes the means of calcu- 
lating the quantity of ether present. 

The other impurities in wood spirit are mostly unstudied hydro- 
carbons, and are present only in inconsiderable quantities. They 
produce, with biniodide of phosphorus, resinous bodies that yield no 
distillate at 100° C. Hence there is no danger of the methyl iodide 
being contaminated by their products, and experiments prove it. 

The tests with wood spirits are conducted as follows : 

In a glass flask of about 100 grams capacity are placed 30 grams 
of dry biniodide of phosphorus, PI 2 , and the flask closed with a 
double bored stopper, preferably of glass. Through one of these open- 
ings is inserted a small dropping tube holding five c. c. ; through the 
other is a tube bent at an obtuse angle — the latter, when surrounded 
with a good cooler, to condense and return the vapors, and afterward, 
by inclining the flask, for distilling it off. 

Exactly five c. c. of the wood spirit to be tested are placed in the 



280 



Santoninic Acid. 



( Am. Jour. Phakm. 
\ June 1, 1874. 



dropping tube at a temperature of 15° C, and allowed to drop slowly 
upon the iodide, about ten drops per minute. When all the wood 
spirit has been admitted, the flask is warmed for five minutes, in boil- 
ing water, the cooler being placed upright. The apparatus is then 
inclined in such a way that the distillate will run out, and the mixture 
distilled on a water bath as long as anything goes over. Toward the 
end of the experiment the whole flask must be immersed in the boil- 
ing water. The distillate is caught in a glass receiver, or, better, in 
a graduated glass tube, narrow at the bottom, so that the narrow por- 
tion may be very accurately graduated. The receiver should hold 
25 c.c, and, after the distillation, is filled up to the 25 c.c. mark 
with water, a part of the water being used to rinse out the condenser. 
If transparent crystals of iodide of phosphonium are deposited in the 
cooler, the water must be added carefully, drop by drop. The methyl 
iodide collected in the receiver is shaken with water and its volume 
read off at 15° C. Five cubic centimeters of absolute, chemically 
pure methyl alcohol, prepared from methylbenzoic ether, gave 7*19 c.c- 
methyl iodide, which quantity corresponds very nearly with the theo- 
retical yield. By comparison with the quantity of iodide of methyl 
obtained from the specimens tested, the quantity of methyl alcohol 
can be calculated by simple proportion ; or, if the space of 7*19 c. c. 
in the receiver be divided in 100 equal parts, the percentage may be 
read off directly. — Journ. of Applied Chem., May, 1874. 



SANTONINIC ACID. 
By 0. Hesse. 

Santonin is the anhydride of an acid, of which hitherto only the 
salts have been known. The free santoninic acid is obtained by add- 
ing an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid to a cold aqueous solution 
of the sodium salt, and shaking at once the milky liquid with ether. 
From the ethereal solution granular crystals soon separate out, which 
are recrystallized from alcohol. 

Santoninic acid, C 15 H 20 O 4 , forms white, rhombic crystals, which are 
not colored yellow by exposure to light. It is sparingly soluble in 
cold water, more freely in boiling water, and readily in alcohol, but 
not very freely in ether. Its aqueous solution has a strongly acid 
reaction, and, when hot, decomposes the carbonates of sodium and 
calcium. The santonates have an alkaline reaction, and are not col- 



A *MmZmt™'} Old and New Reagents for Common Phenol. 281 

ored red by alcoholic potash. When the acid is heated to 120°, it is 
resolved into santonin and water ; the same decomposition is pro- 
duced by adding sulphuric acid to its aqueous solution ; hydrochloric 
acid acts in the cold in a similar way, but more slowly, while by add- 
ing either of these acids to a hot solution of a salt, santonin is at once 
precipitated. 

Cannizzaro and Sestini have lately shown that when santonin is 
heated for some time with an alkali, it is converted into the stable 
santonic acid, which is isomeric with santoninic acid, but cannot be 
reconverted into santonin. — Jour?i. Chem. Soc, March, 1874, from 
Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber., vi, 1280—1282. 



OLD AND NEW REAGENTS FOR COMMON PHENOL. 
By Egidio Polacci. 
The author points out the distinctions between the blue color pro- 
duced by phenol and hydrochloric acid with a chip of fir-wood and 
that given by hydrochloric acid alone. The violet coloration given 
by perchloride of iron is indecisive as being common to all the phenols. 
The blue coloration given by the successive action of ammonia and a 
hypochlorite is less general. As this method turns on the conversion 
of the phenol into anilin by the action of ammonia, the test is only 
available where the absence of anilin is satisfactorily demonstrated. 
Cresylic acid and thymol yield similar results. In complex organic fluids 
the reaction may fail. The conversion of phenol into picric acid by the 
action of nitric acid cannot be used for the detection of the first men- 
tioned body, since the same result is obtained with a great variety of 
bodies. The author pours into a narrow test-tube concentrated sul- 
phuric acid to the height of four or five centimetres, and adds cau- 
tiously the aqueous solution containing the phenol, in such a manner 
that the two liquids may not mix. A formation of three colors is 
soon perceived at the line of contact of the two liquids. These three 
are soon reduced to one, a vermillion red, which, setting out from the 
plane of division, diffuses itself through the entire mass of the phenol 
solution. This color is stable, and remains unaltered for months. 
If the red liquid is removed from the acid and treated with an alkali, 
it becomes yellow without losing its transparency. This reaction 
serves to detect one part of phenol in about 2000 of water. Another 
method is as follows : — In a well glazed porcelain crucible is put a 



282 Researches on Calamus Oil. {^L^SSE*" 

little of the most concentrated sulphuric acid, to which is added a 
relatively minute portion of bichromate of potash. The mixture is 
well stirred so that the liberated chromic acid may be uniformly dis- 
tributed through the sulphuric acid. A small drop of the liquid under 
examination is placed upon the acid mixture, which immediately gives 
a brown coloration at the point of contact. If the proportion of 
phenol is larger than one part in 30,000 the coloration is accompanied 
with a chocolate-brown precipitate. The author has also examined 
Landolt's test, which consists in adding to the suspected solution 
bromine water in slight excess. If phenol is present a yellowish- 
white precipitate is produced. The sensibility of this reaction ex- 
tends to one part in 45,500. As Landolt has remarked, precipitates 
more or less similar, are produced by oxybenzoic acid, the homologues 
of phenic acid, anilin, toluidin, quinia, quinidih, cinchonia, strychnia, 
narcotina and morphia. The author considers that the yellowish-white 
precipitate may be rocognized as tribromo-phenol by the following 
reactions : — It has a special odor, slightly recalling that of the hy- 
dride of salicyle. It is insoluble in acids, but soluble in alkalies, ether, 
and absolute alcohol. A very small quantity of water completely 
separates tribromo-phenol from its alcoholic solution. If carefully 
heated on platinum foil it may be volatilized unchanged without leav- 
ing a residue. But if the heat is strong the compound is decom- 
posed and burns with a smoky flame, evolving much bromine, and 
leaving a carbonaceous residue. A portion placed in a porcelain 
capsule, and treated with sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash, 
produces a chocolate-brown color, with the escape of bromine vapors. 
If the bichromate is dissolved in water, and the experiment conducted 
in a glass tube, with the application of heat, the liquid takes a fine 
green color. If gently heated with nitre and concentrated sulphuric 
acid it forms oily drops of a fine red color, which burn, leaving a bulky 
carbonaceous residue. — Qhemical News, May 8, from Qaz. Qhim. ital. 
1874. 



RESEARCHES ON CALAMUS OIL. 
By A. Kurbatow. 
When this oil is submitted to fractional distillation, the boiling 
point rises from 140° to 280°. The fraction passing over at 170°? 
when carefully redistilled, gave a considerable quantity of product 
boiling at 158° — 159°. The formula, C 10 H 18 , represents the compo- 



^ul™?,wt"'\ Pyrogallic Acid as a Reagent. 283 

sition of this hydrocarbon. It has a turpentine-like odor, is trans- 
parent, soluble in alcohol and ether, and at 0° has a specific gravity 
0-8793. It combines with hydrochloric acid, forming a crystalline 
mass which melts at about 65°. 

By rectifying the oils of higher boiling point, a bluish liquid was 
obtained which boiled at 250° — 255°; but after treatment with sodium 
the color disappeared, and the hydrocarbon boiled at 255° — 258°. It 
has the formula, C 10 H 16 , but does not combine with dry hydrochloric 
acid. — Journ. Chem. Soc, March, 1874, from Deut. Ohem. Gfes. Ber., 
vi, 1210. 



PYROGALLIC ACID AS A REAGENT * 
By M. Schlagdenhauffen. 

The action of pyrogallic acid upon the alkalies and the alkaline 
earths is well known. It forms, with the caustic alkalies, dark-brown 
colored compounds, and with lime water a splendid violet solution, 
which finally deposits a black product by a decomposition not yet in- 
vestigated. With the carbonates and bicarbonates analogous results 
are obtained. A few drops of a ten per cent, solution of pyrogallic 
acid, added to bicarbonate of magnesia or bicarbonate of lime in suf- 
ficiently dilute solution to remain at first uncolored, gives, after six 
hours, an abundant black deposit. This reaction the author has made 
use of in the examination of alkaline mineral waters, a yellow color- 
ation being produced at once in the water most impregnated with car- 
bonate, followed, after ten or twelve hours, by a plentiful black pre- 
cipitate, whilst a negative result, amounting to only a yellow or feeble 
brown color, has been found to indicate the absence of soluble car- 
bonates. The presence of calcareous carbonates in potable waters 
may be detected by adding a small quantity of pyrogallic acid in 
aqueous or alcoholic solution to a few cubic centimetres of the water 
to be examined. 

The alkaloids have also the property of coloring pyrogallol brown, 
or at least a deep orange yellow, but the reaction is not manifest in 
less than a dozen hours. This character distinguishes the organic 
bases from neutral crystaJlizable bodies and glucosides, the latter re- 
maining perfectly inactive in the presence of pyrogallic acid ; the 
heat of a water bath increases the depth of color. Alcoholic solution 



D Union Pharmaceutique, vol. xv., p. 5. 



284 Pyrogallic Acid as a Reagent. { k ^lmT' 

of mercuric chloride, added to the colored liquid containing the alka- 
loid, causes immediately a black deposit, but a pyrogallic solution 
containing a glucoside or neutral crystalline body is not colored by 
the addition of the bichloride. 

Some experiments, based upon this reaction, were made to define 
the relative alkalinity of the alkaloids. A gram of pyrogallic acid 
dissolved in 10 c.c. of alcohol, added to 2 c.c. of a saturated alcoholic 
solution of mercuric chloride, was used as the reagent. Two or three 
drops were placed in a porcelain capsule, and a few crystals of the sub- 
stance to be examined added. In some cases the crystals were blackened 
immediately upon contact ; others at first took a light tinge, and be- 
came more colored after a few minutes ; whilst some alkaloids only 
became colored after a slight elevation of temperature. The follow- 
ing represents the result of the experiments : — 

In the cold With heat. 

Atropia. . . Black, immediately Black. 

Veratria . . " " " 

Codeia . . Brown, immediately " 



Quinidia . . " " . . . . 

Cinchonidia " " .... 

Thebaina . / Pale y elloW ' br0Wn after * of 
an hour 



Ditto 


ditto 


ditto 


u 


u 


u 


a 


a 


a 


u 


a 


a 


a 


a 


u 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 



Narcotina . . Ditto ditto ditto 

Papaverina . " " " 

Brucia / cnan o e at ^ rst » brown ) 

\ after J of an hour ... J 

Strychnia . 
Delphinia . 
Morphia 
Quinia . 
Cinchonia . 

In operating with neutral crystallizable bodies and glucosides, and 
heating the mixture, the black coloration was never obtained, and 
even the residue never presented a color darker than that produced 
by a mixture of the body with the bichloride or pyrogallol used sep- 
arately. 

Picrotoxin, phlorizin, salicin, santonin, aesculin, coumarin, amyg- 
dalin, meconin, and digitalin, in no instance resembled the alkaloids 
in their behaviour. It would therefore appear that the pyrogallo- 



A ju J nTi, mf'} Action of Chloroform on Potassium Phenate. 285 

mercuric, like the guaiaco mercuric test, can be used to distinguish 
the glucosides and neutral crystallizable bodies from organic bases, 
and thus facilitate analytical research. 

In replacing the mercuric chloride by ferric chloride analogous re- 
sults are obtained. The solution of pyrogallate of iron used by the 
author in his experiments contained only a minimum quantity of 
metallic salt, the addition of a trace of ammonia or caustic alkali to 
which gives rise to a deep blue-violet color. This very delicate reac- 
tion of the salts of peroxide of iron, recently indicated by M. Jacque- 
min, can also be used to recognize the presence of alkalies. The 
solution which gave the author the best results was composed of — 
Pyrogallic acid, , 0*50 gram. 

Water, 5 c.c. 

Alcohol 5 c.c. 

Perchloride of Iron, . . . 0-0001 gram. 
The pyrogallate of iron so prepared, colors blue crystals of strychnia 
brucia, morphia, codeia, and all the other alkaloids. Crystals of 
narcotina are colored difficultly, and those of narceia acquire only a 
scarcely appreciable violet tint, but upon heating them in a water 
bath they both yield a very deep bluish violet residue The glucosides 
and neutral bodies give no coloration in the cold, and in the heat no 
deeper tint than pyrogallate of iron heated separately. A solution 
of cupric chloride added to pyrogallic acid gives analogous results, 
the coloration in that case being a nearly black brown. 

The author considers that all these reactions are explained by the 
oxidation of the pyrogallic acid under the influence of various metallic 
oxides. The addition of an alkali, alkaline salt or free alkaloid to 
one or other of the foregoing solutions, produces, in the pres- 
ence of a metallic chloride, a double decomposition ; there is formed 
an alkaline chloride or a hydrochlorate of an alkaloid and a more 
or less decided coloration, resulting from the oxidation of the pyro- 
gallic acid by the metallic oxide at the moment when the double de- 
composition takes place. — Pharm. Journ. (Lond.), March 28, 1874. 



ACTION OF CHLOROFORM ON POTASSIUM PHENATE. 
By J. Guareschi. 

When an alcoholic solution of phenol, mixed with caustic potash, 
is evaporated to dryness, and chloroform is poured upon the residue 
while still hot, a splendid red-purple color is immediately produced. 



286 



Materia Medica Notes. 



/Am. Pearm. Jour. 
t June. 1, 1874. 



The potash should not be in excess, and the temperature not very 
high. This reaction is capable of detecting 0*1 mgm. of phenol. 

The coloration is probably due to the formation of rosolic acid, 
which is, in fact, known to be produced by the action of iodoform, 
formic acid, etc., on potassium phenate. 

The action of potassium phenate on chloroform does not give rise 
to any compound analogous to the triethylic formate, or orthoformic 
ether, which Kay obtained by treating chloroform with sodium ethyl- 
ate. — Journ. Ohem. Soc, March, 1874, from Gazetta chimica ital- 
iana, iii, 401. 



MATERIA MEDICA NOTES* 
By E. M. Holmes, 
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

Koegoed. — At the Brighton meeting of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference in August, 1872, a paper was read by Mr. Keyworth, of 
Hastings, upon a drug called koegoed, the botanical source of which 
was said to be unknown. Having had occasion lately to turn to Dr. 
Pappe's Medical Flora of the Cape of Good Hope, I found that the 
same name, although spelt in a slightly different manner, was applied 
by the Hottentots to the Mesembryanthemum tortuosum, a plant be- 
longing to the nat. ord. Ficoidese. Not having been able to detect 
any leaves in a specimen given to me by Mr. J. Moss, I wrote for a fur- 
ther supply to Mr. Keyworth, who courteously complied with my re- 
quest. In the parcel forwarded to me by that gentleman, I found a 
few leaves of oblong-ovate shape which exactly corresponded in ap- 
pearance with those of a specimen of the Mesembryanthemum tortuo- 
sum in the British Museum. Dr. Shaw, who is well acquainted with 
the Flora of South Africa, happened to be in the British Museum 
while I was engaged in comparing the specimens, and immediately 
recognized the Koegoed as the form in which that plant is used by 
the Hottentots, remarking that he had seen it growing in Bushman- 
land, but considered it to be rather a rare plant. There can be no 
doubt, therefore, that the Koegoed is the produce of M. tortuosum, 
of which it is probably the root and procumbent stem. 

Three other species of Mesembryanthemum are used medicinally 

* Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Bri- 
tain, Wednesday, April 1st, 1874. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
June 1, 1874. / 



Materia Medica Notes. 



287 



by the Hottentots, but these have leaves of a different shape to those 
of the Koegoed, the leaves of the M. edule and M. aeinaciforme being 
scimitar-shaped, and those of M. crystallinum, which is well known 
in this country as the ice plant, being broadly ovate and amplexicauh 
The expressed juice of the first two species above mentioned is exten- 
sively used in the south of Africa, in dysentery, as a gargle in malig- 
nant sore throat, and in the form of a lotion for burns and scalds. 

The Koegoed, besides being used as stated by Mr. Keyworth, as a 
sedative for cattle, is chewed by the Hottentots as an intoxicating 
agent, and appears to possess narcotic properties which deserve fur- 
ther investigation. 

Some Adulterations of Crude Drugs. 

Cascarilla. — Notwithstanding the great care which is exercised by 
most wholesale buyers in selecting good samples at the drug sales, 
and in the examination of all parcels which enter into stock in their 
warehouses, spurious drugs are occasionally overlooked and find their 
way into the retail trade. This spurious cascarilla (of which a sam- 
ple is upon the table) presents an instance in point. It was imported 
from the port of Nassau, in the Bahama Islands. A lot of cascarilla, 
consisting of four serons selected from a fine sample, was purchased 
by one of the first London houses. Of these serons, three con- 
tained the true bark ; but the fourth, which appeared to contain un- 
usually fine specimens, and which were sent out as such, was after- 
wards found to consist almost entirely of the spurious bark. 

At first sight this bark strongly resembles cascarilla in appearance, 
but may be distinguished thus : — The periderm or outer layer of bark 
does not readily peel off, and is of a fawn color — not white. On the 
inner surface the bark is of a reddish tint and is furnished with a 
number of straight, closely-packed, raised lines, which give it a 
striated appearance, the inner surface of cascarilla being smooth. 
The taste is not aromatic but astringent, and almost without bitter- 
ness. The color of the bark is also of a more reddish tint than that 
of cascarilla. From the general appearance and microscopical struc- 
ture of the bark it seems probable that it may belong to a plant £>f 
the same genus as the cascarilla. 

Most of the species of croton occurring in the Bahamas appear to 
have aromatic barks, but in the excellent paper published in the 
Pharm. Journ. by Dr. Daniell upon the cascarillas of the Bahama 



288 



Materia Medica Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X June 1, 1874. 



Islands, one species described under the name of Oroton lucidum, L., 
is said to have in the fresh state a slightly bitter and somewhat as- 
tringent bark. It further resembles the spurious bark in the " dull 
red color of the cortical layers." It is said to be used by the negroes 
of New Providence to mix with the bark of the true cascarilla, under 
the idea that it improves the curative powers of the latter, and it is 
known by the name of the false sweetwood bark, sweetwood being 
the name applied by them to the true cascarilla. Hence this bark 
may have been mixed with the cascarilla by those who collected it, 
for the above-mentioned purpose. From the fact of its occurring 
only in one seron, however, it appears more probable that it was an 
intentional adulteration. Unfortunately, there are no specimens of 
the bark of Croton lucidum either at Kew or the British Museum, so 
that I have not been able to ascertain with certainty (as might be 
done by the use of the microscope) the identity of this bark with that 
of the Croton lucidum, L. I trust, however, in the course of the 
year to receive further information concerning it from Jamaica. 

With regard to its medicinal properties, the bark appears to cause 
sickness without producing either disagreeable effects. 

Mr. A. H. Squire, who first brought this bark under my notice, 
has examined its behaviour with various reagents, and finds that the 
infusion and tincture are darker in color than those of cascarilla ; 
that tincture of galls gives a scarcely perceptible cloudiness, and that 
tincture of perchloride of iron turns the tincture almost black, while 
the infusion is only slightly deepened in color by it, and that acetate 
of lead gives an abundant precipitate with both tinctures. The tinc- 
ture of cascarilla is not altered in appearance either by tincture of 
perchloride of iron or tincture of galls. 

Arnica root. — In a specimen of arnica root which was recently 
sent to me for examination (by Messrs. Wright, Sellers & Layman), 
I found only fifty per cent, of the genuine root, and in a second sam- 
ple only one per cent, of arnica. In both samples there were two or 
three different kinds of roots, but the chief adulterant in both cases 
were the same. 

The physical characters of this spurious arnica are so strongly 
marked that it is not difficult to recognize it. For the sake of com- 
parison, before giving the distinctive characters of the spurious drug, 
it may be well to recall the description of arnica. 

What is commonly known as arnica root consists of a slender rhi- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June 1, 1874. J 



Materia Medica Notes. 



289 



zome or prostrate stem having a number of rootlets arranged almost 
in a line along the under surface. In a transverse section the corti- 
cal portion is found to be hard, and of a yellowish white color, while 
the central portion or meditullium is soft, and of a dirty greyish or 
brownish-white color. The odor is distinctive, and the taste has a 
peculiar acridity and an after flavor which may be likened to the 
odor of rancid cocoa-nut oil. 

The spurious drug may be at once recognized by the fact that it is 
not a rhizome, but a root which evidently descends vertically into 
the soil, as it is surrounded on all sides by rootlets. In size it varies 
from that of arnica to five or six times as large, in some pieces ap- 
pearing prsemorse, and in others suddenly narrowed and elongated. 
The cortical portion resembles that of arnica in color, but the medi- 
tullium, or central portion, is of a purple tint, and presents a discoid 
appearance, two characters which I believe are met with in but few 
roots. When the root is soaked in water the purplish meditullium 
swells up and loses its discoid appearance. The taste is astringent 
and somewhat aromatic, faintly resembling that of cloves. Thinking 
it possible that the root might belong to some plant having leaves 
like those of arnica, and that it might have been gathered in mistake 
for arnica, I examined several species of Hieracium, which grow in 
similar situations, and resemble arnica in having composite flowers 
and entire leaves, but in none of them had the meditullium a purple 
color. The astringent taste of the spurious arnica then led me to 
suspect that it might be the root of a rosaceous plant, and the clove- 
like flavor seemed to indicate the root of Geum urbanum, an indige- 
nous plant well known to herbalists in this country, under the name 
of Avens, or Herb Bennet. Having procured specimens of the latter 
from Covent Garden, I found that the appearance, structure and 
taste were identical, and have therefore no hesitation in referring 
the spurious arnica root to that plant. The other kinds of root were 
present only in small quantity, and appear to have been accidental. 
One is a slender rhizome of a paler color than that of arnica, and 
has a white discoid meditullium, and a bitter taste ; another is evi- 
dently that of a species of Vaccinium ; a third looks very like vale- 
rian, but is odorless ; a fourth closely resembles bistort root. 

From all the spurious roots the leaves have been carefully removed, 
while an unusual quantity of arnica leaves are mixed with the roots, 
evidently for the purpose of producing the impression that the root 

18 



290 



A nalysis of Iodine. 



f Am. Joub.Pharm. 
\ June 1, 1874. 



is genuine arnica. That the adulteration is an intentional one is also 
evident from the fact that the leaves, flowers and general habit of the 
two plants are totally distinct ; arnica having entire leaves, a simple 
stem, and composite flowers, while Greum urbanum has lyrate pinnate 
leaves, a branched stem and simple flowers. 

Belladonna root. — A sample sent to me for examination contained 
fifty per cent, of a malvaceous root, which I believe to be that of 
Malva sylvestris ; the remainder consisted of small pieces of bella- 
donna root. Externally, the two are very much alike, especially 
when the belladonna is in small pieces ; but internally the appear- 
ance and structure will be seen to be very different, belladonna 
having a very large meditullium and a small cortical portion, while 
in the mallow the two are nearly equal. The fracture of belladonna 
also is short, while in the mallow it is distinctly fibrous. 

This adulteration, although easily detected, is of considerable im- 
portance, seeing that it would in this proportion reduce the strength 
of the preparations of belladonna by one-half. Both the arnica and 
belladonna were imported from Germany. 

Whether these adulterations are to be taken as an indication that 
arnica and belladonna are becoming scarce in Germany, or whether 
they are the result of a demand for cheap drugs, is not very evident, 
but their occurrence does point to the necessity for a very careful 
examination by the pharmacist of all crude drugs which enter into- 
stock, and to the importance attaching to a thorough acquaintance 
with the appearance and structure of all articles of materia medica. 
They show also that adulterations may occasionally occur where they 
would be least suspected. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., April 11, 1871. 



ANALYSIS OF IODINE. 

By Gaston Tissandier. 

Translated from the Moniteur des Produites Chimiques, by S. A. Goldschmidt, 

E. M. 

The method of analysis producing the best results is to dissolve the 
iodine in sulphurous acid, and precipitate it as iodide of silver in the 
presence of an excess of ammonia to dissolve any chloride which may 
be present. The principle of the process is simple, yet certain pre- 
cautions are necessary in order to insure the success of the analysis. 

1. Weighing the Iodine. — As iodine volatilizes with great readiness. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June 1, 1874. / 



Analysis of Iodine. 



291 



it is impossible to weigh it upon an open watch-glass as in ordinary 
analyses. Place a few grammes of iodine in a well-corked specimen 
tube, and weigh. Throw a few decigrammes into the sulphurous acid 
solution and rapidly close the tube. The difference in the weight of 
the tube gives the amount of iodine taken for analysis. 

2. Determination of the Iodine. — Place in a beaker or flask of 
about one litre capacity 40 c. c. of concentrated and freshly prepared 
solution of sulphurous acid. In this the iodine is dissolved by stirring. 
If an appreciable residue remains, this is filtered off and weighed, care 
being taken to keep the funnel covered during the operation. This, 
however, is seldom necessary, commercial iodine containing generally 
but small traces of insoluble substances. 

Pour now into the beaker at least half a litre of boiling water, and 
an excess of ammonia ; and then add nitrate of silver, cover the 
beaker, and allow the precipitate to stand about half an hour in a 
warm place. At the end of that time filter through Swedish paper 
without folds, wash by decantation with boiling water, taking care to 
gather the precipitate at the apex of the funnel. When thoroughly 
washed, giving no turbidity with hydrochloric acid, the precipitate is 
dried in an air bath at 110° C. 

Care must be taken prior to igniting the argentic iodide to remove 
all trace of carbon, lest the precipitate should be reduced to metallic 
silver. Remove the iodide from the filter by means of a platinum 
spatula, to a piece of glazed paper, scraping the paper to remove the 
smallest fragments ; in spite of these precautions a little will adhere 
to the apex of the filter ; cut this off and calcine it in a weighed por- 
celain capsule of about 12 mm. diameter. When the ash is perfectly 
white, add the iodide, and heat till it begins to fuse ; cool and weigh. 
The equivalent of iodide of silver is 235, and of silver 108, so that 
the precipitate contains 54 per cent, of iodine. 

3. Determination of the Chlorine. — To the filtrate from the last de- 
termination add an excess of nitric acid, filter and weigh the result- 
ing chloride with the usual precautions. 

4. Determination of the Ash. — Weigh five grammes in the method 
already described, and ignite gently in a porcelain capsule till all the 
iodine has volatilized ; the residue should be very slight, and consists 
chiefly of silica and alumina, with trace of alkaline chlorides. 

5. Determination of the Moisture. — The quantity of moisture in 



292 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June 1, 1874. 



commercial iodine is often considerable, frequently as much as 20 per 
cent. This must be determined by difference, as all direct determi- 
nations being attended by heat would cause large quantities of iodine 
to volatilize. 

We have, however, in cases where the sample is very moist, em- 
ployed the following method : Place a gramme of iodine in a narrow 
tube graduated into tenths of centimetres, add 20 c. c. of bisulphide 
of carbon, and shake the tube. Closing the orifice with the finger, 
till the iodine is entirely dissolved, cork the tube, and allow it to 
stand in a warm place for three hours ; at the end of the time the 
water in the iodine will have separated from the solution, and the 
number of centimetres occupied by the water will give the percentage 
contained in the iodine. This method is not exact, but will act as a 
check upon the remainder of the analysis. 



Below are a number of analyses of commercial iodine, Nos. 3, 4, 
and 5 being good samples ; Nos. 1 and 2 containing more water than 
is usually found. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Iodine, 


. 76-21 


79-50 


84-25 


88-61 


94-12 


Chlorine, 


0-88 


0-71 


0-92 


0-52 


0-30 


Ash, . 


1-11 


1-02 


0-80 


0-72 


0.40 


Moisture, 


21-80 


18-77 


14-03 


10-15 


5-18 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



- — Amer. Chemist, May, 1874. 




ututm. 



The Product-ion of Vanilla. — In the island of Reunion (or Bourbon) there 
were in 1870 nearly 700 acres under culture with vanilla, which produced 
37,024 lbs. The French Colonial Commission has been seeking to extend the 
culture of this valuable orchid. It appears that the large sales of vanilla which 
were made in the French Colonial Section of the Paris Exhibition, in 1867, have 
extended the taste for this aromatic flavoring, and caused the price of the finest 
qualities of Reunion Vanilla to advance from 16 francs to 100 francs per lb. 
In view of the insufficiency of the production to meet the increased demand, 
instructions have been sent out to these colonies as to the processes of arti- 
ficially fecundating and preparing the pods, and it is expected that the culture 
will be largely extended. It was from Reunion that this orchidaceous plant was 
transported to Mauritius, by M. Richard, of the Botanic Garden of Reunion. 

The plantations for vanilla are extending in Mauritius, and occupy the atten- 
tion of many small proprietors. This product bids fair to extend considerably, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June 1, 1874. J 



Varieties. 



293 



in view of the high prices obtained for it in the markets of Europe. The value 
of the shipments in the last few years has been as follows : 1867, £1488 ; 1868, 
£965; 1869, £2004; 1870, £2860; 1871, 4920 pounds, valued at £3345 in the 
colony.— Jo urn. of Applied Science (Lond.), May 1, 1874. 

History of the Paris School of Pharmacy. — A short time since the fact was 
mentioned that a discussion had taken place in the French legislature respect- 
ing the dilapidated and unsafe state of the Paris School of Pharmacy, As it 
appears probable that, after being used for about three hundred years for pur- 
poses more or less connected with instruction in the art of preparing medicines, 
this building will be shortly abandoned by the School in favor of a more com- 
modious one, the opportunity has been taken to publish a short sketch of its 
history, past and present, in the pages of li L' Union Pharmaceutique," from 
which the following is taken: 

The origin of this establishment is very ancient. Upon the site occupied by 
it at the present day there formerly stood an hospital, probably founded in the 
thirteenth century by Marguerite de Provence, widow of Louis IX, which, in 
the following century, belonged to Guillaume de Chanac, bishop of Paris and 
patriarch of Alexandria. In 1559 the building was in the occupation of a Pierre 
Galand, when by a parliamentary decree it was allotted to the lodging and 
treatment of paupers suffering from venereal maladies. So reconstituted, the 
establishment took the name of the Hopital de Lourcine. 

Afterwards, Nicolas Houel, a grocer, born in Paris in 1520, conceived the 
idea of establishing a charitable institution where orphans might be instructed 
in the apothecaries' art, whose mission it should be to administer medicines to 
the respectable poor. An edict of Henry III, dated 9th October, 1576, 
approved of this foundation, and of the formation of a garden of simples. 
Nicolas Houel applied for a portion of the building called the Hotel de Tour- 
nelles, then abandoned, in order to put his project into execution. A commis- 
sion appointed to consider his application accorded to him the Maison des 
Knfants-Rouges, in the Marais, and the new institution was installed and 
remained there until 1578. In that year, in consequence of difficulties met 
with by the founder, he asked to be allowed to transfer his establishment to the 
house in the rue de Lourcine, the buildings of which were in a very bad state. 
A decree of the parliament, dated 2d of January, 1579. authorized the transfer, 
which was carried out in the following April. The establishment bore the name 
of " Maison de la Charite Chretienne." 

Some waste ground belonging to the house, the greater part of which 
belongs to the School of Pharmacy at the present day, was planted with trees, 
and on another portion of it Nicolas Houel raised a house at his own expense, 
which was on one occasion ruined by an inundation of the Bievre. The inclo- 
sure was continued to the rue de rArbalete, and eventually Houel formed there, 
on the model of the garden at Padua, a botanic garden, which was the first 
that had existed in France. Nicolas Houel died in 1587. Nine years afterwards 
Henry IV changed the destination of the establishment, which he appropriated 
to soldiers of all grades wounded in his service, and it thus became the first 
germ of the Hotel des Invalides. 

These invalids were in turn transferred by an order of Louis XIII to the 
Bicetre, and the house of Christian charity thus vacated \»as occupied by vari- 
ous communities of women, the property being handed over to the Order of 
Saint Lazarus. From them it soon passed into the hands of the Bishop of 
Paris, who granted it to the Hotel Dieu. Finally, by two decrees of parlia- 
ment, issued in 1624 and 1625, the lands were granted to the Corporation of 
Apothecaries, who were charged to carry out the foundation of Nicolas Houel. 
Shortly afterwards this corporation augmented the original land by the purchase 



294 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June 1, 1874. 



of two large gardens in the rue de I'Arbalete. In 1629 it also built there a 
large house, which now forms the principal portion of the building of the School 
of Pharmacy. 

This establishment at first went by the name of the " Jardiu des Apothi- 
caires." This, by order of the King in 1777, was changed to " College de 
Pharmacie," and to "Ecole Gratuite de Pharmacie," by a decree of the Exe- 
cutive Directory, dated 3 floreal an iv (22d April, 1797). Finally the law of 
the 21 germinal an xi (10th April, 1804), having established in France three 
schools, that of Paris, which was only a continuation of the previous school, 
entered into possession of the ground and buildings situated in the rue de 
i'Arbalete. This possession was confirmed by a decree of the Government a 
few months later. 

At that time the School of Pharmacy managed its own affairs, under the 
authority of the Minister of the Interior. This arrangement was continued 
until September, 1841, when, by a royal ordonnance, the schools of pharmacy 
were placed under the same regime as the universities. In its earlier days the 
real estate of the school remained the same as when it was received from the 
apothecaries. It received its first augmentation in 1821 by the acquisition, for 
the sum of 9000 francs, of an enclosed garden. In 1844, a neighboring house, 
of which, however, possession was not obtained until 1853, was purchased for 
20,000 francs. In 1857, part of the original land, abutting upon the rue de 
Lourcine, was exchanged for some laud situated in the rue de I'Arbalete more 
convenient to the school. Such are some of the principal events in the history 
of the Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie, from its foundation in 1578 until the 
present time. 

The buildings of the School of Pharmacy are now unfortunately falling into 
ruins, and it has become necessary to shore them up on all sides. They have, 
moreover, become insufficient, and it is under consideration to transfer the 
school to new premises, which might be built upon ground situated between 
the Observatory and the Luxembourg. An iron gate, opening upon the rue 
de I'Arbalete, gives access to a rather small court-yard, where may be seen, 
on each side of the steps facing the entry, the statues in bronze of Vauquelin 
and Parmentier. The school contains two amphitheatres, of which the larger 
would not seat more than 280. But there are 500 students. The same insuf- 
ficiency occurs in the laboratories, which are six in number. Of these, one will 
accommodate 50 students; the other five, more recently constructed, would 
not accommodate more than 20 each. So that only 150 students can be 
employed at the same time in manipulation, and this occasions a great loss of 
time. 

The " salle des actes," where the examinations are passed, is well arranged' 
and contains a collection of portraits of all the professors who have successively 
taught in the school. Some of these portraits are remarkable works of art. 

The chemical, physical, zoological, and natural history collections, as well 
as the library, are complete in relation to the teaching imparted in the school. 
Beyond this, they contain nothing particularly remarkable. They are open 
every day from 11 A.M. until 4 P.M. 

The botanic garden also requires some augmentation. It is intended shortly 
to establish, upon government land close by, two temporary laboratories, built 
of wood, of which one is to be devoted specially to botany. 

There are nine " chairs p connected with the school : (1) botany, (2) organic 
chemistry, (3) inorganic chemistry, (4) materia medica, (5) pharmaceutica 



Am Jour. Pharm. > 
June 1, 1874. J 



Varieties. 



295 



•chemistry, (6) Galenic pharmacy, (7) physics, (8) zoology, and (9) natural 
history of medicaments. 

The staff consists of nine professors, eight assistant professors, a responsible 
secretary, a superintendent of practical chemistry and pharmacy, four lecture 
demonstrators, three demonstrators of the practical course, a librarian and 
other officials, numbering in all thirty-five persons. The functions of director 
of the school are exercised by one of the professors. 

During the four " trimestres" of the scholastic year 1872-73, there were 1382 
•entries. During the same time the number of examinations were 1664. The 
■cost of the terms and examinations for the diploma of pharmacien of the first 
■class is 1390 francs ; that for the terms and examinations for the diploma of 
pharmacien of the second class, 660 francs. 

In 1872 the receipts of the Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie of Paris amounted 
to 238,790 fiancs. The expenditure during the same time, including the cost 
of the staff, was only 174,875 francs 76 centimes, leaving a balance of 63,914 
francs 24 centimes. 

Amongst the remarkable persons who have passed through this school may 
be mentioned Parmentier, Vauquelin, Robiquet, Pelouze, Pelletier, and Ca- 
ventou. the latter two of whom first prepared the sulphate of quinia. At the 
present day the staff of the school is constituted as follows: 

Director. — M. Chatin. 

Honorary Director. — M. Bussy. 

Administrators. — MM. Chatin, Berthelot, and Planchon. 
Honorary Professor. — M. Caventou. 

Professors. — Botany, M. Chatin ; Organic Chemistry, M. Berthelot; Zoology, 
M.Milne-Edwards; Physics, M. Buignet; Galenic Pharmacy, M. Chevallier ; 
Natural History of Medicaments, M. Planchon; Toxicology, M. Bouis ; Phar- 
maceutical Chemistry, M. Baudrimont. The chair of Inorganic Chemistry is 
at present vacant. 

Delegates from the Faculty of Medicine. — MM. Bouchardat and Gavarret. 
Assistant Professors. — MM. Soubeiran, Riche, Bourgoin, Jungfleisch, Le 
Roux, Marchand, Gustave Bouchardat, and Joannes Chatin. 
Secretary. — M. Chapelle. 

— Pharm. Journ. (Lond.), May 2, 1874. 



Eupatorium in Tapeworm. — Dr. H. S. Wilkins, in Med. and Surg. Reporter 
for April 4th, reports a case in which a tapeworm was partially expelled from 
a woman after she had used an infusion of boneset for two weeks. Pumpkin 
seed, afterwards administered, had no effect ; the boneset infusion was renewed 
and in a few days she voided over sixteen feet of the taenia. 



Mutual Behavior of Oxygen and Water. — Em. Schcene. — The author con- 
cludes, from a series of carefully conducted experiments, that — (1) Ozone is 
partially destroyed by passing through water. If dry, ozonized oxygen is 
simply collected over water, the ozone present is diminished by about one-fourth* 



296 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pha.r»j 
t Jane 1, 1874. 



If passed through water for a longer time, the loss of ozone is greater. The 
loss of ozone is the more considerable the longer the gas is in contact with the 
water, and the greater the surface exposed. (2) Ozone is absorbed by water 
in a considerable degree, even at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere. 
(3) On passing dry ozonized oxygen through water much more ozone disappears 
than is absorbed by the water. The decrease of the proportion of ozone is, 
therefore, only very slightly determined by absorption, but must be considered 
as a consequence of the destructive action of water. (4) Ozone does not con- 
vert water into peroxide of hydrogen. As regards the loss of ozone in ozonized 
oxygen gas, on standing for a longer or shorter time in contact with water, the 
author concludes — (1) if oxonized oxygen is left in contact with water, the 
ozone is gradually converted into ordinary oxygen. In three days the original 
proportion of ozone is reduced to one-half, and in fifteen days mere traces of 
ozone remain. (2) The transformation of ozone into oxygen, in contact with 
water and at common temperatures, is attended with an increase of bulk. — 
Ghem. News, from Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm n 1874, Jan. 

Formation of Gum in Fruit-Bearing Trees. — E. Prillieux. — In the wood of 
a tree diseased with gum, a great number of vessels are always seen more or 
less completely filled with gum; sometimes they are entirely filled to a certain 
length, and sometimes the gum only forms a coating either upon all the periphery 
or only on one side. The gum first shows itself in very small drops, which 
gradually increase in size and touch each other, forming small irregular masses. 
Recent German observers have stated that the formation of the gum is due to* 
the disorganization and transformation of the internal part of the wall of the 
vessel, but the author has come to an opposite conclusion. In examining the 
wood of an apricot tree from which large masses of gum were extracted, it wa& 
found that the vessels were marked with areolated punctures, and with a spiral 
line due to a thickening of the membrane ; also that the surfaces of the masses of 
gum were marked with deep furrows corresponding with the spiral lines of the 
vessel-wall, and even with small projections according with the punctures. It 
is thus certain, in the author's opinion, that the gum has poured into the interior 
of the vessel, and that the marks upon it are imprinted from the vessel wall. 

In the production of gum in the cellules by the transformation of starch, it 
has been observed that, on the first appearance of gum in the cellule, the 
unchanged starch gathers into small masses, around which forms a thin coating 
of gum. Gradually the starch diminishes, while the coating of gum increases, 
until at last the starch disappears altogether, leaving generally a vacant space 
in the centre of the mass of gum. 

Often the gum produced in such considerable quantity is formed neither in 
the vessels nor in the cellules, but in the spaces between the young tissues,, 
generally between the wood and the bark, yet often also at different depths in 
the wood. These gum-spaces grow at the expense of the neighboring tissues, 
which suffer important modifications : the cambium, instead of producing 
woody fibre, forms cellules in which abundance of starch are deposited, which 
starch subsequently becomes converted into gum. — Jour. Chem. Soc. [Lond.) ? 
April, 1874, from Compt. Rend., lxxviii, 135. 



*S£tST-} Varieties. 297 

Ancestlietic Properties of Saponin. — From the researches of Dr. Kohler, 
quoted in the London "Medical Record," saponin is possessed of marked 
powers as a local anaesthetic, so that it is possible that it may be yet of service 
in surgical operations. A solution of saponin, applied externally, produces- 
partial paralysis of the motor and sensory nerve filaments ; administered hypo- 
dermically, these effects are realized to a greater extent. Saponin exists in 
many plants, as in the Silenese — Saponaria officinalis ; Polygalaceae — Polygala 
senega; and Sapotacese — Cortex monesire, a product of the Chrysophyllum 
glycyphloeum. — Canadian Pharm. Journ., May 1874. 



Crystallized Glycerin.— In a paper read at a recent meeting of the Liverpool 
Chemists' Association, Mr. A. H. xVlason described the properties and charac- 
teristics of crystallized glycerin, as exhibited by a specimen obtained from the 
patentee. The glycerin was first shown at the Vienna Exhibition, and it was 
then understood that this crystalline condition could only be insured by abso- 
lute chemical purity. From actual examination of a specimen, Mr. Mason 
thinks that this condition is not necessary to bring the specimen to the crystal- 
line form in which it exists. Being very hygroscopic, atmospheric influence of 
mean temperature is quite sufficient to liquefy it, and, once liquid, exposure to 
intense cold will not cause it to congeal. The peculiar mousey odor is present. 
Contact with calcic oxalate produces slight turbidity, and heated with sulphuric 
acid and absolute alcohol there is discoloration. The method of production, 
being patented, is a secret ; it commands a fancy price. Its usefulness is ques- 
tionable ; as a chemical curiosity it is interesting. — Ibid. 



Chloral and its Combination with Albuminoid Matters. J. Personne. — 

Although albumin combines with chloral, the author has not been able to 
determine the conditions necessary to obtain a definite compound ; yet he say& 
that such a compound is soluble in excess either of albumin or of chloral. On 
one occasion a compound was obtained, which, when dried for eight hours, at 
40 — 45°, then pulverized and dried at 100°, gave on analysis, 12-56 per cent, of 
chlorine, equivalent to 17*23 per cent, of chloral. 

If the action of chloral be due to the chloroform which it produces in the 
human system, then the greater duration of the effects of chloral over those of 
chloroform may be thus explained. The first action of chloral hydrate upon 
the albuminoid matters which it meets with in the human system, produces 
chloroform by means of the alkali of these albuminoid matters. At the same 
time these matters, deprived of alkali, form a combination with the undestroyed 
chloral, and this combination forms a kind of reservoir of chloroform, which 
only cedes it gradually in proportion as the circulation destroys the combination 
formed. This explains why only a very small quantity of chloroform is met 
with in the blood of animals submitted to the action of chloral. It also justi- 
fies the employment of chloral in the dressing of wounds as a powerful modifier 
of the tissues. 

Chloral may be advantageously used for the preservation of the most readily 



298 



Varieties. 



(Am. Jodr.Phabm. 
\ June 1, 1874. 



alterable mineral matters. An admixture of glycerin may be used where such 
matters are required to be preserved in a soft state. — Jour. Chem. Soc, (Lone?.)' 
April, 1874, from Gompt. Rend., Ixxviii, 129. 



Santonic Acid. — H. Hvoslef. — Hvoslef prepared santonic acid by the same 
process as Cannizaro and Sestini (Jour.Ch. Soc. xi, 1229), as long ago as 1863. 
He gives the same formula and basicity for the acid, but states its melting point 
to be 171°, 

The following measurements of the crystals were made by Waage: 

ooP : oo P = 113° 18' 
Poo : Poo = 130° 43' 
Poo : oo Poo = 140° 35' 
oo P : cnPoo = 123° 25' 
a . b : c = 0-4588 : 1 : 6584 

The santonates of heavy metals are for the most part soluble only in boiling 
alcohol, and the solutions yield, when cooled, gelatinous masses which gradually 
crystallize. 

The further action of baryta on the solution from which the santonic acid 
has been precipitated by hydrochloric acid, yields two bodies, one of which is 
apparently a sugar. Santonic acid would therefore seem to be a glucoside. — 
Ibid., from Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber., vi, 1471. 



Helenin and Inula- Camphor. —J . Kallen.— Gerhardt found in the root of 
Inula Helenium a crystalline body, which he called helenin. This substance, 
although having a uniform appearance, and melting constantly at 72°, is a 
mixture of at least two compounds, which have the same crystalline form, and 
cannot therefore be easily separated. One of them, for which the name helenin 
is retained, may be obtained pure by repeated recrystallization from absolute 
alcohol. It forms long needles melting at 109° — 110°, and having the empirical 
formula Gq Hs 0. It has an insipid taste, and is almost insoluble in water. 
Its rational formula could not be ascertained, as bromine converts it into a 
resin, and nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid and a resinous nitro-com- 
pound. 

The second body, which is more soluble in alcohol, is inula- camphor ; it can- 
not be completely freed from helenin by crystallization, while by distilling the 
root with water, the camphor is volatilized but only slowly. It forms small 
prismatic needles, having a hot aromatic taste and the odor of peppermint. 
It melts at 64°, and dissolves sparingly in water and freely in alcohol and ether- 
It appears to be an isomeride of common camphor: for on distilling it with 
phosphorus pentasulphide, a hydrocarbon is obtained having the composition 
of cymene, and not that of Gerhardt's helenene, C15H16. — Ibid., from ibid., vi, 
1506—1509. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June 1 



Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 299 



The last meeting of the season was held in the Hall of the College, May 9, 
1874. 

The meeting was called to order by A. P. Brown, who was appointed Pres- 
ident pro tern. 

Prof. Maisch presented a copy of the Proceedings of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, which was received with thanks. Also a sample of 
insect powder jloivers, Pyrethrum roseum, from Betanelly & Co. A discussion 
took place, during which it was stated that the powder made from the above 
flowers possessed a more decided and somewhat different odor from that gen- 
erally seen in the market; and it was stated that, in powdering, large quantities 
of insect powder flowers were fraudulently mixed with old chamomile flowers, 
matricaria, etc. 

Jos. P. Remington presented, on behalf of Mr, Blackman of Newport, R. I., 
through T. H. Hazard, a thirty grain suppository mould, constructed on the 
principle described in the minutes of last meeting, The thanks of the College 
were directed to be forwarded for the gift. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a sample of the leaves of Liatris odoratissima, which 
were obtained, through T.H. Hazard, from Florida. They are used for perfum- 
ing tobacco, preserving cloths, etc., and contain coumarin as per analysis of 
Prof. Procter* 

A. P. Brown called the attention of the meeting to the miserable quality of 
the oil of sandal wood as generally furnished by the wholesale druggists. He 
showed a specimen of pure oil which possessed the usual persistent odor, 
whilst the other was of a thicker consistence, weaker in odor and had the 
smell of oil of copaiba in addition. 

A communication from Mr. Wilder was read by the registrar, as follows : 
Cudbear versus Cochineal. 

I have often wondered why cudbear (Lecanora tartarea) never has been 
proposed as a coloring agent for elixirs, etc., instead of cochineal. It has at 
least that one good property of not reacting with iron salts, whether proto or 
sesqui. Its only fault is that, when largely diluted with water, (the alcoholic 
solution) it acquires a bluish (violet) tinge, very perceptible by shaking. This 
can, however, be remedied by the cautious addition of a drop or two of any 
diluted acid. I say cautious because, with acids, its rich carmine color turns 
brick-red (which color in itself is beautiful enough). 

Thinking that the cudbear might react with some salts, so as to give a muddy 
or otherwise unsightly color, I examined its behaviour to the following tests : 

Ammonia. — Violet shade (gives a splendid show-color.) 

Acids. — Brick-red (according to proportion and strength; diluted acids act 
either as simple diluents or brighten the color.) 

Ammon. chlorid. ] 

Potass, nitr. 

Potass, bicarbon. } A bluish (violet) shade. 
Sodii bicarbon. 
Magnes. sulph. J 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1850, p. 55P, and 18(36, p. 443. 



300 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { k ^£^y£t?' 

Alumen. — Bright ensrather. 

Tinct.ferri chlorid. — A coarse brick-red. 

Ferri proto-sulph. — Nothing particular. 

Zinci sulph. — Violet shade. 

Potass, iodid. — Nothing particular. 

Donovan's solution. — Brick-red. 

Dilute tinct. iodine. } „ . , , 

Bromine water. \ Brlck red ' 

Plumb, acet. — Dirty violet. 

Potass, bromid.- — Nothing particular. 

Water. — A violet shade. 

To repeat, it ought to be preferred because of its cheapness, and because it 
does not react with iron salts. 

After a discussion by the members, on the advantage of using yellow wax 
in ointments, the meeting adjourned. 

Joseph P. Remington, Registrar. 



ffearmatwtol College* anfo ^mtwtim$. 



The National CollecxE of Pharmacy, Washington, D. C, held its annual 
meeting April 6th. The President, W. S. Thompson, delivered an able address, 
after which the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President. 
R. 13. Ferguson ; 1st Vice-Presidents, F. S. Gaither, Phar. D., W. B. Entwistle ; 
Treasurer, 8. W. Cromwell ; Corresponding Secretary, D. P. Hickling, Phar. D.; 
Recording Secretary, J. C. Fill ; Librarian and Curator, George Wooldrige. 

The honorary degree of Doctor in Pharmacy was conferred on Professors 0. 
Oldberg and R. H. Stabler. 

The class during the past winter numbered thirty, and the graduating class 
consisted of T. P. Cole, F. S. Gaither and C. L. R. Sayre. 



The Mississippi State Pharmaceutical Association held its annual meet- 
ing in the city of Columbus, April 8th, President Hampden Osborne in the 
chair. In his annual address the President reviewed the progress of the As- 
sociation, urged the necessity of systematic education, referred to the loose 
system of apprenticeship in the southern portion of our republic, expressed a 
hope in the final success of the bill for regulating the practice of pharmacy, 
and discussed various other subjects of interest. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Jno. 
T. Buck, Jackson; Vice President, F. H. Duquercron, Starkville ; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Hampden Osborne, Columbus; Treasurer, M. F. Ash, 
Jackson; Recording Secretary, P. H. Keefe, Vicksburg ; Committee on 
Pharmaceutical Legislation — M. F. Ash, Chairman, J. F. Butler, Jno. T. Buck. 

The next meeting will be held in Meridian, on the second Wednesday of 
April, 1875. 



A June ii if?"'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 301 

Michigan Pharmaceutical Association. — Pursuant to a call of Saginaw Val- 
ley Pharmaceutical Association a convention of the druggists of Michigan was 
held at the Biddle House, Detroit, May 20. The call stated the object of the 
convention to be to form a State association, with the view, among other ob- 
jects, of securing the enactment of laws regulating the drug business in the 
State. About fifty pharmacists and druggists from various parts of the State 
were present. The meeting was organized by calling Dr. S. S. Garrigues, of 
East Saginaw, to the chair ; James Yernor, of Detroit, was chosen Secretary. 

A Committee on Organization, consisting of John Harvey, Ohas. 0. Curtis 
and B. E. Sickler, reported in favor of adopting the Constitution of the Maine 
Pharmaceutical Association for temporary purposes, and that an organization 
should be effected under it The report was adopted, and the Committee 
continued, with the addition of Prof. Douglas, to prepare a constitution and 
by-laws. 

The pharmaceutical law before the Legislature of Michigan was discussed at 
some length, and the following committee appointed to prepare a perfected 
pharmacy bill : Dr. Garrigues, Jas. Yernor, Theo. Ronnefeld, S. H. Wagner, 
O. Eberbach. 

The following officers were elected: President, S. S. Garrigues, East Sagi- 
naw; Yice-President, S. M. Sackett, Monroe; Corresponding Secretary, S. 
H. Wagner, Muskegon ; Recording Secretary, James Vernor, Detroit ; Trea- 
surer, J. C. Mueller, Detroit; Auditor, Ottmar Eberbach, Ann Arbor. 

The following appointments were then made : 

Delegates to the next meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
— E. C. Saunders, of Detroit ; A. B. Lyon, of Detroit; F. Yan Walshausen, 
of Bay City ; S. H. Wagner, of Muskegon ; C. C. Curtis, of Hillsdale. 

Committee to prepare a list of antidotes, to be printed on poison labels — 
Profs. Prescott and Douglass and Mr. Eberbach, of Ann Arbor. 

Committee to prepare queries for discussion — 0. Eberbach, P. Plessner and 
J. Yernor. 

The next meeting will be held in Detroit on the third Wednesday of October 
next. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the meeting held March 4th, a 
letter from M. Phallide, of Bucharest, was read, recommending the rapid pre- 
paration of oil emulsions by using definite proportions of gum and water. MM_ 
Buignet and Bourgoin stated that similar results had been published by Over T 
beck in 1851.* The remainder of the session was occupied with discussions on 
the antiseptic properties of chloral, on the behaviour of phosphorus and of 
phosphates during putrefaction, and of the causes which give to the urine an 
alkaline reaction. 

At the session held April 1st, M. Petit, read a memoir on unfermentable 
substances and on diastase, which lead to some remarks on fermentation. 
Professor Planchon exhibited the root of Rheum rhaponticum, which had been 
cultivated in the garden of the Paris School of Pharmacie; he showed its simi- 



• See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1851, p. 377 ; also 18f>8, p. 205. 



302 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June 1, 1874. 



larity to English aud other European rhubarbs, and demonstrated its difference 
from Rheum officinale. 



The Fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress will be held at St. 
Petersburg, Russia, from August 1st (13th) to 6th (18th). Arrangements have 
been made with the Hotel Demouth for a considerable reduction of the usual 
charges. The reception committee, wearing white rosettes, will meet the for- 
eign delegates at the depots on July 31 (August 12). The following programme 
for this Congress has been published : 

Thursday, August 1 (13), 10 A. M. First session : election of officers, appoint- 
ment of committees; in the afternoon, committee meetings; in the evening, 
reunion. 

Friday, August 2d (14), forenoon, scientific discussion ; afternoon, excursion by 
steamer and visit to the botanical garden, etc. ; evening, reunion. 

Saturday, August 3d (15), 10 A. M , second session ; 5 P. M., dinner. 

Sunday, August 4 (16) forenoon, visit to Isaac church, hermitage, etc. ; after- 
noon, excursion to Peterhoff. 

Monday, August 5 (17), forenoon, scientific discussions and committee meet- 
ings ; afternoon, excursion to Zarskoje-Sselo and Pawlowsk. 

Tuesday, August 6 (18), third session and adjournment of the Congress. 

The questions to be acted on at this Congress have been published on page 

205 of the April number. 



(SMtorial Department 



Pharmaceutical Legislation. — In reply to Mr. Fredigke's essay, published 
in our May number, we have received several communications approving of 
the laws regulating the practice of pharmacy as enacted in several States, and 
suggesting that they should be made more stringent, if found to be inoperative 
from any cause. The arguments given in Mr. Fredigke's paper, printed in this 
number, contain several nice points; we leave our readers to judge of their 
weight, while referring them to the editorial remarks on page 249 of our last 
number. 

In relation to the questions which are being discussed in Continental Europe, 
we have received a paper from Dr. Fred. Hoffmann, which will appear in our 
next number ; it gives a condensed account of this agitation, involving the fu- 
ture status of pharmacy in Germany and other European countries. The ulti- 
mate results of this movement cannot, of course, be told in advance, but the 
necessity exists everywhere of securing to the sick such remedies as may 
be needed, but of the quality of which they cannot be expected to judge, and 
to have these medicines prepared by competent persons. On the other hand, 
the restrictions upon trade are being more and more removed in all countries; 
and from these two factors, it seems to us, the ultimate results must be closely 
analogous, without regard to the premises upon which the movement was in- 
augurated in the different countries. 



^une^mr } Bevieiosand Bibliographical Notices. 303 

Sugar of Lead Sold for Sugar of Milk. — A correspondent writes that he 
received from a wholesale drug house, in this city, a package marked " sugar 
of milk," which, on examination, proved to be acetate of lead. In some places 
milk sugar is used as an addition to milk and other food for babies, and the 
result of such a mistake must necessarily be serious, unless discovered and 
rectified in due time. In the course of his remarks our correspondent writes : 

"And now the moral. What does this occurrence teach ? Not alone a want 
of proper care on the part of the assistant who made the blunder, but a lack of 
proper surveillance on the part of his employer and preceptor. I have been 
in both branches of the business, and in several firms, and I know that in the 
matter of care and supervision some of our wholesale dealers fall lamentably 
short of their duty." 

To which we add that this case is another illustration of the necessity of ex- 
amining every drug and preparation before it is dispensed, no matter how re- 
liable the house from which it has been purchased. The pharmacist who 
neglects this duty is not excusable if injury is done. As human beings, we are 
liable to err ; to reduce this possibility of making mistakes to an almost abso- 
lute impossibility, constant watchfulness is necessary not only in the whole- 
sale drug store, but likewise in the dispensing store, from the time a drug is re- 
ceived until it leaves the establishment in some form or other. This is a solemn 
duty, which we are bound to perform; for when the remedial agent leaves the 
pharmaceutical establishment, it has reached the hands of those who are pre- 
sumably ignorant of its physical and chemical qualities, and are therefore com- 
pelled to put their trust into the attainments of him, who by following the 
business of a druggist or apothecary, assumes its responsibilities, and holds 
out to the public the assertion of his competency. 

We entirely approve of the suggestion of our correspondent, that antiquated 
terms like white vitriol, green vitriol, blue stone, etc., should be discarded ; 
they are, we believe, very little used by druggists, except in their intercourse 
with the public. 



EEVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES, 



Third Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy 
of the City of New York, 1874. 8vo., pp. 52. 

This pamphlet contains the commencement exercises, noticed on page 247 
of our last number, together with the addresses delivered on this occasion, the 
minutes of the annual meeting, of the executive board, and of the conversa- 
tional meetings, papers read at the latter, the constitution and by-laws, roll of 
members, etc. In a paper by Geo. W. C. Phillips, entitled " Latent Pepsin," 
the author arrives at the conclusion that, while a carefully made wine of pepsin r 
not containing over ten per cent, of alcohol, may and does contain pepsin, 
it exists in a latent state, and that when diluted with the juices of the stomach, 
at the normal temperature of that organ, it regains its activity and will 
perform its digestive fuuctions. 



304 



Obituary. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X June 1, 1874. 



Mr. John Vanderbeugle, in a paper read at one of the meetings, directs 
attention to Fowler's solution containing an excess of carbonate of potassium, 
on account of which precipitates occur when it is mixed with solutions of salts 
of morphia and other alkaloids; the addition of a little acid is therefore 

necessary. 

A few formulas which were in use about forty years ago, have been contrib- 
uted by G. C. Close. 

The officers of the Association for the present year are G. W. C. Phillips, 
President ; B. F. Mclntyre, Phil. A. White, Wm. Wright, Jr., Vice-presidents ; 
Theob. Frohwein, Treasurer ; and P. W. Bedford, Secretary. The following 
delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association have been appointed : 
P. A. White, S. A. Ambler, J. L. A. Creuse, B. F. Mclntyre, L. M. Royce. 



Treatment of Nervous and Rheumatic Affections by Static Electricity. By Dr. 
A. Arthius. Translated from the French by J. M. Etheridge, M.D. Chicago : 
W. B. Keen, Cooke & Co., 1874. 12mo. pp. 144. 

This little work has been written for the purpose of proving the medicinal 
effects of static electricity, and its superiority over dynamic electricity. The 
physician will find it to contain many valuable facts and suggestions in the 
application of a remedial agent, which the author believes to be destined to 
render most important service to the medical art. 



On the Polarization of Zodiacal Light. By Arthur W. Wright. 8 pages. 

A reprint from the May number of the American Journal of Science and 
Arts. 



OBITUARY. 

Charles Ellis died suddenly at his residence in this city, aged 74 years. 
The deceased was one of the original members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, which institution he served in various capacities for a number of 
years as secretary and as president, which latter office he resigned in 1869. 
He had also presided for one year over the American Pharmaceutical Associ- 
ation. 

During his long and useful life, and while actively engaged in business, Mr. 
Ellis contributed about fourteen papers and a number of translations to the 
earlier volumes of this Journal, mainly on pharmaceutical and chemical sub- 
jects ; he had been a member of its Publishing Committee for 42 consecutive 
years until 1872, and had acted the greater part of this time as its treasurer. 

For a full biographical sketch of the deceased we refer our readers to the 
report on deceased members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, which 
will be published in a future number. 



Am. Jour. Phaem ) 
Mar., 1874. Suppl.J 



Laboratory Notes. 



145 



LABORATORY NOTES. 
By E. B. Shuttleworth. 

Use of Glycerin in the Estimation of Tannin. — The estimation of 
tannic aeid by means of a solution of gelatin is generally a tedious 
and troublesome process. The precipitate formed is so slowly depos- 
ited that, without resorting to a filtration almost as inconvenient, it is 
difficult to determine the exact point when a sufficient quantity of the 
precipitant has been added, as also to separate the precipitate at the 
close of the operation. In order to ascertain the completion of the 
process, Wheeler* suggests that a tube, loosely closed at the bottom 
with sponge, be dipped into the solution ; the filtered liquid which 
enters the tube is then tested with a further quantity of the gelatin 
solution. Mullerf accelerates the clarification of the liquid by add- 
ing a certain proportion of alum. I have found that both these ends 
may be more easily accomplished by adding to the tannin solution a 
small quantity of glycerin. The precipitate by gelatin subsides more 
or less readily according to the concentration of the solution. 

As I have noted in a previous paper,J the precipitation of tannin 
may be altogether prevented by employing a very large proportion of 
glycerin, so that it is probable that in using a lesser quantity a small 
proportion of the precipitate is retained in solution. In comparative 
examinations — and it is chiefly in this manner that estimations are 
made — this is of no consequence, as the loss may be determined when 
making the standard solution. Even with simple water the indica- 
tions are not altogether reliable, and a certain allowance must be made, 
as the precipitate is not absolutely insoluble in water without the tan- 
nin is in considerable excess. 

Fluorescence of the Acid Residue from the Manufacture of Ether. 
— Those who are practically acquainted with the preparation of ether 
may have noticed the extraordinary fluorescent appearance of the sul- 
phuric acid remaining at the close of the process. I am not, how- 
ever, aware that this property has ever been noted in any of the 
journals, and to those engaged in researches on fluorecence the fact 
may be of interest. 

* Mem. Chem. Soc iii, 319. 

f Chem Oentr. 1859, 42. Watts' Diet, ii, 70,"). 

% Can Pharm. Jour, vii, 229. 

9a 



146 



Laboratory Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
[Mar., 1874. SuppL 



The alkaline tincture of the root of Gelsemium sempervirens ; solu- 
tions of chlorophyll, sulphate of quinia, asphaltum or aesculin ; oil of 
peppermint treated after Fluckiger's method ; various petroleum prod- 
ucts, or other liquids in which fluorescence is very strongly marked, do 
not compare in intensity with the ether residue. 

Viewed by reflected light, the liquid is of a deep green color, and 
appears to be perfectly opaque ; by transmitted light it is brownish- 
red. The degree of fluorescence is influenced by the purity of the 
alcohol which has been treated by the acid ; the intensity increasing 
with the impurities present. Methyl compounds, especially, have an 
intensifying effect. 

Cement for Affixing Labels to Tin or other Metallic Substances. — - 
Of the various formulae which have been published, none have given 
such satisfactory results as that in which tragacanth mucilage is mixed 
with honey. Paste of this kind has, however, two disadvantages — - 
tardiness in drying, and susceptibility to damp. I have found that 
by incorporating or triturating with the mixture a considerable pro- 
portion of dry wheaten flour, these disadvantages are very much 
reduced, and the adhesiveness and permanent tenacity of the film are 
perceptibly improved. I think that those who try this plan will have 
every reason to be satisfied with it. The following proportions may 
he used : 

Tragacanth Mucilage, . . . .10 parts, 

Honey, ..... 10 parts, 

Flour, . . . . . .1 part. 

A cement possessing better damp-resisting properties, but having 
the disadvantage of not being permanently adhesive where the sur- 
face of the metal is at all greasy, and also being objectionable on 
account of its dark color and liability to disfigure the label, is formed 
by boiling together, until solution is effected, two parts of shellac, one 
of borax and sixteen of water. Shellac dissolved in alcohol will pro- 
duce a cement having perfect damp-resisting properties, but the film 
is very apt to separate from a polished surface. Flour paste, to 
which a certain proportion of sulphuric acid has been added, makes 
a lasting paste, but the acid often acts upon the metal — especially if 
exposed to damp — and unsightly stains are produced, which penetrate 
the label. This paste cannot be used for ordinary colored papers, or 
with some colored inks. Mixtures of flour paste with molasses, syrups 



M^mlaSS} Notes on the Areca Palm. 147 

or honey have been recommended, but are never reliable. — Canadian 
Pharm. Journ., 1874, p. 305. 



NOTES ON THE ARECA PALM. 
Areca Catechu, L. 
By John R. Jackson, A. L. S., Curator of the Museums, Kew. 

Some interest having lately arisen amongst pharmacists with re- 
gard to the Areca palm (Areca Catechu, L.) owing to its proposed 
introduction into the British Pharmacopoeia as an officinal plant, a 
few notes on the tree itself and its uses may not be out of place. 

The Areca palm is a handsome tree growing to a height of from 
forty to sixty feet, with a slender, erect trunk, averaging from one 
to two feet in circumference. It has regular, pinnate leaves, and 
long, linear leaflets, of a rich, dark-green color. The circumference 
of the trunk is annulated or distinctly marked with the scars of the 
clasping petioles of former leaves. The fruits are each about the 
size of a hen's egg, consisting of a fleshy-looking drupe, which, how- 
ever, on cutting is found to be very fibrous, containing a seed about 
the size of a nutmeg, and, like that well-known spice, ruminated or 
marked with thick, reddish-brown irregular lines throughout its entire 
substance. These fruits are borne in large bunches, springing from 
the crown of leaves. The spathe itself is used in some parts for 
making drinking vessels, for nailing over the bottoms of boats, and 
for various other purposes. 

The tree is known best as the betel-nut palm, and is cultivated in 
nearly all the warmer parts of Asia for the sake of the seeds, which 
are not only chewed in large quantities by the natives in countries 
where they grow, but are shipped to countries where the palm is not 
cultivated. The annual average produce of one tree is said to be 
about three hundred nuts. The tree is largely cultivated all over 
India, as well as in China, but is more abundant, perhaps, in Mala- 
bar, North Bengal, the lower slopes of the mountains of Nepaul, and 
the south-west coast of Ceylon. In Travancore alone there are nearly 
ten millions of these trees, the annual value of the produce of which 
is estimated at £50,000 sterling. It is said that about 80,000 piculs 
of the nuts are annually produced on the coast of Sumatra. Many 
varieties of the betel-nut palm are known to the natives under differ- 
ent local names ; the nuts also vary much in size, but their quality 



148 



Notes on the Areca Palm. 



/Am. Jodr. Pharm. 
\Mar. 1874. Suppl, 



depends upon their appearance when cut through, " intimating the 
quantity of astringent matter contained in them. If the white or 
medullary portion which intersects the red or astringent part be 
small, and has assumed a bluish tinge, and the astringent part is very 
red, the nut is considered of good quality ; but when the medullary 
portion is in large quantity the nut is considered more mature, and, 
not possessing as much astringency, is not esteemed so valuable.'' 

The nuts are usually gathered between the months of August and 
November. The seeds are removed from the husk and boiled in 
water. In the first boiling the water becomes red and thick, and this 
is afterwards evaporated into catechu, but whether it is imported into 
this country as a commercial article is uncertain. The mode of col- 
lecting the catechu in Mysore is thus described: "The nuts are taken 
as they come from the tree, and boiled for some hours in an iron ves- 
sel They are then taken out, and the remaining water is inspissated 
by continual boiling. This process furnishes Jcossa, or most astrin- 
gent Terra japonica, which is black and mixed with paddy husks and 
other impurities. After the nuts are dried they are put into a fresh 
quantity of water and boiled again ; and this water being inspissated, 
like the former, yields the best or cleanest kind of catechu, called 
eoony. It is yellowish brown, has an earthy fracture, and is free from 
the admixture of foreign bodies." 

For the purpose of chewing, the nut is cut into narrow strips and 
rolled up with lime in the leaves of the betel pepper. The mixture 
has a hot acrid taste, and aromatic and astringent properties. The 
habitual use of the betel-nut is considered by the natives to be very 
wholesome, but the effects are said by some to be due as much to the 
ingredients used with it as the areca nut itself. Its constant use 
causes the teeth to become black and the mouth and lips of a brick 
red color. In some parts of China the nuts, bruised and powdered, 
are mixed with the green food given to horses, and they are thus con- 
sidered a preventive against diarrhoea. In the north of China small 
pieces of the nut are boiled and the decoction is taken as a domestic 
remedy in various visceral affections. 

Though the use of the betel as a masticatory turns the teeth black, 
it is said to preserve them from decay in a remarkable manner, and 
this may be the reason why some English chemists have introduced 
the pulverized charcoal into this country as a tooth powder. 

In Borneo the flowers, which are fragrant, are mixed with medi- 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Mar., 1874. fcuppl.J 



Metachloral, etc. 



149 



cines and used as charms for the cure of many diseases. In some 
parts of India the juice of the young tender leaves mixed with oil is 
applied as an embrocation in cases of lumbago, and a decoction of the 
root is a reputed cure for sore lips, so that whatever may prove to be 
the value of the areca nut as an anthelmintic in this country, it is cer- 
tain that the tree is much esteemed for its numerous uses in the East. 
— Pharm. Joum. and Trans., Feb. 28, 1874. 



METAOH LORAL AND CAUSTIC PENCILS OF CHLORAL 

HYDRATE. 

M. Limousin exhibited at the Socie'te de Therapeutique, Paris, 
some specimens of metachloral and also of pencils of hydrate of chlo- 
ral. The metachloral had been obtained by treating one part of hy- 
drate of chloral with three parts of concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
washing the insoluble product obtained as long as the washings gave 
an acid reaction. The metachloral was afterwards dried with chlo- 
ride of calcium, and reduced to a fine powder. The caustic pencils 
were obtained by mixing the hydrate of chloral with a small quantity 
of gum, and then coating them with a slight layer of paraffin, in order 
to preserve them from the action of damp air. 

Metachloral, or insoluble chloral, has the same formula as anhy- 
drous chloral (C 2 HC1 3 0), of which it is an isomeric modification. It 
is less caustic than hydrate of chloral, and it has the great advantage 
over chloral of not attracting moisture, and consequently allowing 
the treatment to be confined to a limited surface. 

M. Dujardin-Beaumetz said that he had employed metachloral and 
recognized in it considerable advantages ; he preferred it to iodoform, 
and he had obtained with it equally satisfactory, if not superior, re- 
sults. Moreover, metachloral did not present the inconvenience which 
resulted from the penetrating and insupportable odor of iodoform. 
M. Beaumetz added, that in any case where the action of the pow- 
dered metachloral was found to be too irritating, its energy might be 
mitigated by mixing with it a certain quantity of lycopodium or other 
inert powder. He added that he had used the pencils of hydrate of 
chloral with advantage for the superficial cauterization of certain ul- 
cerations. He also introduced them into the natural cavities, or into 
the fistulous passages of white tumors, to obtain the diminution and 
sometimes the cessation of local pain. — Pharm. Joum. and Trans., 
Feb. 21, 1874. 



s 



150 Croton Chloral *g*fc 

TINCTURE OF PHOSPHORUS. 

This has lately been occasionally prescribed in Great Britain and 
in this country. The editor of the Pharm. Journ. and Transactions, 
who had been applied to for its formula, says in the issue of Feb. 21 : 

" The following formula given by Dr. Ashburton Thompson, in a 
paper < On the Use of Phosphorus in Neuralgia,' published in the 
Practitioner last October, is probably what is sought by our corres- 
pondent : 

4 Phosphorus, . . .1 grain. 

Absolute Alcohol, . . 5 drachms. 

Glycerin, . . 1J ounces. 

Spirit of Wine, . . 2 drachms. 

Spirit of Peppermint, . . 2 scruples. 

' Let the phosphorus be dissolved in the alcohol with a little heat : 
at the same time warm the spirit and glycerin together. Mix the 
two solutions while hot, and add the spirit of peppermint on cooling. 
One drachm of this mixture contains one-twelfth of a grain of pure 
phosphorus. These ingredients form a mixture perfectly bright and 
clear, possessing almost no phosphoric odor or taste, and of a high 
degree of stability, even under exposure to light. The amount of 
spirit gives it a burning taste which may be sometimes objected to ; 
but if the patient be warned of this, probably no further remark will 
be made about it. So far from causing offensive eructations, it seems 
to have a tendency to arrest existing flatulency.' " — Pharm. Journ. 
and Trans., Feb. 21, 1874. 



CROTON CHLORAL. 
By Alfred H. Mason, F. C. S. 
(Vice-President of the Liverpool Chemist's Association.) 

A new remedy, with chloral as its basis, and introduced by the dis- 
coverer of the therapeutical application of hydrate of chloral, natu- 
rally commands attention. At one of our general meetings in 1872 
session, I exhibited a specimen of this, then new, compound, named 
bv Professor Liebreich croton chloral hydrate. 

Within the last few months this medicine has commanded much 

* Read at the evening meeting of the Liverpool Chemist's Association, Feb. 
12, 1874. 



fefMp P ":} Groton Chloral. 151 

more of the attention of medical men, so that the requirements of it 
somewhat exceed the first demand for its predecessor when sold at 
about the same price. 

Crotonic chloral was discovered somewhat accidentally by Drs. Gr. 
Kraemer and A. Pinner. f These gentlemen were undertaking ex- 
periments on the action of chlorine on aldehyde, chiefly in the hope 
of thus obtaining chloral, and of being able to utilize the valueless 
residue from the first runnings obtained in the distillation of crude 
spirit, which consists mainly of alcohol, aldehyde and paraldehyde. 

Chlorine was passed into aldehyde, at first carefully cooled in a 
freezing mixture, and only heated to 100° at the close of the reac- 
tion. The first few bubbles caused the separation of a small quan- 
tity of solid met-aldehyde, whether originally present in the aldehyde 
or formed by the reaction, is undecided. After a short time evolution 
of hydrochloric acid set in and every trace of chlorine was absorbed. 
With 100 grams of aldehyde, at the end of twenty-four hours, no fur- 
ther absorption took place even at 100°. The resulting brown mass 
•consists of two layers : a lower, darker, almost solid ; and an upper, 
lighter-colored, liquid layer. The latter is a saturated solution of 
hydrochloric acid and the bodies of the lower layer in water. As it 
was found impossible to separate these two well, the whole was sub- 
mitted to distillation. A considerable quantity passed over between 
D0° and 100° ; the thermometer then rose rapidly to 160°, and the 
main product distilled over between this and 180° ; the temperature 
again rose to about 240°, but only decomposition products were ob- 
tained, and a considerable carbonaceous residue remained in the flask. 
By means of fractional distillation the portion boiling at 160° to 180° 
was quickly purified, and a body boiling at 163° to 165° was isolated, 
which proved to be crotonic chloral. 

The specimen I have here was produced by passing perfectly dry 
chlorine gas over pure aldehyde (C 2 H 4 0) — the action is very violent, 
and many precautions have to be taken to prevent explosion and to 
condense the volatile products of the reaction, and still to allow the 
enormous quantities of hydrochloric acid gas to escape. After a time 
the liquid thickens ; at this stage the current of chlorine can be passed 
through the liquid. After another interval it becomes necessary to 
warm, and at last to boil the liquid through which the chlorine is 



t Ann. Ch. Pharm., clviii, 37. 



152 



Groton Chloral. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1874. SuppL 



passing. At length hydrochloric acid ceases to be evolved, and crude 
croton chloral is obtained — the process taking about forty-eight hours 
to complete. This crude body is mainly ordinary chloral, but mixed 
with a variety of other products. By fractional distillation and treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid — true croton chloral (C 4 H 3 C1 3 0) — trichlor. 
crotonic aldehyde is obtained. This is a dense oily liquid of peculiar 
odor, somewhat recalling ordinary chloral : treated with a consider- 
able excess of warm water it hydrates and dissolves, and, upon cool- 
ing, croton chloral hydrate (C 4 H 3 C1 3 0,H 2 0) is deposited, but still in 
a crude form, most rank and offensive in flavor. It has to be purified 
by rather a tedious process, and is obtained, when pure, in beautiful 
white silvery crystals, with a sweetish melon flavor, which melt at 
78° C. 

From this it will be quite evident (and it is probably wise to note 
it) that this body does not bear any relation to croton oil, or crotonic 
acid, obtained therefrom, although its chemical constitution proves it 
to be the chlorated aldehyde of crotonic acid. 

Croton chloral is the substance represented by the same term in 
the allyl (C 3 H 5 ) group that chloral has in the ethyl (C 2 H 5 ) group. Its- 
outward appearance differs from hydrate of chloral by the salt being 
much lighter, and in flocculent silvery crystals — by its being almost 
insoluble in cold water and very soluble in alcohol ; it is soluble in 
hot distilled water, and rendered more easily so by the addition of 
25 per cent, of pure glycerin ; it is insoluble in chloroform. 

It will be remembered that hydrate of chloral owes its value as a 
medicinal agent to the supposed elimination of chloroform when it 
comes in contact with the alkalies of the blood, it having been shown 
that by reaction with alkalies chloroform is produced. Crotonic chlo- 
ral, when subject to the influence of an alkali, first forms allyl-chlo- 
roform, a trichlorated body which is rapidly decomposed into a bichlo- 
rated substance called bichlor-allylene. In a communication to the- 
British Medical Journal, December 20, 1873, Dr. Liebreich says : — 
" Both chloroform and trichlorated substances act in the first stage 
upon the brain ; in the second, on the spinal cord ; in the third, on 
the heart." 

Although Dr. Liebreich's theory has met with and still finds gen- 
eral favor, there are many medical men who think it has not any 
valid support, believing that chloral exercises a specific action of its- 
own upon the organization, which is not to be reasoned out from an 
exclusively chemical basis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1874.Suppl.J 



Croton Chloral, 



15S 



The medicinal advantages of hydrate of croton chloral over ordi- 
nary hydrate of chloral are : 1st. In cases where hydrate of chloral 
is inapplicable on account of heart-disease (it does not interfere with 
the action of the heart). 2d. In cases of neuralgia in the district of 
the nervus trigeminus (it is a remarkable phenomenon that when 
given in small doses it produces anaesthesia of the fifth nerve, sin- 
gling out one nerve, and that one alone, while the sensibility of the 
body generally and pulse and respiration remain unaffected). 3d. In 
cases where very large doses are necessary to produce sleep, here 
Liebreich recommends the addition of croton chloral to hydrate of 
chloral. 

Dr. Burney Yeo, of King's College Hospital, London, etc., is 
making a systematic investigation on the value of this medicine, and 
he lays his first communication in a paper published in the Lancet, 
January 31, 1874; he administered it in six different classes of cases,, 
and gives details of each. The results he has arrived at are, that m 
croton chloral we possess a remedy of remarkable efficacy in some 
cases of neuralgia of the branches of the nervus trigeminus, and that 
it also has the power of affording relief in other obstinate forms of 
neuralgia; that it is of use in certain cases of diffused muscular pain;, 
that there is scarcely any remedy that is likely to prove more valua- 
ble for the relief of the distressing night cough of chronic phthisis. 
Its efficacy in procuring sleep seems very variable in moderate doses; 
its effect in purely rheumatic cases is scarcely appreciable, while for 
hysteria it is of little or no use. 

Dose. — Dr. Yeo says : — " I am satisfied that in dealing with this- 
substance we must give an unusually wide range to the dose, for its- 
effects vary greatly. The doses I have given varied from one to ten 
grains. In delicate females I have found very decided effects from 
doses of two and three grains ; in strong males a dose of ten grains- 
is often required to produce any appreciable effect. As may be ex- 
pected, persons who have been accustomed to the use of anodyne- 
medicines require larger doses than others." 

The dose must always be proportionate to the severity and long 
continuance of the pain. I would advise that it should be always 
given in moderate and quickly repeated doses, until the amount of 
" tolerance in the medicine in each particular case has been discov- 
ered. In severe neuralgias, from two to five grains may be given* 
every hour, or the smaller dose every half hour, until fifteen grains. 



154 



Rheum Officinale. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1874. Suppl. 



tiave been taken. At present I do not think it safe to go beyond 
this dose." 

I have made several experiments with different solvents to present 
this medicine in a convenient form for dispensing, and before seeing 
Dr. Yeo's paper I found that the addition of glycerin was of great 
assistance in making the solution. I can fully endorse his decision. 
The following formula yields the strongest solution that is permanent : 
Croton Chloral Hydrate, . . .64 grains. 

Pure Glycerin, .... \ ounce, 

Hot Distilled Water, . . • 1} " 

A syrup can be made containing two grains of croton chloral hy- 
drate in the fluidrachm, by adding four ounces of simple syrup to the 
above solution, and the disagreeable taste may be removed by any 
flavoring the pharmacist sees fit to add. — Chemist and Druggist, Feb. 
14, 1874. 

RHEUM OFFICINALE. 
Br Professor Baillon. 

The following information respecting the new species of Rheumi 
which is now considered to be the true origin of the officinal rhubarb, 
has been supplied by Professor Baillon to M. Regnaud for insertion 
in a new edition of Soubeiran's " Traite de Pharmacie."* 

" Besides the Rheum Rhaponticum, which yields the Rhapontic 
rhubarb, Linneeus recognized four species of the genus Rheum, to 
which have successively been referred the origin of the true rhubarbs 
of China and Russia. These were the Rheum Rhabarbarum (after- 
wards named R. undulatum by Linnaeus himself), R. compactum, R. 
palmatum and R. Ribes. The latter, to which has been attributed 
the origin of Persian rhubarb, or rather of the products which are 
received through Persia, has never been more than a culinary herb. 
As to the three other species, they have all contributed (from the 
root) certain European and native rhubarbs. 

" A species more recently discovered in India, R. Emodi or R. 
australe, has, like the preceding, been considered to yield the Chi- 
nese and Russian rhubarbs ; but it would appear that it only produces 
s, kind peculiar to India. 

" As to the true plant, a native of Thibet, which furnishes to com- 



* " L'Union Pharmaceutique," vol. xv., p. 21. 



Am. Joor. Pharm. ) 
JVIar., 1874. Suppl. / 



Rheum Officinale. 



155 



merce both the Russian and Chinese rhubarbs, it has only been 
known since 1867, in which year M. Dabry de Thiersant, consul- 
general of France at Shanghai, procured from Thibet some stalks of 
the species which yields this valuable drug, and which, cultivated in 
the garden of the Faculty of Medicine at Paris and in the Vallee de 
Montmorency by M. Girandeau, have received from M. H. Baillon 
the name of Rheum officinale. It is a very large species, exceeding 
a man in height, and remarkable for the considerable development of 
its inflorescence. The flowers are whitish, having a very deeply con- 
cave receptacle, with a marked perigynic insertion of the stamens, 
which in other respects resemble those of all the genus Rheum. The 
gynaecium is inserted profoundly in the most depressed portion of the 
receptacular cavity, and the edges of this cavity are furnished with 
well-developed unequal glands of a beautiful green color at their sum- 
mit. The leaves of this species answer perfectly to the indications 
formerly given by Bokharian and Chinese merchants to Pallas and 
others concerning the true officinal rhubarb plant, namely, that the 
leaves have a limb of a delicate green color, in shape like an open 
fan, and also as analogous as possible to that of the leaves of the Ri- 
einus communis. It is by this that the species is especially distin- 
guished from R. palmatum, to which more than any other the origin 
of this medicament has been referred in recent times, upon the 
authority of Guibourt. But the leaves of the latter are whitish, un- 
equally trilobed, and more or less pointed at the top. The R. offici- 
nale, however, belongs to the same botanical section as R. palmatum, 
as well as R. hybridum and R. dentatum, which are different plants, 
but have the same nervation. Here the nerves diverge at starting 
from the base of the limb, they are then palmate, and the two lateral 
nerves are destitute on the outside, for a certain distance from their 
base, of all parenchyma. Above this point the base of the parenchy- 
ma forms a kind of auricle, which renders the limb markedly cordate 
at the base. The dimensions of the limb extend to nearly a metre 
in each direction ; it is, however, a little broader than it is long, and 
the petiole is about the same length. In the plants that have been 
raised, some leaves have been noticed which were more than a metre 
and a half long. Their edges are unequally divided into triangular 
lobes a little unequal among themselves, and the nerves, ramified and 
prominent beneath, are in this species, together with all the surface 
of the parenchyma, entirely covered with a fine white down. When 



156 Adulterations of Coffee, Tea and Pepper. {^fSw-sSSf: 

the plant has become fully developed it has scarcely any roots, for 
these are gradually destroyed, and the plant draws its nourishment 
from the soil only by small adventitious roots which could not be em- 
ployed in medicine. But, contrary to the other species enumerated, 
and of which the root can be prepared and employed, this developer 
above ground a stem and cylindro-conical branches, 20 or 30 centi- 
metres high, and of the thickness of an arm or a leg. These are the 
only portions which, cleansed from the so-called bark, divided trans- 
versely and longitudinally, and properly dried and prepared, can be 
used in medicine. They bear leaves, and after the fall of these,, 
there remains on the surface only the brown dried base of the petioles., 
together with the remains of the ochrea ; these vestiges together con- 
stitute the pretended bark. 

" In the axil of each of these aerial leaves there is necessarily a 
bud. These acquire frequently a considerable development, and are 
elongated into leafy branches ; such is the cause of the ramification of 
the aerial portions of this plant. Each of thes buds, detached at a 
suitable season, will in its turn easily take root from its base, and 
may thus be used to multiply the plant. Since each of these buds 
sends off a collection of cellular, fibrous and vascular elements, which 
it directs obliquely across the true fleshy, spongy bark, towards the 
ligneous axis of the stem, this, as well as the large branches, is per- 
meated by oblique systems having the same structure as the branches. 
The presence in the true Thibet rhubarb of the stellate spots which 
are seen in sections, answers, therefore, precisely to the morphologi- 
cal nature of the portion employed as a medicament." — Pharm. Journ. 
(Lond.), Feb. 28, 1874. 



ADULTERATIONS OF COFFEE, TEA AND PEPPER. 

At a recent meeting of the Chemical Society, London, Mr. J. Bell 
gave some interesting particulars about the adulteration of these 
articles. 

The adulteration of coffee can only be successfully accomplished 
after it is roasted and ground, but has, perhaps, been carried to as 
great an extent as in almost any other article of food. A very sim- 
ple way of detecting the presence of chicory in coffee is to sprinkle 
a little of it on the surface of water in a test tube or wine glass, when 
each particle of chicory becomes surrounded with an amber colored 



Mar^i^sup^.} Adulterations of Coffee, Tea and Pepper. 157 

cloud, which spreads in streaks through the water until the whole ac- 
quires a brownish tinge ; with pure coffee, however, no cloud is pro- 
duced until the lapse of about a quarter of an hour. Another method 
of detecting adulteration is by the depth of color obtained by the in- 
fusion of a given weight of the suspected article in water, and by 
the density of the infusion. The use of the microscope, however, is 
indispensable. The ash of coffee, remarkable for the minute quan- 
tity of silica it contains, and for the absence of soda, afforded a val- 
uable indication of its purity. 

Adulterations of Tea. — Tea is adulterated to a very large extent, 
not only with leaves of various kinds, including exhausted tea leaves, 
but also with inorganic substances, such as quartz, sand, and mag- 
netic oxide of iron ; these latter substances are rolled up inside the 
leaf, and one sample of green tea examined was found to contain no 
less than 20 per cent, of quartz and 8*6 of the magnetic oxide. The 
latter may readily be separated by grinding up the tea and removing 
the magnetic oxide with a magnet. The facing employed for green 
tea usually consists of French chalk and Prussian blue. In the pre- 
paration of exhausted tea leaves, they are rolled up with gum water 
and then dried, catechu being added in some cases to restore the 
^stringency. The article known as the "maloo mixture" consists 
essentially of exhausted tea leaves. In searching for the presence of 
leaves other than those of the tea plant, the best method is to heat a 
small quantity of the suspected tea with water until the leaves are 
sufficiently softened to admit of being unfolded. They should then 
be spread out on a piece of glass and carefully examined as to the 
nature of the serrations and the character of the venation, also the 
appearance of the epidermis and the stomata, and the peculiarities of 
the hairs as shown by the microscope. 

Adulterations of Pepper. — The two kinds of pepper, known in 
commerce as black and white pepper, are derived from the same plant, 
but differ in the latter being bleached, or having the husk removed by 
washing ; but neither kind can be adulterated with success before it 
is ground. The most common adulterants for ground pepper are lin- 
seed meal, the husks of mustard seeds, rice, bean and pea meal, and 
the flour and bran of the ordinary cereals, ground chilies being added 
to restore the pungency. Some of these substances can be readily 
detected by diffusing the pepper in water, and pouring the mixture on 



158 



Ghazeepore Rose- Wafer. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Mar., 1874. SuppI 



to a muslin sieve. The deep red particles of the chili can then be 
recognized, and also the camphor-like fragments of rice. The mus- 
tard husks are known by their cup-like shape, while the smooth shiny 
appearance of the linseed readily distinguishes it from the dull brown 
of the pepper. — Scientific American, 1874, p. 197. 



GHAZEEPORE ROSE-WATER. 

The following interesting information on the cultivation of roses 
and the preparation of rose-water at Ghazeepore has been taken from 
the Catalogue of the Indian Department at the Vienna Universal 
Exhibition, for which it was written by Mr. R. Saunders : 

The roses from which the celebrated Ghazeepore rose water is dis- 
tilled came originally from Bussorah. These roses were first trans- 
planted from Persia, and brought to the ancient, but now ruinous,. 
Hindu city of Kanauj on the Ganges, and thence to Ghazeepore. 

Somewhere about a century ago, Shaikh Abdullah (the father of 
the last Nawab Fuzl Alee Khan) made the first trial of a rose plan- 
tation in the vicinity of the city of Ghazeepore. Having experi- 
mented on a very limited scale in his own garden, he discovered that; 
the soil of the environs of Ghazeepore was admirably adapted for 
rose cultivation, and since that period it has by degrees been ex- 
tended. 

The celebrity of the Ghazeepore perfumes prepared from these roses- 
very soon spread throughout India, and to other countries, while to 
this day they have been held in the highest possible esteem on account 
of the permanence of the odor, and the peculiar delicate fragrance of 
the scent for which they are specially appreciated in the mercantile 
world. Year after year traders come from immense distances to work 
temporary distilleries, for the season only, in order to replenish their 
stock of these delicious and precious rose-scents. 

Culture of the Roses, and Plantation of Rose Gardens. — Unlike 
the propagation of the specimen roses of England, which depend 
chiefly on grafting, these rose trees are raised from cuttings which 
are planted out from nurseries after one year's growth at an expense 
of Rs. 25 per beegah. These slips are watered every five or six days 
till the setting in of the rains, and when once they have taken root 
they are finally transplanted to the field intended for the rose-garden. 
Here each rose tree is planted three feet apart from the other, and 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Mar. 1874. Suppl./ 



Qhazeepore Rose- Wa ter . 



159> 



on an average 1000 shrubs are allowed to grow in each beegah of 
land. 

Rose fields are kept scrupulously clean by constant weeding, and 
loosening of the soil around the roots. This operation takes place 
about three times a year. Leaf-mould, which is the best sort of ma- 
nure for roses, is sprinkled all over the fields once a year, and twice 
a year the fields are irrigated by flooding them with well water. 
Priming takes place annually in the month of January. The flower- 
ing season is in February and March, when the blossoms are picked 
and collected each day before sunrise. 

The average yield of flowers per beegah is from thirty to sixty 
thousand. These are sold to the distillers at a rate varying from 100 
to 125 rupees per lakh (hundred thousand) of flowers. The total area 
under rose cultivation in Ghazeepore is estimated at about 200 acres,, 
bearing an average rental of Rs. 4 per beegah. 

Process of Manufacturing the Pure Attar of Roses. — A gallon, or 
half a gallon, of the best rose-water is kept in a large copper vessel 
in the cool night air, with a thin cotton covering over it. Before day- 
break the oily extract floating over the surface of the water is care- 
fully collected with a pigeon's feather and placed in a phial. 

The next day fresh flowers are added to the water, and it is again 
distilled, and the same process is continued for several days succes- 
sively, till as much pure attar of roses is collected as is required. 
The whole quantity thus collected is kept in a phial and exposed to 
the sun for a few days, and as soon as the watery particles have evap- 
orated, pure oil, or attar of roses is left in the phial, which sells by 
weight at Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per tolah. This sort of attar being 
costly is generally made only to order, and the ordinary quantity 
produced each year rarely exceeds five or six tolahs. The rose-water 
left after eight or nine distillations again comes into use, and is sold 
in the market as the best of its kind. It is, in fact, a clear profit to 
the manufacturer, who is already amply repaid by the attar itself. 
The prime cost of a tolah of attar is fairly estimated at Rs. 72, viz. : 

Cost of labor, . . . . . Rs. 12 

Value of 50,000 rose flowers, at Rs. 120 per lakh, Rs. 60 



Total, . . . . . Rs. 72 

The margin left to the manufacturer after covering the cost of inte- 



160 



Ghazeepore Rose- Water. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Mar., 1874. Suppl. 



rest on outlay does not fall far short of forty or fifty rupees per 
tolah, which it must be admitted is not at all a bad profit on the trans- 
action. 

Manufacture of the Alloyed or Ordinary Bazar-Sold Attar. — San- 
dal wood is well pounded and mixed with water, and then subjected 
to the usual process of distillation with roses. This gives a greater 
quantity of oily substance than could be expected from roses only. 
The same water is distilled over and over again with an additional 
quantity of fresh flowers as many times as suits the fancy of the 
manufacturer. 

The value of this attar rises in proportion to the number of distil- 
lations, and the best of the kind sells at Rs. 10 per tolah down to the 
lowest rate of Rs. 2 for the inferior sorts. The process of collection 
of this attar is the same as that of the other, the only difference be- 
tween the two being in the admixture or not of sandal wood oil. 

It is difficult to estimate with any degree of accuracy the quantity 
of alloyed attar annually produced in Ghazeepore, for a large number 
of outsiders come every year, stop for the season only, and then carry 
off what they produce. Probably a maund would be near the mark, 
but the value cannot be accurately computed, owing to the great va- 
riety of rates for the different qualities manufactured. 

Manufacture of Plain Rose- Water \ — The process is simple, but the 
varieties are great, according to the number of flowers allowed to each 
distillation. The ordinary rose-water is sold in huge spherical glass 
receptacles called " karabas,'' each containing 14 quart bottles. The 
average selling price of ordinary rose-water varies from Rs. 2 to 12 
per karaba, and English quart bottles from eight annas to eight rupees 
each. 

The usual cost of labor for each distillation yielding 24 bottles is 
one rupee. During the season numerous temporary rose-stills are 
worked by traders from different parts of India. Consequently it is 
very difficult to make even an approximate estimation of the actual 
quantity produced, but it is supposed to be somewhere between two 
and three hundred maunds. — Pharm. Journ. (Lond.), Feb. 7, 1874. 

/ 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, 1874. 



CHLORINATED ALKALIES AS A TEST FOR xMORPHIA ANP 
OTHER PROXIMATE PRINCIPLES. 

By Henry S. Wellcome, C P. 

While making a series of experiments on the alkaloids, I found 
that chlorinated lime gave a red color with morphia, and at that time 
was not aware that the reaction had ever before come to notice, as 
none of our text-books in chemistry make any mention of it. I have 
since found a very brief note in G-meliris Chemistry, Cav. edit. ; Vol. 
xvi, p. 425. ''Aqueous chlorinated lime gives a dark orange color 
with morphia (Duflos). Chlorine gives a yellow color with morphia, 
and is changed to dark brown by ammonia (Braconnot)." By refer- 
ring to the files of some of the pharmaceutical journals, I find that 
the reaction of chlorine and chlorinated lime has several times 
been announced as a new test,* but seems to have never been fully 
investigated. Having become interested in it, I have continued my 
investigations, and have become convinced that it deserves more 
attention than it has received. 

It is extremely delicate and very characteristic. Solution of chlo- 
rinated soda and other alkaline solutions of chlorine give the same 
reaction. As a reagent, the following solution has been found very 
convenient ; it is made by adding two ounces of fresh chlorinated! 
lime to a pint of water, and, after standing a few hours, decanting 
the clear solution. 

Morphia, in powder, gives a deep red color with a drop of this 
solution. 

With a solution of one grain of morphia in one thousand grains of 
water, it gives a bright red color ; and a drop of the mixture evapo- 

* Compare American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. viii, p. 213 ; vo!. x, p. 168 ; 
vol. xxviii, p. 9. 

19 



306 Chlorinated Alkalies — Test for Morphia. { ku 3 ^ t f 8 H ^ RM - 

rated on a porcelain plate leaves a deep red ring. On the addition 
of ammonia, or any other strong alkali, the solution becomes dark- 
brown. 

It gives a distinct orange color in solution of one grain of morphia 
in five thousand of water, and with care maybe made to show plainly 
in solution of one grain in ten thousand. Excess of the chlorine 
decolorizes these solutions, and the orange color cannot be restored. 
Excess of an acid decolorizes them, but the color reappears on adding 
excess of an alkali. These reactions are the same in the presence of 
all other alkaloids with which I have experimented. 

When a few drops of chlorine water are added to morphia in pow- 
der, and, after solution, a drop or two of ammonia, beautiful red star- 
like spangles will form. This test is best performed on a porcelain 
plate or crucible cover. 

Alkaline solution of chlorine also gives a red color with phloridzin, 
either in powder or solution, and this is decolorized by excess and by 
acids, and restored the same as morphia, by excess of alkali ; but as 
this is very rarely used in medicine, it seems to be of very little im- 
portance. In powder, it is colored brown-black by strong nitric acid ? 
by which behavior it is readily distinguished from morphia. 

Colchicia gives a yellow color with the chlorinated lime solution, 
but so slight that it is of little importance. 

Aloin gives a dark -red color, part of which is due to the alkali; 
the color is only partially destroyed by excess of an acid. 

The only other alkaloid which I have found that gives a similar 
reaction with chlorine is brucia. 

Any solution of chlorine added to an acid solution of brucia gives 
a bright- red color. Alkaline solutions of chlorine do not react with 
the powder ; but if a drop of an acid be first added, a deep red color 
is produced. 

Excess of chlorine decolorizes both > and the color cannot be re- 
stored. Strong acids and alkalies cause no changes ; thereby it is 
readily distinguished from morphia, and the reaction becomes a char- 
acteristic and delicate test for brucia. 

While conducting these experiments, I have had access to Prof. 
Maisch's and other extensive collections of alkaloids and proximate 
principles, and have found all others, besides those enumerated above, 
to give a negative, or nearly so, reaction with the alkaline solution of 
chlorine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1. 1874. J 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



307 



In testing for morphia, the solution must be neutral or alkaline ; 
excess of chlorine must be avoided, and no substance should be pre- 
sent which will give a red color with alkalies. 

New York, June, 1874. / 

PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 
By G. J. Luhn. 

On pages 150 and 154 of the American Journal of Pharmacy there 
appear two errors, one in the formula given for syrup of croton chloral 
hydrate, and the other, in the formula for tincture of phosphorus, 
which it would be well to correct. 

In order to give two grains of croton chloral hydrate in each flui- 
drachm, the formula published ought to read as follows : 

Croton chloral hydrate, 96 grains (instead of 64 grs.). 

Pure glycerin, . . \ fluid ounce. 
Hot distilled water, . . 1J fluid ounce. 

Simple syrup, . . 4 fluid ounces. 

The formula, as it stands, with 64 grains of croton chloral hydrate to 
the six ounce mixture, would make each fluidrachm contain only one 
and a third grains. It seems strange that, in every republication of 
this article, and I have three now in my possession, this error should 
not have been noticed before.* 

I find the following preparation, containing two grains of croton 
chloral hydrate to each fluidrachm, can be easily made in a very short 
time, and I think will keep well. It is so readily made, however, 
that there is no neccessity for keeping it on hand : 

Croton chloral hydrate, . . 24 grains. 
Tincture orange-peel, ... 1 fluidrachm. 

Glycerin, \ each, 2 fluidrachms. 

Water, j 

Simple syrup, .... 7 a 

* Both formulas referred to above give the quantities in the weight (not in 
measure) of the British Pharmacopoeia ; converted into the equivalent meas- 
ure, the formula for syrup of croton chloral hydrate will be found to yield 
4 fluid ounces, 7 fluidrachms, 10 minims ; and the formula for tincture of phos- 
phorus 18 fluidrachms, 42 minims, if evaporation is totally prevented.— Ed. 
Am. Journ. Pharm. 



308 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



[Am. Jocr. Phahm .. 
\ July 1, 1874. 



The ingredients ought to be added in the order in which they 
are written, and the result will be a clear brownish solution. You 
will note that the tincture of orange-peel and simple syrup are in the 
proportion of the formerly officinal syrup of orange-peel. 

The error in the tincture of phosphorus is also in the quantity 
contained in each fluidrachm. The proportion of phosphorus, accord- 
ing to the formula given, is only one-twentieth of a grain to each flui- 
drachm and not one-twelfth of a grain as stated. There being twenty r 
or nearly twenty, drachms of fluid substance, used in the manipulation 
of one grain of phosphorus. 

In connection with this subject I desire to offer a formula which I 
have used for some time, and which I have styled (under the present; 
elixir epidemic) elixir of phosphorus. It has been satisfactorily pre- 
scribed by a number of physicians in this city : 

]^ Phosphorus, . . . . gr. i. 
iEther sulph. cone, . . . f^iiss. 
Alcohol, ..... fsi. 
Tr. menth. pip., .... f^ss. 
Bower's glycerin, . q. s. to make fsiii. 

The phosphorus completely dissolves in the ether in about twenty- 
four hours, care being taken to introduce no water into the ether 
with the phosphorus. After the solution of the phosphorus is effected, 
the alcohol may be added, but the glycerin should be added in small 
portions, and the mixture shaken after each addition and allowed to 
stand until it becomes clear before another portion of the glycerin is 
introduced. 

A great deal of care has to be exercised in the addition of the 
glycerin ; if too much be added at a time it will disengage a quantity 
of phosphorus, which will fall to the bottom. The essence of pep- 
permint may either be added with the alcohol, or as the last ingre- 
dient, the latter is preferable, especially if the preparation is not 
made with 95 per cent, alcohol. Some apothecaries, I believe, use 
80 per cent, alcohol in making it. 

This preparation contains one-twenty-fourth grain of phosphorus 
to each fluidrachm, or teaspoonful. It is quite burning to the taste, 
but can easily be administered in a little simple syrup, when it will 
not be at all unpleasant to take. It has quite a milky appearance 
when mixed with syrup, but I do not think the phosphorus is precip- 
itated, at least not rapidly enough to prevent its being taken. 



AM jui°™;f874 RM '} Mistura Assafcetidce — Mistara Ammoniaci. 309 

I have also often added fluid extract of nux vomica to this prepara- 
tion in quantities of three drops to each fluidrachm, and in this form 
it has been styled compound elixir of phosphorus. 

Charleston, S. 0., June, 1874. 



MISTURA ASSAFCETIDCE AND MISTURA AMMONIACI. 
By J. W. Wood. 

The preparation of these two mixtures in accordance with our 
Pharmacopoeia is not calculated to inspire, in case of the former, the 
most agreeable impressions imaginable upon the olfactories of the 
pharmacist ; nor in the latter, if an impatient customer is waiting 
for it. 

From the instability of the aqueous mixtures of these gum resins, 
we are precluded the possibility of keeping them always ready for 
dispensing. 

To overcome this disadvantage I have devised the following con- 
venient, and, I presume, altogether unobjectionable, mode, which 
will at once commend itself at least to those whose remembrance of 
odorous mortar and wearied elbow does not contribute to the charms 
of their profession. The improvement consists in forming a solution, 
or at least suspending the gum resins in a certain proportion of pure 
glycerin, which mixtures are to be kept for adaptation to their pur- 
poses, as follows : 

R. — Assafoetidse electae, . . . . ^ii. 

Glycerine purse, . . . . gvi. 

Cut the assafoetida into small pieces, and, together with the gly- 
cerin, introduce into a capsule, and subject to a moderate heat, con- 
stantly stirring and triturating with a pestle. In a short time the 
solution will be effected, and the result will be a liquid, not too thick 
for easy manipulation, each troy drachm of which will represent fif- 
teen grains of the gum resin. Transfer to a wide mouth bottle, and 
label according to contents. 

Now, if we receive a demand for, say four ounces of mistura assa- 
foetidae, we need simply ascertain the weight of the bottle, and add 
therein exactly four drachms (troy) of the above glycerole of assa- 
foetida, and afterwards water sufficient to make the measure, and, 
with a shake or two, the thing is done, the result being a handsome 



310 Cephalanthus Occidental™. { A "S^gf* 

preparation, much less susceptible of change than the officinal mis- 
tura, by the presence of the glycerin, which is certainly unobjection- 
able, and may possibly be advantageous therapeutically. 

The only extra precaution necessary in preparing the glycerole i& 
to guard against employing too great a degree of heat, so that the 
volatile oil may not be dissipated. 

Mistura ammoniaci is prepared in precisely a similar manner as- 
the foregoing, the proportions being the same, and the result being 
equal, if not superior, to that made by the officinal formula. It cer- 
tainly, in point of convenience and facility, possesses a decided ad- 
vantage. 

Wilmington, Del., June, 1874. 



ANALYSIS OF THE BARK OF CEPHALANTHUS OCCIDENTALS 

LIN. 

By Edgar M. Hattan, G. P. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The bark of the buttonbush or pond dogwood was brought to my 
notice by an article in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872,, 
p. 195, where it is stated that the bark has been repeatedly recom- 
mended as an expectorant useful in consumption. In the U. S. Dis- 
pensatory, it is said to be laxative as well as tonic, and to have been, 
given in periodical fevers. 

The following experiments were made with the bark, which was- 
collected by myself, in the month of September, in New Jersey. It 
consists of a comparatively thick corky layer, externally of a dark- 
gray color, with patches of green, exceedingly rough, with longitudi- 
nal furrows ; the thin liber portion is smooth, and when first removed 
was white, but soon changed to a reddish- brown color. 

An infusion of the drug when heated does not coagulate nor become 
turbid, showing absence of albumen. Tannin was found present, the 
variety precipitated green with salts of iron. Trommer's test gave 
evidence of sugar. Starch was found in a decoction by the addition of 
iodine. Potassium iodohydrargyrate gave no precipitate in an acidu- 
lated infusion, showing absence of alkaloids. A distillate was per- 
fectly clear, neutral to test paper and with a slight aromatic odor. 

Eight troy ounces of the drug were then decocted, the decoction 
being of a dark color, with a bitter and astringent taste, was treated 



Am. Joub. Pharm. > 
July 1, 1874. S 



GephalantJi us Occidentalism 



311 



with neutral acetate of lead and filtered. The filtrate yielded, with 
basic acetate of lead, a precipitate as the first. After washing both 
lead precipitates with water, they were treated separately with alco- 
hol (sp. gr. 835, the strength used throughout the experiments.) 
AmHS showed absence of lead in the alcoholic solution from neutral 
acetate of lead precipitate (No. 1), but that from the basic acetate of 
lead precipitate (No. 2) having lead present, it was removed by H 2 S. 
Both solutions were remarkably fluorescent. They were concentrated, 
filtered and set aside to crystallize. No. 1 deposited at first a yel- 
low resinous matter, and after standing longer, needle-shaped crystals 
formed; when ignited on platinum foil, a residue was left, consisting 
of calcium and potassium. No. 2 at first deposited white opaque 
feathery and spherical crystals, afterward beautiful needle-shaped 
crystals on the bottom and sides of the vessel. 

Both sets of crystals were slightly soluble in water, soluble in 
ether. A small portion of opaque crystals were re-crystallized in a 
test tube and gave crystals corresponding to the others ; hence they 
are apparently identical. These crystals give a slight acid reaction 
and had a leathery taste. On igniting part of second product on 
platinum foil, a residue was left, which proved to be potassium. 

Crystals of No. 1 were dissolved in hot water slightly acidulated 
with HOI, and on cooling was agitated with ether. The ethereal 
solution on separating was decanted and set aside, leaving on evap- 
orating, needles, which burned without residue. 

With the crystals of No. 2 the same result was effected. From 
the appearance of these two sets of crystals and the decided fluores- 
cence produced by them when in solution, and especially on the 
addition of alkalies, they were considered identical and the fluores- 
cent principle of the drug. The effects of this principle were noticed 
to some extent in most every solution throughout these experiments. 

The following results were obtained with the crystalline body : 

In an aqueous solution, alkalies intensify the fluorescence ; acids 
destroy the fluorescence, but it is restored on the addition of an alkali. 

It dissolves more readily in dilute acids and alkaline solutions than 
in water alone. 

An alkaline solution is not completely decolorized by acids. 
Alkaline solutions are blue by reflected and vellow by transmitted 
light. 

On addition of metallic salts to an aqueous solution, no precipitate 
is formed, except with basic acetate of lead, which is yellow. 



312 



Ceph a lanthm Occiden ta lis . 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July 1, 1874. 



The crystals when dissolved in dilute HN0 3 gave a solution of 
yellow color, and when supersaturated with hydrate of potassium it 
became light red. 

These reactions and the solubility as noticed, are the same as those 
of aesculin. Although agreeing in so many respects with sesculin, it 
was found not to be a glucoside. 

The resinous deposit from No. 1 was next examined. It was 
soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in ether, and was split into glucose 
and another principle similar in appearance to the resin, but of 
lighter color, by boiling with dilute H 2 S0 4 . 

The filtrate from the decoction, after being treated with the lead 
salts, was acted upon by H 2 S, heated, filtered and concentrated ; it 
was very bitter. This solution was digested with charcoal, and, after 
"being washed with water and dried, it was boiled in alcohol until 
nothing more was taken up by that menstruum. 

The alcoholic solution was concentrated and set aside ; no crystals 
fcut an extremely bitter extract was obtained, which was translucent ; 
freely soluble in water and alcohol, very sparingly soluble in chloro- 
form and ether, and completely insoluble in benzin. It gave an acid 
reaction to test paper, which may perhaps be due to the fluorescent 
principle with which it was found to be contaminated, and which was 
not completely removed by ether. Several ways were tried for crys- 
tallizing this substance, but without succes. 

The above filtrate from the charcoal was evaporated to a syrupy 
consistency and tested for sugar. Trommer's test showed its presence 
in cuprous oxide being formed gradually at the ordinary temperature ; 
the syrup was uncrystallizable. 

Twenty-four troy ounces of the drug were next exhausted with 
alcohol and gave a light-colored tincture, which was fluorescent. It 
was evaporated to an extract of an astringent bitter taste. Water 
was added to the dregs after exhaustion with alcohol, until it passed 
through the percolator almost colorless ; it gave a solution considerably 
darker in color than the tincture, with fluorescence and astringent 
and bitter taste. This was also evaporated to an extract, in which 
the bitterness was not near so predominant as in the alcoholic extract, 
and was deprived of it on being treated with alcohol. 

The alcoholic extract was exhausted with a limited quantity of 
water and filtered. The filtrate was perfectly clear, but on addition 
of more water, a cloudiness was produced, and on standing, a portion 



A ^uiyim A 4 RM "} Cephalanthus Occidentalis. 313 

of resin was deposited and then the solution became clear again, but 
on addition of more water, the same result was obtained, until quite 
a quantity of water had been added. 

The resinous residue was of a light-brown color, and on being 
treated with ether, about one-third was taken up and gave a soft 
residue of yellow color. 

The alcoholic resin on the removal of this lighter- colored resin be- 
came dark-brown, granular, and left a lasting bitterness in the fauces. 
It was insoluble in chloroform and benzin, soluble in alkaline solu- 
tions. A portion dissolved in solution of potassa was precipitated by 
HC1 ; also by solution of cupric sulphate, insoluble in excess of 
potassa. On boiling another portion with dilute H 2 S0 4 , it was proven 
to be a glucoside, giving glucose and a light-brown powder as the 
other product. This resin was considered identical with the glucoside 
obtained from the neutral acetate of lead precipitate. The drug 
being laxative with presence of the tannin, it was supposed this resin 
might possess purgative properties. Five grains were taken, but no 
result realized. 

The ethereal resin on being treated with benzin, was deprived of a 
fatty substance, leaving a granular residue with bitter taste, an acid 
reaction, and perfectly soluble in chloroform. 

The aqueous solution from the alcoholic extract on being agitated, 
considerable froth was formed, which remained permanent, in this 
respect corresponding with saponin, but solution of baryta produced 
no precipitate. The solution was concentrated, boiled with oxide of 
lead, filtered and the excess of lead removed by H 2 S. It was then 
heated, filtered and evaporated to a very concentrated state. In 
this the frothing principle was still retained ; alcohol added to this to 
preserve the solution, caused a copious light-colored deposit. The 
precipitate was collected, and on drying, became almost black ; it had 
a slight bitter taste at first, but it was not lasting ; was neutral to 
test paper, and on agitation with water was partially dissolved, caus- 
ing quite a foam. On evaporating the filtrate, from which this prin- 
ciple was obtained, it was found to contain glucose and an intensely 
bitter principle, as did the filtrate from the decoction treated with 
lead before digesting with charcoal. This, on agitation with water, 
still frothed, but not to the extent of the precipitate. 

A concentrated solution of aqueous extract obtained, as before stated, 
from the dregs after exhausting the drug with alcohol, was treated 



314 



Arbutin in Ericaceous Plants. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July 1, 1874. 



with alcohol to precipitate the gum. The precipitate dissolved in 
water was treated with neutral acetate of lead, which removed color- 
ing matter ; and in the filtrate, after the removal of the lead and con- 
centration, a white precipitate, answering to tests for gum, was 
obtained by alcohol. 

The filtrate from which the impure gum was removed, was concen- 
trated, agitated with ether, and from the decanted ether, on sponta- 
neous evaporation, needles were deposited on the sides of the capsule, 
which left a residue on ignition, consisting of calcium and potassium. 
The acidulous radical corresponding in behavior with the fluorescent 
principle contained from the salt, which was obtained from the 
neutral acetate of lead precipitate. 

The proximate constituents of the bark are a crystallizabe fluores- 
cent acid, a bitter principle (uncrystallizable), a principle resembling 
saponin, tannin, two resins, fatty matter, gum, glucose and starch. 

Two troy ounces of the bark'were incinerated and yielded twenty- 
four grains, or two-and-a-half per cent, of ashes, which contained 
carbonic, sulphuric, phosphoric and silicic acids ; potassium, sodium, 
calcium, magnesium and iron bases. 

The buttonbush or swamp dogwood belongs to the natural order of 
Rubiacece, is a shrub growing to the height of ten or fifteen feet and 
is found in Canada and the United States, growing in swamps and on 
the margin of ponds and brooks. The flowers are white and congre- 
gated in peduncled spherical heads, which give to the shrub quite a 
characteristic appearance. 



ON THE OCCURENCE OF ARBUTIN IN ERICACEOUS PLANTS. 

By John M. Maisuh. 
Arbutin was discovered, in 1851, in the leaves of Uva ursi by Kawa- 
lier, # and recognized as a glucoside, splitting into sugar and arctuvin. 
The latter body was further investigated by A. Streeker, and in 1858 
announced to be identical with hydrokinone,| the nitro-compounds of 
which were more fully described by him in 1861. j In 1859, Uloth 
found in the dry distillate of the extract of several ericaceous plants 
(Chimaphila umbellata, Calluna vulgaris, Ledum palustre and Vac- 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1853, p. 68. 
f Annal. d. Chem. und Pharm. , cvii, 228. 
% Ibid,, cxviii, p. 292. 



Am. Jour. Pharm > 
July 1, 1874. $ 



Arhutin in Ericaceous Plants. 



315 



cinium myrtillus)* besides pyrocatechin, a neutral crystallizable prin- 
ciple, which he named ericinon, and which Hessef believed to be iden- 
tical -with hydrokinone. This identity was subsequently (1864) 
proven by Zwenger and Himmelmann, J who separated arbutin from 
the leaves of Chimaphila umbellata, and found that this principle 
yields, on dry distillation, hydrokinone, but no pyrocatechin, while 
among the products of the dry distillation of kinic acid they observed 
pyrocatechin, besides hydrokinone, as announced by Woehler in 
1844. § The hydrokinone which is found in the dry distillate of 
ericaceous leaves is therefore ascribed by them to the presence there- 
in of arbutin, while in the leaves of Vacciniece it is due to kinic acid, 
the presence of which has been proven by Zwenger for the leaves of 
Vaccinium myrtillus.\\ In 1870, E. Claassen^f announced having ob- 
tained a crystalline principle from the leaves of Vaccinium vitis idcea? 
which I at one time** supposed to be probably identical with arbutin ; 
however, on comparing his process with Zwenger's process for kinic 
acid, the two will be found identical, except that Claassen has omitted 
the final treatment with sulphuric acid, thus rendering it probable 
that his vacciniin is simply kinate of calcium. This supposition is 
confirmed by comparing the properties of this so-called vaciniin with 
those of kinate of calcium, tf the main difference will be found to be 
that the latter is stated to be nearly tasteless, while vaciniin is of a 
somewhat bitter taste (kinate of potassium is decidedly bitter) ; 
moreover, the absence of lime in vacciniin has not been proven by 
Claassen, for he merely says that his crystals are reduced to coal by a 
stronger heat. 

This position appears to be further strengthened by the results of 
an analysis of the leaves of Gcaylussaeia resinosa, Torrey and Gray, 
{§. Vaccinium resinosum, Lin.) undertaken at my suggestion by Mr. 
Hugo Oppermann, and reported in his inaugural essay, recently pre- 
sented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Arbutin could not be 

* Anna], d. Chem. uud Pharm., cxi, p. 215-229. 

f Ibid., cxiv, p. 301. 

X Ibid., cxxix, p. 203-208. 

I Ibid., li, p. 146. 

|| American Journal of Pharmacy, 1861, p. 128. 
1 Ibid., 1871, p. 297. 
** Ibid., 1871, p. 235. 

ft See Gmelin's Chemistry, Cavendish Edit., xvi, p. 229. 



316 Arbutin in Ericaceous Plants. {^jujytSBT*' 

obtained by any process, nor could its presence be detected by Jung- 
m ami's phospho-molybdic acid test; but the liquid from which color- 
ing matter had been removed by acetate of lead and sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, and which still contained calcium, had a bitter taste. The 
preparation of kinic acid was not attempted.* The leaves of our 
American Vacciniece deserve further investigation in the direction in- 
dicated above, since some at least yield hydrokinone on the dry dis- 
tillation of their extract, as I have satisfied myself of the leaves of 
Vacc. stamineum, Lin. 

While it seems probable, from the foregoing, that plants of the subor- 
der Vacciniece contain kinic acid, instead of arbutin, the latter principle 
appears to be widely distributed among the plants belonging to the 
suborders Ericinece and Pyrolece. Besides those mentioned above, it 
has been obtained by Mr. Jefferson Oxley from Epigcea repens, Lin. 
and Gaultheria procumbens, Lin.,f and by Mr. J. H. Flint in Arctos- 
taphylos glauca, Lindley. To these must now be added Chimaphila 
maculata, Pursh. from which Mr. Bartholomew BantlyJ obtained it in 
handsome crystals. 

Most of these plants have been employed in medicine in diseases 
of the urinary organs, diuretic properties being ascribed to them. 
Prof. C. D. Schroff§ observed no diuretic effects from half a gram of 
pure arbutin, while E. C. Hughes|| found his ursin, which J. Jung- 
mann^f has since proven to be arbutin contaminated with gallic acid 
to possess diuretic properties. Is it not possible that tannin or gallic 
acid is necessary to induce the diuretic action of arbutin ? 

It is to be hoped that similar investigations will be performed with 
the leaves of other plants belonging to the natural order Ericacece. 



* H. Oppermann found, in the leaves of Gaylassacia resinosa, a bitter prin- 
ciple (kinic acid?), resin, sugar, tannin, malic acid, chlorophyll, coloring 
matter, some fat and wax ; and in the ashes potassium, sodium, calcium, mag- 
nesium, aluminium and iron. 

f American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 250. 

% Thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1874. Mr. 
Bantly also found tannin, resin, glucose, gum, some starch and fat. 

| Pharmacologic, 1862, p. 142. 

|| American Journal of Pharmacy, xix, p. 89. 



% Ibid., 1871, p. 204. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July 1, 1874. J 



In ternationa I Pha rrnacopoe ia . 



317 



A UNITED STATES AND BRITISH INTERNATIONAL PHARMA- 
COPOEIA. 

By Prof. Chas. Hermon Thomas, M. D. 

There is something more than a sentimental relation suggested by 
the fact of our speaking the same tongue as the British nation. To 
the physician and pharmacist this is a matter of everyday recogni- 
tion. The professional text-books and journals of both countries., 
devoted to medical science, are used in common in their colleges and 
public and private libraries, and in all departments but one — and that 
confessedly of prime practical importance — the terms used by authors 
convey a precise and identical meaning ; while in that of materia 
medica, including pharmacy, the proper English and Latinized names- 
employed are permitted to convey different meanings when used in 
the two countries, notwithstanding the liability to fatal mistakes added 
to the confusion thus engendered. If the same disparity of defini- 
tions of techicnal terms had existed in chemistry, anatomy, surgery,, 
gynaecology, etc., that is found in materia medica, arising, as is does., 
out of the different proportions of constituent materials used in the 
medicinal preparations, common by name — but by name only — to 
both the United States and British Pharmacopoeias, there never 
would have arisen that constant useful interchange of thought and 
experience which now exists; and if it were possible to introduce such 
a disparity in the ideas conveyed by like words into other depart- 
ments of scientific literature as exists in this, it would undoubtedly 
prove a barrier to communication scarcely less formidable than a 
total difference in tongue or race. 

The British and Foreign Medico Chirurgical Review for January,, 
1874, contains an article on the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, which, while 
giving us credit for introducing certain improvements, such as the 
class of glycerites, closes with the following suggestive paragraph : 

" There is almost a constant departure from the directions given 
in the British Pharmacopoeia, in the matter of proportion of ingredi- 
ents used ; so that whilst many tinctures and infusions are consider- 
ably stronger than ours, there are many weaker. Thus, for exam- 
ple, the infusions of calumba, cascarilla and senna are made only of 
half strength, whilst those of digitalis and gentian are considerably 
stronger, the former being of double strength. 

"Likewise in the matter of tinctures, we find the tinctures of aconite, 
belladonna, nux vomica and cantharides made double strength, while 



318 



In te rn ation a 1 PJiarmacopceia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July 1,1874 



those of cannabis, of hyoscyamus, of digitalis and of colchicum are 
one-fourth weaker. Lastly, tincture of opium and the camphorated 
tincture are made weaker than the British preparations.* 

" It may be that the Americans are justified, at all events in 
some cases, in not following our authorities in this matter of strength 
of preparations ; but at the same time it is a matter of regret that 
greater uniformity in this matter, between two nations speaking the 
same tongue and so intimately bound together by social and commer- 
cial ties, does not prevail. 

"To British medical men cast abroad in America, and to American 
physicians landed in England, it must be vexatious, and at times a 
cause of injury to patients, to find that well-known formulae, common 



•*The relation in the strength of these preparations is not correctly given by 
the Brit, and For. Med. Chirurg. Review; the difference in the officinal 
weights and measures have evidently not been taken into account. On close 
examination it will be found that the preparations of the two Pharmacopoeias 
agree much better than the above quotation would lead us to believe, in fact, 
the majority, we believe, are 'practically identical in strength, like tincture of 
digitalis, hyoscyamus, etc. 

It must be remembered that 30 fluid ounces of British Pharmacopoeia are 
equal to 29 fluid ounces of U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the difference being only 
about H fluidrachms, and that the British ounce weighs 42 5 grains less than 
the U. S. troy ounce. One fluid ounce (imperial and U. S. measure) of the 
above mentioned preparations contains of the active drug the following num- 
ber of troy grains : 



Brit. Pharm. 



U. S. Pharm. 



In fld. oz. imp. In fid. oz. wine meas. 



Infusum Calumbae, 


21-87 


145 


15 


(< 


Cascarillae, 


. 43-75 


29 


30 


«< 


Digitalis 


3 


7-25 


7-5 


(< 


Sennae, 


. 43-75 


29 


30 


Tinctura Aconiti rad., 


54 7 


174 


180 




Belladonnae, 


. 21-87 


58- 


60 


a 


Cannabis, 


21-87 


21-75 


22-5 


tt 


Cantharidis, 


. 5-47 


14 


15 


u 


Colchici, 


54-7 


58 


60 


u 


Digitalis, . 


. 54-7 


58 


60 


tl 


Hyoscyami, , 


54-7 


58 


60 


<< 


Nucis vomicae, . 


. 43-75 


116 


120 


u 


Opii, . . . 


32 8 


3625 


37-5 


«( 


Opii camphorata, 


. 2 


1-813 


1.875 



— Editor Am. Journ. Pharm. 



A juiyT'i874 EM } International PharmacojJtfia. 319 

by name to both, differ widely in their doses and activity on one and 
on tbe other side of the Atlantic. 

" Speaking generally, these variations unhappily affect the more 
potent remedies rather than the others. 

" The notion of an international pharmacopoeia has been broached, 
and has many recommendations, although we apprehend the more or 
less divergent medical opinions afloat in different countries, and still 
more, circumstances dictated by peculiarities in modes of life, in cli- 
mates and in floras, will lead each nation to claim more or fewer special 
drugs, and so destroy absolute uniformity. 

" On the other hand, there would be a sufficient array of substances 
and formulae admitting of so much concurrence as in some measure 
to attain the object desired. But, however this may be, there is good 
reason for bringing the British and United States Pharmacopoeias 
more in accord, and so far making the first move towards an inter- 
national codex, and we should be pleased to hear of communications 
being opened between the committee for the British and the con- 
vention for the United States' Pharmacopoeia in anticipation of so 
desirable an object." 

No teacher who has endeavored to instruct a class in medicine or 
pharmacy composed of students representing both nations will fail to 
realize the difficulty — not to say impossibility — attendant upon the 
labor of attempting to define and fix upon their minds the ever vary- 
ing strength and dosage of such important officinals as the reviewer 
has here cited. 

And no physician who has read the standard British authors on 
therapeutics, practice, diseases of women and children, and the like, 
with a view to making their precepts available in the treatment of 
disease, will dissent from the assertion that the value of such works 
is seriously impaired and sometimes entirely destroyed by the same 
fact. 

The subject is one of far too great importance, and the defect too 
grave in its actual and possible consequences, to be allowed to remain 
longer unrecognized ; and there can be no doubt that the suggestion 
at the close of the above quotation will find hearty approbation and 
cooperation wherever the question is presented. 

Probably the chief obstacle to a universal pharmacopoeia, for all 
civilized nations at least, will be found in the diverse systems of 
weights and measures employed in different countries ; but there are 



320 International Pharmacopceia. { Aai jSy i, im* 1 ' 

indications that the general interest in and acceptance of the new 
chemistry with the adherence of its writers to the metrical system will 
serve as an easy introduction for the essential, necessary for a satis- 
factory means of intercourse. 

And problably, also, the use of the metrical system will have to 
become more familiar to scientific men at large than it is at present, 
before universal communication will be seriously attempted in this 
direction. But this question aside for the present, we are on a foot- 
ing for establishing at once a unity of standard for the composition 
of the principal preparations of the Pharmacopoeias of the English- 
speaking people, and this notwithstanding the radical differences be- 
tween the systems of weights and measures in Great Britain and in 
this country respectively. 

The expedient needed to be adopted being no other than for the 
United States and British pharmacopoeial authorities to unite in 
putting into force the rule established by the Scandinavian nations 
,at their international convention held in 1865, when the pharma- 
copoeias of Norway, Sweden and Denmark were unified, and which 
rule is to express the relative quantities used in pharmacy in 
proportional parts by weight, as e. g., two parts by any system of 
weight of the first ingredient, four of the second and one of the 
third, etc., thus securing like relative proportions in all standard 
compounds. 

At the U. S. Pharmacopoeial convention, which met at Washington 
in 1870, the following resolution of like import was ordered to be 
taken as a basis for the last decennial revision of our Pharmacopoeia ; 
but, for some reason never satisfactorily made known, the Committee 
on Revision appears to have disregarded its plain provisions : 

"Resolved, That measures of capacity be abandoned in the Pharmacopoeia 
and that quantities in all formulas be expressed both in weights and in parts 
by weight." 

The consolidation already effected of the London, Dublin and 
Edinburgh in the British Pharmacepoeia, the several Pharmacopoeias 
of Central Europe constituting the German Empire and some others 
all tend to assure the practicability, as well as to suggest the advisa- 
bility, of the step here proposed. 

The advantages to be obtained by an internatinnal adjustment of 
at least the two Pharmacopoeias in question, so that a given name 
shall indicate a preparation identical in composition and strength in 



.PHARMj Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 321 



July 1, 18'i 



both countries, are obviously many and important. The objections 
to such a change few and insignificant.* 



THE PROBLEMS AND FUTURE OF PHARMACY IN GERMANY, 
By Fred. Hoffmann, Ph. D. 

It appears to be of interest and utility to take notice of the prob- 
lems which are now being discussed in Germany, where pharmacy 
has been, for over two centuries, the main cultivator of natural sciences,, 
and as such, and as a branch of the healing art, has attained a position 
not reached in any other country, and where not only its sphere and 
import, but even its very existence seems to be at stake. Though 
the political, social and industrial conditions of Germany and the 
other European countries differ in many respects from those of North 
America, it will be found that the aims and interests of pharmacy,, 
and its relations to other trades, are the same everywhere ; and for 
this reason, the crisis into which pharmacy has entered in Germany^ 
merits a wider attention. With the radical changes of popular views,, 
in consequence of general intellectual advancement and the popular- 
ization of all branches of physical and sanitary sciences and of 
rational medicine, the former state and practice of medicine, and also 
of pharmacy, have undergone considerable changes in Germany anci 
in Central Europe. Although difficult to comprehend outside of Ger- 
many, the most important necessary consequence has been the removal 
of all restrictions formerly placed, on the part of the State, upon the 
practice of medicine and hygiene, in Germany as well as in Switzer- 
land. Medicine, in consequence of its extent and its unlimited sphere 
of application, has separated into several parts, which in study as 
well as in practice, have more or less become specialties, while some 
branches have become the common property of all well educated, and 
have occasionally been successfully practised also by others than physi- 
cians. Notwithstanding these innovations, modern medicine pro- 
gresses ; "with the higher aim that its object is not so much the cure, as; 
rather the prevention of disease." (Virchow.) As another conse- 
quence of these tendencies the fact was lately stated, that "modern 
medicine has ceased to resort to and find its centre of gravity in the 

* Dr. Thomas will be glad to collect suggestions from those interested, as to 
the best and most direct steps to betaken to secure the desired result. His 
address is 108 N. Twelfth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
20 



322 Future of Pharmacy in Germany. { AM jJf™;5?f^ 

pharmacies." (Pettenkofer.) How far these assertions represent 
the reality, may be judged not only from the pharmaceutical papers, 
but far better from the number and quality of popular science publi- 
cations covering the field of hygiene and sanitary and medical 
sciences ; the widely-known popular works which have passed through 
many editions and translations, of Professors Bock and Reclam, of 
Leipzig, may be mentioned as instances. 

The'medical schools have skeptically discarded a large portion of 
the^old array of remedial agents, and retained comparatively few sub- 
stances of certain chemical composition and hence proportionable 
with exactness ; these are more and more administered by subcuta- 
neous injection or in minute concentrated doses, and in forms which 
are more handsomely prepared by the confectioner than the apothe- 
cary, while the preparation of the chemicals has been transferred 
from the laboratory of the latter to that of the manufacturer,* so 
that the sphere of the apothecary has been materially narrowed and 
simplified, and a chemical knowledge, though always desirable, is not 
in|the same degree requisite as heretofore. 

When, therefore, we hear of a decline of pharmacy and of a de- 
crease of its efficiency in Germany and other European countries, as 
yet not" a degeneration of pharmaceutical education and proficiency, 
nor of the status of pharmacy, is intended ; but principally the reac- 
tion of the conditions briefly sketched above upon pharmacy. An 
increased medical skepticism and a lessening in the public mind of 
the value of remedies must certainly be followed by the lowering 
of the importance of pharmacy. Medicine cannot well be subject to 
such a retrogression, because its successful practice lies in an unalter- 
able path, concerning the instability of human nature and life, and 
presupposes, besides actual knowledge, an individual fitness, technical 
skill, experience and judgment, with which the educated physician 
can always successfully encounter the ignorant or half educated 
competitor, while the competition amongst pharmacists scarcely exists 
upon the scientific, but almost exclusively upon the mercantile field. 

The future status of pharmacy in Germany, as influenced by these 
factors, and in consequence of the rapid intercourse of nations and 
the generalization of ideas, their influence upon pharmacy in other 

* See synopsis of lecture in Druggists' Circular, 1874, March, p. 57 ; and 
Pharm.Jour. and Trans., March 28. 1874, p. 781 ; also Prof. Redwood's lecture 
on the "Past, Present and Future of Pharmacy." Ibid., April 25, 1874, p. 863. 



AM juiTi;ml RM } Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 323 

countries has been for some time the subject of deliberations in the 
pharmaceutical journals and in the meetings of pharmaceutical 
societies. To this must be added the pending abrogation of the pro- 
tective grants, an institution antiquated in its origin and nature, 
but whi<m has been one of the most important factors through 
which German pharmacy has reached its high status and its pregnant 
co-operation in the advancement of the physical sciences. The 
nature of these grants has been explained by me in a former paper, 
entitled " Pharmacy in Prussia and the German Empire."* Latterly, 
besides many reforms in relation to arts and industry, the grants 
and concessions have been abolished, and since the release of the 
practice of medicine, that of pharmacy appears to be merely a ques- 
tion of time and a financial problem, the solution of which is attended 
with so many difficulties, because upon these grants large amounts 
have been invested, which, with the legal abolition of the former, 
would be lost as far as they exceed the real value of the business. 
This question of national economy, which is now being discussed 
and is under consideration before the government and the legisla- 
ture (Reichstag) in Germany, has been apparently satisfactorily 
solved in Sweden in this manner, that every newly established 
pharmacy has to contribute a certain sum, in accordance with fixed 
principles of valuation, towards the redemption of the capital invested 
in pharmacies, as far as its value is lessened in the same place. It 
is probable that a similar way will be chosen in Germany for the 
inevitable solution of this problem. 

These are, in brief, the principal causes of impediment to the progress 
and prosperity of pharmacy in Germany, and which have tended to 
keep talent and capital from being invested in pharmaceutical pur. 
suits, and to induce many young and promising pharmacists to leave 
their chosen avocation for others more remunerative. 

Among the recent publications on this subject, those of three 
pharmaceutical authorities, equally prominent by experience, knowl- 
edge and standing, have attracted a wide attention, namely, those of 
Professor Dr. Phoebus, of Giessen,f of Professor Dr. Hlasiwetz, of 
Vienna, and of Mr. W. Danckwortt, of Magdeburg, formerly Chief 
Director of the North German Apothecaries' Association. The fol- 
lowing synopsis of the remarks of the two last-named men may 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, 187L, p. 389. 
f Pharmac. Zeitung, Nos. 17, 35, 47, 67, 85 and 89, 1873. 



324 Future of Pharmacy in Germany. { AM jui°y T, m A 4 M ' 

serve to elucidate more fully their views of these vital questions and 
their bearings upon the future of pharmacy in Germany. 

Prof. Hlasiwetz, formerly an apothecary, now Professor of the 
Imperial Polytechnic School of Vienna, in a recent lecture on 
Modern Pharmacy,"* said ih substance : 

" Until recently, chemistry had its ablest and most useful represen- 
tatives among the pharmacists, and for a long time this profession 
has pre-eminently supplied the chairs of chemistry of the universities 
with professors to whom we owe the vast amount of labor and dis- 
coveries which were necessary to bring practical and theoretical 
chemistry to its present scope and position. But this has greatly 
changed by degrees, the consequent rapid progress has called forth a 
chemical industry of the most varied description and extent, which, 
in its rapid strides has substituted the methods of manufacturing on a 
large and commercial scale for those on a small scale in the labora- 
tory of the pharmacist. This change in the scope and drift of phar- 
macy has deprived the pharmacist of one of the principal objects 
and profits of his legitimate business, and since the fact has become 
fully established that he cannot enter into competition with the manu- 
facturer, neither in regard to quality or price, there is nothing left 
to his share than to dispose and retail the products of the former. 
Not only the whole series of medicinal chemicals and alkaloids are 
now supplied by the manufacturer cheaper and, as regards the latter 
substances, better, but also those pharmaceutical preparations which 
belong pre-eminently to the province of the pharmacist ; as, for in- 
stance, fluid extracts, tinctures, syrups, ointments, plasters, etc. 

" Since the inauguration of this sweeping change dates the decline 
of the so-called pharmaceutical chemistry, and all that the pharma- 
cist yet applies is a moderate degree of analytical skill for the estab- 
lishment of the identity and quality of the preparations as supplied 
by the manufacturer. And even this limited sphere of proficiency is 
encroached upon by the manufacturers by offering on the labels of 
their preparations brief instruction for ready tests, and by supplying 
pure and ready-made reagents, so that the tests may be made by any 
skilled and informed person. 

" Our schools and universities still furnish a sound pharmaceutical 
education and a stock of chemical knowledge ; but the truth is that 



* Pharraac. Zeitung, No. 8, 1874. 



AM jui°y U i,'i P 874 RM } Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 325 

these attainments, as a rule, do not bring fruit, for the reason that 
pharmaceutical practice has ceased to afford any longer the former 
•compass and opportunity of application, nor a sufficient impetus to 
practically cultivate the acquired proficiency. 

* ■ Moreover, the advanced state of rational medicine has discontinued 
the use of many remedial agents, and has greatly limited not only 
the list of materia medica, but also the former liberal administration 
of medicines ; the consequence of this restriction is a decrease of the 
legitimate business and income of the pharmaceutist ; being formerly 
a remunerative pursuit, it hardly furnishes, any longer, a respectable 
living to a great many highly-educated men, and we see, therefore, 
the pharmacist enter more and more upon mercantile resources for 
subsistence, with the aim to gain, on the other hand, as a dealer, what 
the professional scope of his business falls short to supply ; he en- 
riches his stock with homoeopathic and with patent medicines, and 
enters into competition with the dealer in fancy articles, with the 
perfumer, the confectioner, etc. 

" The business of the pharmacist depends for the future largely upon 
the drift of the manufacturing business, which, when it should also 
extend its aim and scope to the production of the medicinal sub- 
stances in ready-dosed and elegantly-prepared forms, will deprive 
the pharmacist, more or less, from the last remnant of his proficiency. 
This inroad has already commenced, and bids fair way to an increas- 
ing extent and to success ; it tends to relieve the physician from the 
necessity of prescribing so many grains of Dover's powder, of quinia, 
of calomel, etc., to be rubbed up with sugar and divided into so many 
doses ; he will merely have to direct, his patient to buy a number of 
dosed capsules or tablets. He will soon find all the chief formulae of 
his dispensatory provided in elegant forms and envelopes, disguising 
smell and taste, and both the physician and the patient will gladly dis- 
pense with the old, repulsive forms of mixtures, decoctions, powders, etc. 
The great number of vegetable drugs of uncertain value and variable 
quality, will be discarded, and will be replaced by the active princi- 
ples, obtained from them in a pure and stable form, so that the materia 
medica of the rational physician will henceforth be like that of the 
homoeopathist, ready prepared and dosed, and all emanating from the 
manufacturing establishment. 

"When system and method will extend and consummate this mode 
of administration of the remedial agents, nothing will be left of the 



326 



Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July 1, 1874. 



pursuit of the pharmacist than a retail dealer of the products of the 
manufacturer of medicinal articles." 

Mr. W. Danckwortt expresses himself in an article " On the Future 
of Pharmacies,"* thus: "I believe that after forty years pharmacy 
will have greatly changed its physiognomy ; I do not entertain pes- 
simistic views, and consider it an honor to have served for forty years 
in a profession which I esteem highly, but when I compare its pre- 
sent condition and prospects with those of forty years ago, I cannot 
but admit that pharmacy is on the decline, and will henceforth de- 
generate far more rapidly. But thirty years ago chemistry and 
botany were pre-eminently the sciences of the pharmacist ; Berzelius r 
H. Rose, Liebig, Fresenius, Berg, Henkel, Mohr, and many others 
of equal fame, emanated from pharmacy. Now-a-days, chemistry 
has grown in extent and volume so vastly, and its practical applica- 
tion embraces such a wide compass, as completely to leave behind 
the pharmacist's sphere. Yet the pharmacist has maintained a com- 
paratively high status of chemical knowledge and learning, and a 
comparatively wide compass of attainment is still required from him. 
But the fact is that these accomplishments have to be attained mainly 
to enable him to pass the examination which the State makes yet 
obligatory ; after this, he has not any more the old arena to practi- 
cally apply and profitably enlist his attainments, nor the former im- 
petus, so that, in many cases, the knowledge acquired at the univer- 
sities is gradually lost for want of application and encouragement. 
Formerly, the pharmaceutist used to be the legitimate expert in all 
forensic investigations; now the extent of knowledge and experience 
required are such as to exclude him in preference of the professional 
chemist. The pharmaceutical laboratory of yore has become a myth, 
and we must admit that most of the medicinal chemicals and pharma- 
ceutical preparations can be obtained cheaper and better when manu- 
factured on a large scale ; many of them are now furnished by the 
manufacturer already dosed and labelled for ready dispensation and 
retail sale. And when we compare the prescriptions of our days with 
those of forty years ago, what a change, what a remarkable simplifi- 
cation ! The whole array of the old-fashioned decoctions, infusions 
and mixtures have been discarded ; morphia, codeia, quinia, digi- 
talin, chloral-hydrate, atropia, and a number of other principles are 
the consummation of materia medica, and even the prescriptions for 

* Pharmaceut. Zeit., No. 20, 1874. 



AM ju J ]yM8 H 74 RM '} Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 327 

these disappear more and more from the pharmacies, inasmuch as the 
physician carries their minimal solutions in his pocket for ready ad- 
ministration by subcutaneous injection, or orders them in tablets or 
sugar granules as supplied by the manufacturer or confectioner in 
lieu of the pharmacist. 

" Moreover, the rapid progress of general culture, of the knowl- 
edge of the rational principles of life and health and the conditions 
of their maintenance, of the sanitary sciences and of hygiene and 
medicine, exercise a considerable influence upon the decrease of the 
use of medicines, for it cannot be denied that knowledge and culture 
counteract the principles and conditions upon which, to a great ex- 
tent, the prosperity of pharmacy rests. 

"When we have witnessed such changes within the comparatively 
brief space of forty years, who has the assurance to predict what, or 
if anything, will be left of pharmacy after another equally progressive 
lapse of forty years ?" 

It is not the aim of this essay to parallel the conditions and pros- 
pects of American pharmacy with those just described, nor to deter- 
mine whether and how soon the same questions may come up here, or 
whether the present state of American pharmacy really justifies the 
exalted views of the future, as occasionally expressed in valedictories 
and similar addresses. In its trade relation it has practically the 
advantage over German pharmacy, inasmuch as it still stands upon 
the basis of a commercial trade, and cannot therefore be injured 
in a similar manner by being displaced from a professional basis^ 
secured by a noble career of usefulness and achievements through 
more than two centuries. 

As a natural consequence of the growth and extent of sciences,, 
and the increase and diffusion of learning and a correcter knowledge of 
nature, which is the tendency of modern times, we must view the fact 
that an enhanced general, as well as special, education is becoming 
more necessary in all pursuits and gives the impulse to innovations 
and reforms, particularly in those pursuits which are based upon the 
knowledge of the laws of nature, and upon the application of the 
principles of physical and sanitary sciences, and that this agitation 
is felt in medicine and pharmacy, precisely as in other circles. 

After the first abortive legislative attempt in several States of our 
Union in demanding directly, and without previous preparation, a 
higher qualification, the education of pharmacists, and in consequence 



( 



328 Future of Pharmacy in Germany. { AM jui°y ljis™' 

thereof a superior status of pharmacy, have made successful progress, 
and increased facilities for attaining this aim have been inaugurated 
by the establishment of, and increased attendance at, the various 
pharmaceutical schools.* In this advance movement, pharmacy 
stands, however, by no means alone ; generalization and unity of 
sciences on the one hand, and education, scientific knowledge and 
higher intellectual culture on the other, are, as already stated, the 
•demands of our time, and this tendency pervades in our country, also 
all classes of its population and all pursuits, and is practically exem- 
plified in the increase and prosperity of all higher educational insti- 
tutions, — the medical, polytechnic, commercial and other colleges, — 
and in the entire literature of the present day. 

Pharmacy in this country will therefore, probably meet with fewer 
difficulties on its high road to improvement, and the less so, as it is in 
the happy position of profiting by the pharmaceutical experience and 
acquisitions of older countries, and particularly of Germany, without 
(having to undergo the struggles and errors of its gradual develop- 
ment extending over two centuries. The problems which it will 
inevitably have to encounter with the progress of time and civilization, 
I have briefly referred to above, and they are more fully stated in 
Mr. Danckwortt's and Prof. Hlasiwetz's papers ;. aside from other 
more technical and less important arguments, they have been felt 
here likewise for some time, and have been repeatedly and timely ex- 
pressed^ but appear not to have received due consideration. 

The lively interest taken by the American people in progress and 
the questions of the times, its acceptation for new ideas and their prac- 

*Xf no other, at least one result of high value must be acknowledged to be 
due to the continued agitation for, and the enactment of, laws regulating the^ 
practice of pharmacy, namely, the increased attendance of the pharmaceutical 
pupils at the courses of the colleges of pharmacy. Although this attendance 
is not yet dependent upon a preliminary examination and qualification, and 
though the want of sufficient primary education and knowledge is a priori pre- 
judicial to the full value of a course of theoretical study compressed into so 
short a time, capable and assiduous young men will find at least the path 
pointed out, and receive the incitement for the further acquisition of knowledge, 
while American pharmacy will, for the next generation, be supplied with new 
productive heads and hands for its scientific continuance. 

f Dan. C. Robbins, Annual Address, Proceedings Alumni Association, N . 
Y. Coll. Pharm., 1872, p. 34 and ibid., 1873, p. 30. 

Chas. C. Fredigke, in Chicago Pharmacist, 1874, p. 36, and Am. Journ. 
Pharm., 1874, pp. 209 and 205. 

Dr. Streit, in Chicago Pharmacist, 1874, p. 72. 



AM j u J i°™; i P 8h rm } Future of Pharmacy in Germany. 329 

tical application leave no doubt that the modern popularized teachings 
of hygiene and of the sanitary and medical sciences, which are promul- 
gated by the advanced schools of medicine and by popular literature,* 
as well as of medical skepticism will here find a fruitful soil, just as 
homoeopathy has found its adherents not merely among the ignorant, 
but rather among the wealthier and educated classes of society. The 
consequences of such a popularization of a correcter knowledge of 
hygiene and of rational methods of preventing, preserving and restor- 
ing health without the former resort to unwise and excessive medica- 
tion, must be the same here as in Europe, as far as the material 
emoluments of the pharmaceutical pursuit are concerned, and inasmuch 
as they will in time greatly diminish the income of the pharmacist, 
they will also be in direct antagonism with the demands of modern 
times for higher education, which requires increased expenditure of 
time, labor and money. All legislative restrictions and regulations 
will prove one-sided and without real and permanent value, as long 
as they aim to raise the claims for a higher qualification and standard 
only, without affording, on the other hand, some guarantee for a sure 
and remunerative application of the higher proficiency, and for the 
conditions necessary for the material prosperity of the practice of 
pharmacy. Compared to the physician and the tradesman, the phar- 
macist occupies an exceptional position ; the former applies his indi- 
vidual knowledge and skill without investment of capital or risk, and 
without any restriction ; the merchant chooses his wares according to 
demand and want, and can control his investments quantitatively and 
qualitatively ; he employs laborers or clerks with less knowledge and 
without responsibility ; his wares usually retain their value, and are 
less prone to deterioration. In this material age and concrete and 
practical country of ours, there cannot be expected for any length of 
time, an acquisition of talent and skill, or a permanent and steady 
elevation of a calling whose resources appear to be everywhere on the 
decline, f and which involves an amount of time, resignation and re- 

*The Sanitarian, the Herald of Health, and the Journal of Health, are 
monthlies published in New York. See, also, the annual Proceedings of the 
American Public Health Association: also, Youman's Popular Science 
Monthly, No. 10, p. 422 ; No. 12, p. 665 ; No. 22, p. 421, and numerous similar 
publications. 

t The practice of our profession is becoming more arduous, — its scientific re- 
lations more complicated as civilization and science advance, while its legitima e 
rewards diminish, because the scope of the business contracts, while compe- 



330 



Gleanings. 



( AM. JOUR. PHA.RM, 

1 July 1, 1874. 



sponsibilitj as no other pursuit requiring a similar amount of learn- 
ing, and which, for superior attainments and proficiency, does not offer 
an adequate equivalent in the shape of pecuniary compensation. 

These are some of the problems which American pharmacy will 
likewise have to encounter sooner or later, and in the discussions of 
which the recourse to the whole truth will unquestionably prove the 
best remedy for the evils of imperfectly stated truth. They certainly 
deserve earnest consideration and invite our congenial interest in the 
pending strives of pharmacy in Germany for its existence and con- 
tinuance. Whatever may be the future fate of pharmacy, that of Conti- 
nental Europe has the high merit of having fulfilled its mission of 
culture, and particularly in developing and applying the natural 
sciences, and mainly chemistry, and that its achievements are not 
perishable, but on the contrary will forever be useful in the further 
evolution of the healing art and of applied chemistry in general. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Detection of Turpentine in Liquid Storax. Hager recommends to 
fuse the storax in a test-tube placed in a water-bath, to add half its 
volume of absolute alcohol, and effect solution by agitation; this is 
then agitated with several times its volume of petroleum benzin, and 
the operation repeated twice. The decanted benzin solutions are 
united and evaporated in a water-bath, from a tared vessel. The 
residue should weigh 45 to 55 per cent, of the storax ; it should be 
colorless, with a bluish opalescence, and of an agreeable odor. If 
turpentine be present, the residue will be yellowish, of the odor of 
the turpentine, and larger in weight. — Pharm. Centr. Halle, 1874, 
No. 21. 

The Volatile Oil of the Root of Spircea ulmaria is not salicylous 
acid, as stated by Wicke a number of years ago ; Dr. R. Nietzki 
found it to be a compound ether of salicylic acid, which is heavier 
than water, has the odor of gaultheria oil, and is probably identical 
with it. 20 lbs. of the fresh root yielded, on distillation with coho- 

tition increases and it is evident that, unless we can arrest or overcome these, 
we cannot long retain in our .ranks a superior or desirable personnel. The 
character of any pursuit depends upon the men who fill it, and we cannot have 
men of culture and attainments unless they are adequately rewarded. (D. 0. 
Robbins, annual address, N. Y. Alumni Assoc., 1872-73.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1874. J 



Gleanings. 



331 



bation, little more than one gram of the oil, which is contained in the 
rhizome as well as in the rootlets. The flowers, it will be remem- 
bered, contain salicylous with salicylic acid. — Arcliiv d. Pharm. 7 
1874, May, 429-433. 

A New Method for the Estimation of Tannin has been proposed by 
A. Terreil ; it is based upon the absorption of oxygen by tannin in 
the presence of alkali ; and, from the quantity absorbed, which is de- 
termined by measuring it in a graduated cylinder, the amount of tan- 
nin is readily calculated. The author found that 04 gram of tannin 
absorbs 20 cubic centimetres of oxygen. The apparatus and manip- 
ulation is described in Journal de Pharm. et de Chim., 1874, June, 
p. 445-447. Although vegetables contain other principles which, 
like tannin, absorb oxygen, the author believes the process to be suf- 
ficiently accurate for technical purposes. 

Artificial Vanillin has been prepared by Tiemann and Haarmann 
from coniferin, by heating its aqueous solution with a mixture of 
bichromate of potassium and sulphuric acid in a flask connected with 
a backflowing cooler. After cooling, a little resin is separated by 
filtration, and the liquid is agitated with ether ; on evaporation, a 
yellow oil is left, which crystallizes in a few days. After treat- 
ment with animal charcoal and recrystallization from water, beautiful 
crystals, with the odor and taste of vanilla, are obtained, which fuse 
at about 80° C. (176° F.), are readily soluble in ether and alcohol, 
sparingly soluble in cold, more readily in hot water. Analysis gave 
results agreeing with the formula C 8 H 8 3 . Carefully heated, it sub- 
limes without decomposition ; it has a strong acid reaction, and gives 
with bases well-characterized salts. — Pharm. Zeitung. 1874, No. 41 ? 
from Per. d. d. Gresellschaft. 

Volatile Oil of Tropo?olum majus. A. W. Hofmann found that the 
portion of this volatile oil commencing to boil at 160° C. had a disa- 
greeable odor and contained sulphur. The largest portion, distilling 
at 226° C. (377° F.), has the formula C 8 H 7 N and is the nitrile of 
phenylacetic acid. — Per. d. d. Ohem. Gres. f 1874, p. 518. 

The Volatile Oil of Nasturtium officinale is, according to A. W. 
Hofmann, a mixture which commences to boil at 120° C. The main 
portion is obtained at 261° C. (440° F.), and has at 18° C. the spe- 
cific gravity 1 -0014 ; it is the nitrile of phenylpropionic acid, and 
has the composition C 9 H 9 N. — Ibid,, p. 520. 



332 



Detection of Aloes. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July 1, 1874. 



The Volatile Oil of Cochlearia officinalis was found by A. W. Hof- 
mann to be the mustard oil of the butylic series, having the compo- 
sition C 5 H 9 NC = C 4 H 9 , CS, N. It was obtained synthetically, not 
from the normal, but from the secondary butylic alcohol (methyl-ethyl- 
oarbinol), and had then the characteristic odor of the plant, a specific 
gravity of -944 at 12°, and a boiling-point of 159-5° C. (ol9° F.) — 
Ibid., 508-514. 

A Very Active Preparation of Ergot, which is particularly adapted 
for subcutaneous injection, is suggested by Dr. Wernich, of Berlin, 
who proposes to exhaust the ergot with ether, strong alcohol, and 
finally with water ; the infusion is then dialyzed through parchment 
paper, and the solution evaporated; this extract, after acidulation 
with sulphuric acid, was mostly soluble in alcohol, and when again 
carefully neutralized by soda, yielded to weak alcohol all its active 
properties. Subcutaneously injected, the author obtained good results 
promptly, and the inconveniences attending the hypodermic use were 
slight and disappeared rapidly. — Apothekerzeitung, 1874, No. 17. 



ON THE DETECTION OF ALOES AND OTHER BITTER DRUGS. 

By 0. Bach * 

The difficulty of analyzing many nostrums has induced the author 
to make a series of experiments and to study particularly the ana- 
lytical relations of the bitter principles of aloes, colocynth, worm- 
wood, gentian, agaric, scammony and jalap resin. The active princi- 
ples of the first four are soluble in water ; of the others, those of 
agaric and scammony dissolve in ether, jalap resin remaining insolu- 
ble in both menstrua. 

An aqueous solution of aloes yields with sugar of lead a volumi- 
nous yellow precipitate, with mercurous nitrate, after some time, a pul- 
verulent dirty-colored precipitate. The aqueous infusion of colocynth 
yields with mercurous nitrate a flocculent, afterwards gray precipi- 
tate, conglomerating on boiling; dissolved in nitric acid and treated 
with ammonia, the filtrate is golden-yellow, and after evaporation to 
dryness, insoluble in acetic acid, but colored bright-red with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid at a moderate heat, and cherry-red with 
Froehde's test (cone, sulphuric acid, 1 c.c. ; molybdate of sodium. 



* Condensed from "Journal fiir praktische Chernie," 1874, p. 188-193. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1874. J 



Detection of Aloes. 



333 



•001 gram). Wormwood is soluble in water, with a brown color ; it 
gives with mercurous nitrate a dirty-yellow precipitate, becoming 
gray on boiling ; with subacetate of lead a brown-yellow, and with 
acetate of barium a brown precipitate; H 2 S0 4 colors wormwood 
brown, Froehde's test at first brown, becoming green, and finally 
violet. Gentian yields a yellowish opalescent infusion, producing 
with mercurous nitrate, after some time, a very slight pulverulent 
precipitate ; with acetate of barium from ammoniacal solution a floe- 
culent precipitate, which yields with H 2 S0 4 and HN0 3 a yellow, and 
with potassa a handsome golden-yellow solution. The resinous por- 
tion of agaric is soluble in alcohol and partly in hot water, yielding 
with the latter an opalescent liquid ; also in solution of soda, from 
which it is reprecipitated by acids. It is insoluble even in warm 
HN0 3 . Cold H 2 S0 4 dissolves it, with an orange color, becoming 
brown on heating ; nitric acid added to this solution causes decolora- 
tion and separates colorless floccules. Scammony dissolves with diffi- 
culty* in ether, separating white flocks ; readily in alcohol, with a 
greenish-yellow color ; insoluble in solution of sodium carbonate, 
swelling to a yellow mass in nitric acid, readily soluble in H 2 S0 4y 
being orange-colored at first, and becoming cherry-red after some 
time. Jalap resin is insoluble in water and ether, H 2 S0 4 gives a 
brown solution, becoming blood-red after awhile and emitting the 
peculiar odor of jalap. 

On examining a medicine for any of the above substances, it is, if 
necessary, evaporated to dryness, extracted with alcohol, and again 
evaporated. The dry powdered residue is exhausted with cold water, 
if necessary, concentrated by evaporation in a water-bath, cooled^ 
treated with mercurous nitrate in excess, rapidly filtered and washed. 
The precipitate is dissolved in warm diluted nitric acid, when colo- 
cynth will be indicated by the yellow color of the liquid and some 
insoluble flocks ; in the presence of wormwood the flocks are scarcely 
recognizable, and the liquid is brown. Excess of ammonia precipi- 
tates the mercury, but dissolves colocynth and wormwood. The fil- 
trate is evaporated to dryness and treated with warm acetic acid ; 
wormwood will be dissolved, and colocynth remains behind, the latter 
giving with II 2 S0 4 and with Froehde's reagent the above-mentioned 
color reactions. The acetic solution, on evaporation, leaves a yellow- 
ish-brown residue, to be identified by Froehde's test as stated above. 
* ? Editor Amer. Journ. Pharm. 



334 Adulteration of Port Wine. { AM j^; 

The filtrate from the mercurous precipitate is treated with ammo- 
nia, filtered and acetate of barium added ; a precipitate indicates 
gentian, an orange-red color of the liquid points to aloes. After 
evaporation to dryness, the residue is exhausted with alcohol, the 
liquid evaporated, and the residue treated with warm HN0 3 . The 
yellowish-red solution is evaporated to dryness and dissolved in little 
water, when it will yield a blood-red solution with potassa and glu- 
cose, if aloes be present. The precipitate obtained by acetate of 
barium, containing gentian, is exhausted with alcohol, evaporated and 
treated with H 2 S0 4 , HN0 3 or HKO as above. 

The residue of the original substance left after treatment with 
water may contain the resins of agaric, scammony and jalap; to sep- 
arate them it is treated with ether, the solution evaporated, and the 
residue treated with warm solution sodium carbonate. If scammony be 
present, a residue will be left, swelling with HN0 3 to a yellow mass, but 
soluble in H 2 S0 4 , with an orange- red color, becoming blood-red on stand- 
ing. The soda solution is precipitated with an acid ; the resin of 
agaric is insoluble in HN0 3 , but dissolves in H 2 S0 4 , with an orange 
color. 

The resin of jalap, remaining behind after treatment with water 
and ether, is recognized by its behavior to H 2 S0 4 , as given above. 



A NEW ADULTERATION OF PORT WINE. 
By E. B. Shuttleworth. 

Having recently had occasion to test a number of samples of port 
wine, I principally directed my attention to the detection of foreign 
coloring matter as affording the best evidence of falsification. On 
applying the test recommended by Lapeyrere,* five out of the four- 
teen samples examined gave colorations differing from the remaining 
nine. This test appears to be of some value, but I have no doubt 
that considerable experience is required before a definite and satisfac- 
tory conclusion can be arrived at. Filtering paper is saturated with 
a solution of acetate of copper, dried, and dipped in the suspected 
wine. If genuine, a grayish rose-red color is produced. Logwood is 
said to give a distinct sky-blue, while other coloring matters give 
modifications of the original natural tint. 

On examining by the spectroscope, the nine samples before al- 
luded to, the spectra produced showed no special characteristics, and 
* Jour, de Pharm. et de Chimie. 



A Vu°iy R i,mT-} Adulteration of Pareira Boot, 335 

this would go to confirm the statements of Sorby* and Phipsonf who 
found that the coloring matter of the grape gave no absorption 
bands, but only a general darkening of the spectrum. The five re- 
maining samples of wine gave decidedly different spectra, and one of 
them so peculiar that I was led to suspect the presence of fuchsin. 

A further examination by other tests rendered this fact unmistake- 
ably evident, and I have since ascertained that a mixture of magenta 
and a blue coloring matter known to the trade as azalin, are largely 
employed for the purpose of coloring cheap made-up wines. These 
colors are put up and sold by the dealers in wine and spirit doctoring 
materials, and are sold at exorbitant prices. 

In order to detect the adulteration, I have found the following 
method to be satisfactory, and very easy of application. To a portion 
of the suspected wine, placed in a test tube, add an equal volume of 
fusel oil ; agitate well and allow the mixture to separate, when, if ma- 
genta be present, the supernatant layer will be more or less tinctured 
of a characceristic pink or purple color. Genuine port, when so 
treated, does not impart to fusel oil any of its color, so that the 
slightest coloration may be taken as certain evidence of adulteration. 
If amylic alcohol be not at hand, ether may be substituted, but does 
not answer nearly so well. 

Considering the dark color which factitious port must be made to 
assume, and the large quantity of such wine that is liable to be taken 
at one sitting, it is evident that the presence of these poisonous col- 
oring matters might produce serious, if not fatal results. — Canadian 
Pharm. Journ., June, 1874. 



NOTE ON A SOPHISTICATION OF PAREIRA ROOT. 
By John Moss, F .C. S. 
Late Demonstrator in the Laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society. 
It was my intention, at the last evening meeting of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society, to have brought before the notice of the members 
present a sophistication of pareira brava which has not, so far as I 
know, been previously announced. With this object two specimens 
had been placed on the table, but the press of other matter crowded 
out every opportunity of speaking about them. 

* Jour, of Microscopical Science, Vol. ix, p. 338. 
f Jour, of Chem. Soc, Feb., 1870. 



336 



Permanganate of Zinc. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July 1, 1874. 



The specimens were taken from a bale of pareira brava, the con- 
tents of which were professedly the root only of Chondodendron 
tomentosum ; a cursory inspection, however, was sufficient to show 
the presence of two totally different structures. One of these, 
which is hard, heavy, and of a dark-brown color, is plainly the root 
described by Mr. Daniel Hanbury ;* the other, which is lighter in 
weight, paler in color, and much less compact in texture, is as evidently 
a stem — for the majority of pieces are covered with an easily seen 
bark, the hue of which is variegated by whitish patches of micro- 
scopic lichens and occasional green tufts of moss. A comparison of 
this stem with an authenticated specimen in the museum of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, leaves no doubt that it is deriveed from 0. 
tomentosum. On the pieces of stem presented by Messrs. Corbyn 
& Co., the characteristic warts were shown in a marked manner. 

The stem is sickly sweet, yet slightly bitter in taste. In the root 
the bitter taste is very much intensified, and indeed predominates 
over every other. This difference is best noticed by appropriate 
comparison of the respective infusions. 

The object of this note is to induce pharmacists to examine their 
stock of pareira, and so prevent the substitution for the root, of the 
much less active, if not altogether inert, stem. In my opinion, few 
parcels will be found free from the admixture here described ; in the 
first place, the admixture occurs in the original packages, and in the 
second, it is very unlikely that experience of this kind is confined to 
one house. I may say, in conclusion, that two bales, the aggregate 
of which were 137 pounds, gave 73 pounds of stem — over 50 per 
cent. — London Pharm. Journal, May 16, p. 911. 

PERMANGANATE OF ZINC. 
By Huskisson Adrian, F. C. S. 
A recent report of the Medical College of Berlin contains an ac- 
count of the use of this salt for injections. It is stated to be much 
more effective than sulphate of zinc. The following is the usual 
method of preparing it : Permanganate of silver is thrown down by 
mixing hot concentrated solutions of permanganate of potash and 
nitrate of silver, and is afterwards levigated with a solution of chloride 
of zinc. The chloride of silver is then separated, and the perman- 

* Pharm. Journ., Aug. 2, 1873, p. 81, and Aug. 9, p. 102. American Jour. 
Phar., 1873, p. 449. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1874. J 



Preparations of Phosphorus. 



ganate of zinc is obtained by concentrating the solution cautiously. 
It will be seen that this is a troublesome and wasteful process ; but I 
have not yet been able to find one to replace it with advantage. To 
neutralize permanganic acid with carbonate of zinc sounds easy, but 
this acid has an unpleasant habit of exploding when prepared in the 
usual way from the permanganate of potash. A modification, also, 
of the process for making this last-named salt has not given me satis- 
factory results. 

Permanganate of zinc is a dark-red crystalline powder, similar in 
its general properties to the potash salt. The maximum strength in 
which I have have heard of its administration is one grain to an ounce 
of water. Linen dipped into a solution of this strength is stained 
pink ; but the color fades within five minutes to a light-brown, hardly 
perceptible. 

The report to which I have already alluded contains a pathetic 
account of how some manufacturer imported into Prussia, under the 
name of permanganate of zinc, a preparation which turned out to be 
sulphate of zinc colored with permanganate of potash. I find by ex- 
periment that a mixture of one part of powdered sulphate of zinc with 
two parts of permanganate of potash makes an excellent imitation of 
the zinc salt, although a few drops of a solution of chloride of barium 
expose the fraud at once. I mention the above simple test in case 
the same manufacturer favors English pharmacists also with some 
specimens of his ingenuity. Permanganate of zinc being at present 
sold at twelve times the price of the potash-salt, the motive of the 
substitution is sufficiently obvious. — The Chemist and Druggist [Lon- 
don'], May 15, 1874. 

SOME NEW PREPARATIONS OF PHOSPHORUS WITH GENERAL 
REMARKS AS TO THEIR THERAPEUTICAL VALUE. 
By Dr. Routh. 

In a paper read before the Medical Society of London, April 27, 
1874, the author stated that this was a corollary to his former com- 
munication on " Overwork and Premature Mental Decay." He then 
had mainly spoken of two preparations of phosphorus, viz., the solu- 
tio phosphori medicati, a solution of phosphorus in almond oil, with a 
little mucilage and essential oil of the strength of one-sixth of a grain 
of phosphorus to the drachm ; and the phosphide of zinc, both used 

21 



338 



Preparations of Phosphorus. 



f Am. Jodr. Pharm. 
| July 1, 1874. 



by Mr. Hammond, of New York. In speaking of the effects of phos- 
phorus as a drug, it was best to take this solution as a standard, and 
this pointed out the difference in the action of the other preparations. 
Dr. Routh then spoke of the effects of phosphorus, which were those 
of a stimulant in small doses, sedative, and producing a pleasant sen- 
sation of warmth, relieving neuralgia, and effective against certain 
obstinate skin diseases, such as eczema and acne, and he thought it 
retarded the progress of cancer. It was also an aphrodisiac, and ap- 
peared to improve the mental qualities if deteriorating. In larger 
doses it acted as an acrid poison, the peculiar feature being a burning 
sensation in the mucous tract, and whenever this symptom appeared 
it was a proof that the medicine had been carried far enough. With 
some persons it acted suddenly, producing even after the first dose 
sickness, faintness, and great stomach pain. Idiosyncrasy alone could 
account for this, and possibly decomposition. For these reasons Dr. 
Routh recommends the use of sperm oil, or purified neat's foot, in 
lieu of sweet almond oil ; five drops of this solution added to a tea- 
spoonful of cod-liver oil improves the action of the latter in proper 
cases. The phosphide of zinc has been said to be inert, because 
insoluble, but it is easily assimilated. Rubbed up in a mortar it emits 
the characteristic garlic odor, and burns spontaneously when thrown 
over a flame. It is a weak preparation, and has been safely given in 
doses of one grain three times a day. Like other preparations of 
phosphorus, it is apt to clog up the liver, and must then be suspended 
for a few days. Chloro phosphide of arsenic is prepared by bringing 
pure hydrochloric acid into contact with phosphorus and arsenic in a 
fine state of division. While the phosphide is insoluble the chloro- 
phosphide is very soluble. The solution is of a clear yellow-green 
and pleasant taste. It is decidedly antiperiodic and effective in cases 
of neuralgia. This solution contains 10 grains of arsenic, and 16 J of 
phosphorus to the ounce ; the dose is therefore 3 to 5 minims ter die. 
It can be largely diluted, and the author prefers one that is regulated 
at 15 drops. The syrup of phosphorus contains gr. yoth in the 3i- 
The phosphorus should be added in a pure state, and finely divided 
with caution. It is very nice to the taste ; dose, 20 to 30 min. In 
cases of poisoning by phosphorus, Dr. Routh recommends emetics 
and an antidote in the form of turpentine, and in conclusion remarked 
that the exhilarating effects of the drug gained upon patients, and 
care must be taken lest in this way we introduce a new form of dram- 
drinking. — Med. Press and Circ, May 27, 1874. 



A M. Joor. Phaem. ") 
July 1,1874. J 



Formula for Gharta Sinapis. 



339 



IMPROVED FORMULA FOR CHART A SINAPIS. 
By A. W. Gerrard. 
Dispenser and Teacher of Pharmacy to University College Hospital. 

The formula, given in the "Additions to the Pharmacopcecia," for 
the preparation of mustard paper is unsatisfactory and expensive. 
The proportion of solution of gutta-percha necessary to render the 
ounce of mustard ordered sufficiently fluid for coating is ten drachms. 
This would contain more than a drachm of gutta-percha, which, when 
it is applied to the paper and the chloroform has evaporated, gives 
the surface of the mustard a glossy, varnished app earance. In fact, 
the gutta-percha acts as a varnish, much retarding the absorption of 
moisture and the development of the essential oil upon which the 
activity of the paper depends. Another objection to gutta-percha is 
its insufficient adhesive power, for the coating cracks and peels from 
the paper after but slight handling. 

With the object of remedying these objections, I made a trial of a 
solution of india-rubber in benzol as a menstruum ; for I judged 
from its physical properties much less of this than of gutta-percha 
would be required to keep the particles of mustard cohesive, and at 
the same time the action would be retarded only to a minimum 
degree. I found it well answered my intention. After several ex- 
periments to determine the most suitable proportions, I have adopted 
the following : 

Take of 

Caoutchouc, 1 part. 

Benzol, ...... 49 parts. 

Black mustard, in powder, a sufficiency. 

Dissolve the caoutchouc in the benzol ; then stir in the mustard 
till of a proper consistence for spreading on paper. 

In this, as also in the B. P. form, the presence of the fixed oil in 
the mustard gives the back of the paper a greasy appearance. More- 
over, its removal, which might be effected either by pressure or by 
percolation with benzol, would be an advantage, not only as removing 
the cause of this greasiness, but it would render the mustard more 
active. 

Papers spread with a mixture made according to the form I have 
here given, have a dull, smooth surface, and the mustard adheres well 
together, although it contains only one-fourth as much india-rubber 



340 



Pill Coating. 



f Am. Jour. Phaxm. 
t July 1, 1874. 



as the British Pharmacopoeia formula does gutta-percha. The above- 
preparation readily absorbs water and develops its activity. A piece- 
applied to the arm gave evidence of its presence in less than two- 
minutes, whilst a piece of the B. P. preparation required seven 
minutes, its full effect being comparatively slight. An estimate of 
the cost of the two forms shows that a Charta Sinapis prepared as- 
suggested above could be made for one-eighth the expense of the B. 
P. preparation. — Pliarm. Journ. and Trans. \Lond.\ May 9, 1874- 



PILL COATING. 
By J. A. Cope. 

The introduction of pills covered with a tasteless kind of enamel y 
which is perfectly soluble and harmless, is certainly a step towards- 
elegant pharmacy, and has many great advantages over the old 
method of dusting pills, to prevent their sticking together and to 
mask the taste. The manufacture of pearl- coated pills has been 
carried on extensively by several firms during the last few years, 
and there appears to be a growing demand for the product. The 
bulk of these pills reach the public through medical men who send 
out their own medicine, and who, no doubt, are glad to be relieved of 
the troublesome business of pill-making. And if medical men edu- 
cate their patients to prefer their pills made tasteless and as attractive 
as possible, it will not do for pharmacists to be behind the times. 
They must be able to compete on the small scale with those firms 
who make it their business. 

Medical men are not to be questioned as to the remedies they pre- 
scribe, and few pharmacists would care to acknowledge "they did not 
make their own pills, but obtained them from a reliable source, and 
believed them to be of the purest ingredients.'' And it is desirable 
that even stock pills should be prepared on the premises. The secret 
of pill-coating does not appear to be in what the coating consists of y 
which, in most cases, is powdered French chalk, but in the way it is 
put on. 

The following simple method I have found to give very satisfactory 
results, and produce pills having an elegant appearance which will 
bear comparison with those now in the market. 

The ingredients are powdered French chalk and thin mucilage of 
gum arabic — one part mucilage of the Pharmacopoeia and two parts 



Am. Jowb. Phabv. ) 
July 1, 1874. j 



Pill Coating. 



341 



•distilled water answers very well. The apparatus used may be found 
in any pharmacy, namely, a small evaporating basin, having a flat 
bottom, capacity eight or ten ounces, two covered gallipots, one hold- 
ing four or six ounces, the other double that size, and a pill-tray. 

The pills to be coated should be of good consistence, not too hard, 
and rolled perfectly round, to ensure their being of good shape when 
finished. It is well to use French chalk in the place of starch- 
powder when rolling them out. 

Into the small gallipot put some of the chalk, and in the basin put 
as much mucilage as may be necessary to thoroughly moisten the 
quantity of pills to be coated (from six to six dozen pills may be 
done conveniently at one operation). Next put in the pills and shake 
them round horizontatly until sufficiently moistened, then turn them 
into the pot containing the chalk, and shake them round so as to get 
well covered with powder ; turn them on the pill-tray and allow to 
remain a short time, and lastly place them in the empty gallipot and 
and shake round, so as to polish them and shake off the superfluous 
powder. 

To coat pills by this method occupies about the same time as to 
silver them, but for stock pills, which may have to be kept for some 
time, it is better to repeat this process, taking care to have the first 
•coating dry before a second is put on. This will be found to give 
them a firm pearl-like exterior, which preserves the pills of good 
shape and consistence, and prevents any change that would be likely 
to occur through lengthened exposure to the atmosphere. 

A few trials will suggest the best way of manipulating, and enable 
anyone to produce a fair sample of coated pills. 

Derby. 



Since the above was put into type, we have been favored with a 
note on pill coating by Mr. John Whitfield, F. C. S., of Scarborough. 
The details of the manipulation are essentially the same as those de- 
scribed by Mr. Cope ; but as the result of experiments in this direc- 
tion, Mr. Whitfield uses a varnish made as follows : — 

Common amber resin, . . 1 to 2 drachms. 
Spirits of turpentine, ... 1 drachm. 
Oil of geranium, ... 20 minims. 
Absolute alcohol, . . . .To make 1 ounce. 



342 



Decoposition of Milk. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i July 1,1874 



The oil of geranium may be omitted, or substituted by other essen- 
tial oils at discretion. The pills should be made as hard as possible. 

Mr. Whitfield remarks that some pills take the coating at once,, 
others not so readily. In the latter case the powder should be sifted 
off, and the varnish applied again exactly as at first. A second coat 
seldom fails, and it increases the bulk of the pills but slightly. He 
is of the opinion that there can be no objection to the resinous var- 
nish on the ground of insolubility, as he finds when the coated pills- 
are placed, in water the covering cracks and exposes the pill more 
rapidily than sugar coating. 

Pills containing much essential oil are not well adapted for coating.. 
— Pharm. Journ. and Trails. [London], May 30, 1874. 



THE DECOMPOSITION OF MILK BY KEEPING. 
By Edward Lawrence Cleaver. 
Assistant-Demonstrator in the Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

At a recent prosecution under the Adulteration of Food Act, it 
was stated in the evidence for the defence that unless milk be analyzed 
before it is six hours old the results are not reliable, implying that 
decomposition proceeds at a rate sufficiently rapid to destroy a large 
portion of the solid matter after that period of time. This is really 
a most important point, because it is rarely possible to analyze sam- 
ples within the time above stated ; with the object, therefore, of gain- 
ing some definite information on this subject, I made a series of ex- 
periments, the results of which are stated below. 

There are several points which exercise some influence on the de- 
composition of milk, namely : 

1st. Temperature. 

2d. Exposure to the atmosphere. 

3d. The relative poverty or richness of the milk. 

The present note only gives the results of experiments on an aver- 
age sample of milk at the ordinary temperature ; but I hope at some 
future time to publish a series showing the behavior of different 
samples under varying conditions. A quantity of milk, purchased 
early in the morning, was divided into several small portions and 
placed in bottles which were tightly corked. One portion was, 
analyzed immediately after purchase, and the rest from time to time. 
The results, taken at a temperature of 70° F., were as under : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1874. J 



Varieties. 



343 



No. 


Date of analysis. 


Total Solids. 


Fat 


Ash. 


1 


April 30th, 1874. 


12 48 


3'6 


•7 


2 


May 1st, 


12 37 


3-6 


•7 


3 


" 2nd, 


1218 


36 


•7 


4 


" 4th, 


12-12 


36 


•7 


5 


" 6th, 


12 09 


36 


•7 


6 


" 8th, 11 


12 07 


36 


•7 


7 


" 12th, " 


1197 


3-52 


•7 


8 


" 18th, " 


11-97 


3'4 


•7 



It will be seen from these experiments, extending over a period of 
three weeks, that decomposition does not, in an average sample, pro- 
ceed at a very rapid rate ; and that in an analysis made even after 
two or three days the error would be inappreciable. 

It was suggested to me that if milk which had become sour were 
neutralized with soda, the volatile acids formed would be retained 
instead of being volatilized by the heat, and that the solid residue 
would therefore not suffer loss. On trying this plan, however, no 
difference was obtained from previous results. 

But there is one source of loss to be guarded against when milk 
becomes very old, and that is the deposition of mineral matter of 
some kind on the sides of the containing vessel, to which it adheres 
very firmly ; under the microscope it has a distinct crystalline struc- 
ture, but at present I have not been able to determine the exact 
nature of the compound. 



Oatmeal, Bone and Muscle. — Liebig has shown that oatmeal is almost as 
nutritious as the very best English beef, and that it is richer than wheaten 
bread in the elements that go to form bone and muscle. Professor Forbes, of 
Edinburgh, during some twenty years, measured the breadth and height, and 
also tested the strength of both the arms and loins of the students in the Uni- 
versity — a very numerous class, and of various nationalities, drawn to Edin- 
burgh by the fame of his teaching. He found that, in height, breadth of chest 
and shoulders, and strength of arms and loins, the Belgians were at the bottom 
of the list; a little above them, the French ; very much higher, the English ; 
and highest of all the Scotch and Scotch-Irish, from Ulster, who, like the na- 
tives of Scotland, are fed in their early years with at least one meal a day of 
good milk and good oatmeal porridge. — Sanitarian for June. 



344 



Varieties. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July 1, 1874. 



Poisoning by the Root of Phytolacca Decandra.—Dv. Rawlings Young, of 
Corinth, Miss., writes that he was called, on the 21st inst., to three children- 
nine, six and four years old— poisoned by eating the root of Phytolacca decan- 
dra. They ate this at 11.30 A. M ., at 12 M. took a hearty dinner, and in an 
hour after commenced purging and vomiting. At 4.30 P. M., when he first 
saw them, the purging had ceased, but free vomiting occurred at intervals of 
twenty or thirty minutes; great dilatation of pupils; pulse rapid and very 
feeble , inspiration short and sighing. When completely aroused from their 
narcotism they complained of intense epigastric pain, great thirst and chilliness. 
The treatment consisted of hot baths, sinapisms, small doses of brandy fre- 
quently repeated ; and they all recovered, though continuing to vomit until 
6 A. M. the next day and complaining of vertigo and epigastric tenderness for 
a day longer. — American Practitioner*. June, 1874. 



On Gurjun Oil in Skin Diseases. — At a late meeting of the M edical Society 
of London, Professor Erasmus Wilson showed some of this new remedy, and 
stated that this material, which was also called " wood oil," was an oleo- resin, 
obtained from several species of the Diptero carpus, an immense tree growing 
on the Malayan coast of the Bay of Bengal, where it was so common as to be 
used instead of paint, for houses and ships. About twenty years ago this oil 
was introduced into Kngland as a substitute for copaiba balsam, and was re- 
ported to have the same medicinal preperties. Opinion was, however, divided 
on this point, and the gurjun oil did not succeed in securing a place in the 
Pharmacopoeia. In March, 1873, Dr. Dougall, of the Indian Medical Service, 
took charge of the convict establishment of the Andaman Islands, when he 
found twenty-four of the prisoners suffering from leprosy. He was deeply im- 
pressed with the misery of these poor people, and realizing the impracticability 
of availing himself of all known methods of treatment, he hit upon the idea of 
trying the gurjun oil, both as an internal and external remedy, and determined 
upon giving it a six months' trial. He closed the experiment in -November, 
by a report, which was kindly placed in Mr. Wilson's hands by Sir Ranald 
Martin, and used in his lectures before the College of Surgeons. Dr. Dougall's 
method was to have the patients washed thoroughly in a neighboring stream- 
using dry earth instead of soap. They were then made to rub themselves for 
two hours with a liniment composed of gurjun oil and lime-water, one part to 
three, and to swallow gij of the balsam, also combined with lime-water. After 
this they had their breakfast, and were set to any work they were capable of 
doing. In the evening the same process was repeated, except the washing. 
The effects of this treatment, at the end of six months, were marvellous. Neu- 
ralgic pains were allayed, sensibility was restored to the anaesthetic skin, tuber- 
cles subsided, and ulcers healed. Dr Dougall was astonished at the energy 
of these formerly helpless ones. Mr. Erasmus Wilson remarked that he had 
used a liniment composed of equal parts of the gurjun oil and lime-water, in 
cases- of painful eczema, in lupus, and in cancer, with very encouraging re- 
sults, and stated that Mr. Hancock had applied it in a case of cancer of the 
skin, with the effect of dispersing tubercles and healing ulcerations ; but its 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
July 1, 1874. J 



Varieties. 



345 



most useful property was that of relieving pain. A lady in constant pain from 
cancer of the integument who had been unable to sleep, without narcotics, for 
weeks, was relieved of all suffering, and enabled to sleep, by means of this lini- 
ment. Mr. Wilson suggested that this very simple remedy deserved a trial at 
the hands of the profession, and believed that it would be found a valuable 
agent of cure in many affections where the skin was painfully attacked. — Med. 
and Surgical Reporter, June 13, 1874. 



Jaborandi, a New Medicine. — A new medicine — with marvellous virtues, 
according to its sponsors— has been introduced and experimented with at the 
Hospital Beaujon, Paris. An account of the action and characters of the 
medicine appears in the "Repertoire de Pharmacie " of March 25, from which 
we condense the following particulars. Dr. S. Continho, of Pernambuco, who 
claims to have discovered the properties of the plant, induced Prof. Gubler to 
make a trial of it, and the account given by that eminent physician corresponds 
exactly with the claims put forth by Dr. Continho. 

The leaves and little twigs of the plant are broken up, and from four to six 
grams infused in a cupful of warm water. The infusion may be taken warm 
or cold, and in about ten minutes after administration the patient breaks out 
into a violent perspiration, which continues for four or five hours, and which is 
so thorough as to necessitate several changes of linen. At the same time a 
most abundant flow of saliva is promoted, so abundant, says M. Gubler, that 
speech is rendered almost impossible. He asserts that he has known patients 
eject more than a litre in less than two hours. Occasionally the medicine has 
induced diarrhcea. Its action is more rapid and more thorough if taken warmi 
and if the patient is well covered up in bed, but its effects are none the less 
certain under quite contrary conditions. 

MM. Continho and Gubler justly assume that there is a great future for a 
drug of such capabilities as this jaborandi seems to possess. According to 
Prof. Baillon, the plant belongs to a species of the rue family, the Pilocarpus 
pinnatus : jaborandi, it seems, is the Indian name for the plant. M. Continho 
slightly shakes our confidence in the miraculous power of his protege when he 
tells us that it is to be found in the interior of some of the northern provinces 
of Brazil, an expression which seems to bear a relationship to Dr. Bliss's 
famous condurango formula, the herb which was only of value when procured 
"from the almost inaccessible slopes of the Andes." We shall hope for fur- 
ther enlightenment and evidence concerning this energetic diaphoretic. — 
Chemist and Druggist [Lond.\, April 15, 1874. 



Emulsion of Raw Meat. — We quote from the " Repertoire de Pharmacie " 
a formula for the above, which was given by its inventor (M. Yvon) at a meet- 
ing of the Socicte d'Emulation pour la Science Pharmaceutique. The object 
was to provide an agreeable means of administering raw meat, a remedy much 
in fashion with some of the Continental physicians. M. Yvon takes 



346 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { Au '^\mT- 

Raw meat, ...... 250 grams. 

Sweet almonds, . . . . 75 " 

Bitter " . . . . 5 " 

White sugar, . . . . . 80 " 

The almonds are blanched and the whole beaten up in a marble mortar until 
a rose-colored homogeneous paste is obtained. This is said to be of very 
pleasant flavor and readily taken by sick persons. It may easily be made into 
an emulsion with water, which will not unmix for twenty four hours: the 
emulsion can be made still more nourishing by the addition of the yolks of two 
eggs and by being made up with milk instead of with water. — Ibid. 



Adulterated Honey. — A writer in the Boston "Cultivator" finds that most 
of the so-called strained honey sold in bottles is composed as follows : Cane or 
other sugar is melted in a decoction of slippery elm bark in water. Some 
manufacturers use, instead of elm, a solution of gum arabic and starch, to give 
it consistency and save sugar ; but this last does not resemble honey so much 
when dropped, as it lacks the stringy appearance. These mixtures, with or 
without the addition of a little cheap Cuban honey, are flavored with essence, 
and the mess is ready for sale. The only true way to obtain real honey is to 
buy it with the comb. — Scientific American, June 27, 1874. 



Cement for Aquaria. — An adhesive cement for aquaria may be made, 
according to Klein, by mixing equal parts of flowers of sulphur, pulverized 
sal ammoniac, and iron filings, with good linseed oil varnish, and then adding 
enough of pure white lead to form a firm, easily worked mass. — Ibid., May 2, 
1874. 



Ifearmatetttital Colleges anfo ^mtrntm. 



Charleston, S. C, Pharmaceutical Association. — Some time ago it was 
proposed to organize a pharmaceutical association for the State of South Caro- 
lina ; but the committee having the matter in charge failed to obtain a charter 
from the Legislature, and a permanent organization was not effected. The 
pharmacists of Charleston now contemplate to form a society, and at a recent 
meeting a committee (G-. J. Luhn, G. YY. Aimar, C. F. Panknin, P. Wineraan 
and B. S. Burnham) was appointed to report upon a general plan. The effort, 
we trust, will prove a success, and be followed by similar earnest attempts in 
the other States and larger cities in which a union of pharmacists has as yet 
not been effected. 



The State Pharmaceutical Board of Kentucky has been organized as fol- 
lows : John J. Frost, Lexington, President; Yincent Davis, Louisville, Secre- 
tary and Registrar; C. Lewis Diehl, Treasurer and Chairman of Executive 
Committee, Emil Scheffer, John Colgan of Louisville, J. J. Woods, Maysville, 
and J. M. Grilson, Paducah. 



AM j^ yT'm4 RM } Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 347 

We are pleased to learn that the registration of pharmacists progresses satis- 
factorily, and that the law has been so favorably received that its provisions 
are likely to be extended in a few years so as to embrace the entire State. The 
prospects for the organization of a State pharmaceutical association appear 
to be very favorable, and we hope will be stimulated by the next meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, which will be held in the City of Louis- 
ville in September next. 



St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — We rejoice to see the good work of 
pharmaceutical regulation make such favorable progress. St. Louis has now 
been added to the number of large cities in which such regulation is attempted. 
The law, as approved February 2d, gives the above-named college the right to 
elect a board of pharmacy, consisting of five members, the other provisions of 
the law being similar to those of the older ones. The first board has been 
organized as follows: Theo. Kalb, President ; Justin Steer, Se cretary ; Chas, 
Habicht, Francis X. Crawley and J. M. Good. 



St. Clair Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois. — At the 
regular quarterly meeting, held June 9th, the reception of a set of Proceedings 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, from the Executive Committee 
of this body was announced, and a vote of thanks passed unanimously. The 
following delegates to the next meeting of the National Association were then 
appointed : Wm. Feickert, Wm. Kempf, Jr., Chas. Muehlheims and A. G. F. 
Streit, Ph. D. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held May 6th, Mr. Thos. H. Hills in the chair, Mr. Gostling read a note 
on adulterated opium ; he found in a piece of opium weighing 28 oz. a lump of 
clayey earth, 2J oz. in weight, being nearly ten per cent, of the weight of the 
opium. Afterwards a note, by Mr. E. Smith, on the Additions to the British 
Pharmacopoeia, was read, and a general discussion ensued, during which Mr. 
Bland very properly remarked that it was much easier to criticise processes de- 
scribed than to suggest new ones which should be unassailable. The meeting 
subsequently adjourned till next fall. 

The thirty-third annual general meeting was held at 17 Bloomsbury square, 
London, May 20th. A portrait of Mr. T. N. R. Morson was presented, and 
the annual reports read and discussed. A new Council, to serve for the ensu- 
ing year, was elected, and this organized on June 3d, by re-electing the old 
officers, viz., Thos. H. Hills, President; Alex. Bottle, Vice-President; Mr. 
Williams, Treasurer; Elias Bremridge, Secretary and Registrar, and Richard 
Bremridge, his assistant. A deputation, consisting of Messrs. Greenish and 
Sutton, was appointed to represent the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brit- 
ain at the International Pharmaceutical Congress, to be held at St. Petersburg 
in August next; the sum of £80 was set apart to defray the expenses, and 



348 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ Julyl, 1874. 



committee was appointed to confer with the delegation as to the views on the 
various points of discussion which they should advocate at the Congress. 



The British Pharmaceutical Conference will hold its eleventh annual meet 
ing, at the City of London, on August 6th and 7th next. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — Vice-President Planchon presided at 
the meeting held May 6th. M. Wurtz was added to the Committee at present 
•engaged in preparing the material for an international pharmacopoeia. 

M. Guichard reported the results of some experiments made by him with 
sulphide of carbon upon benzoin and other resinous products. The acids 
obtained from tolu in the preparation of syrup were treated with carbon sul- 
phide, and obtained in large crystals, supposed to be benzoic acid.* Several 
resins soluble in this menstruum may be conveniently and economically purified 
by its use; and purified gum resins may be obtained by treating the commer- 
cial articles successively with carbon bisulphide and water; resin, gum and a 
saccharine matter reacting with Fehling's solution, is thereby obtained. It 
was then stated by several members that the acid of tolu balsam had been 
recognized by M. Carlesf as cinnamic acid, and that a German chemist had 
previously arrived at the same result. 

After some remarks on the probable identity of thapsia and silphion, a report 
on toxicological researches on phosphorus was presented by M. Lefort. 



(f bitovtal Department 



" On Patent Medicines, their Evils and the Remedy" is the title of an 
ossay written by Dr. R. W. Murphy and read before the Sacramento Society 
for Medical Improvement. The paper, as published in the Pacific Medical and 
Surgical Journal for May, contains some information of general interest ; a few 
of the most important points we desire to lay before our readers. 

After referring to the various means resorted to by the manufacturers of 
quack nostrums to introduce their all-healing combinations, and to the danger- 
ous properties of such preparations, like " Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup," 
" Vinegar Bitters," and "Ayer's Cherry Pectoral," the author states that a 
copy of the Patent Medicine Records of the Patent Office would cost about 
$250. Dr. Thos. C. Smith, of Washington, however, has furnished the follow- 
ing information : 

"The first patent granted in the United States, where the use of the medicine 
is indicated, was on the 3d of May, 1797. to Benjamin Duvall, of Virginia, for 
anti bilious pills. The next was June 17th, 180L, to Jesse Wheaton, of Massa- 
chusetts, for a jaundice bitters. On the 9th of June, 1809, a patent was 
granted to Wm. Stoy, of Lebanon Pennsylvania, for a medicine to cure 
hydrophobia. (What a pity it was a failure!) But the ingredients of these 

* They were subsequently proven to be cinnamic acid. 
fSee American Journal of Pharmacy, 1874, p. 235. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1874. j 



Editorial. 



349 



medicines are not given, which places them among nostrums. On the 24th of 
November, 1820, a patent was granted to Lorenzo Dow (supposed to be the 
eccentric preacher Dow) for a medicine the recipe of which is now on file in 
the Patent Office, as follows : 1st. Take nine pounds of Epsom Salts, dissolve 
in eight quarts of soft, boiling water, to which add tincture of bloodroot four 
ounces; 2d. Take one pound of salts of nitre, dissolve in boiling water, adding 
eight ounces of pure sulphuric acid, making four quarts of the solution f 
when cool mix with No. 1, to be called Dow's Family Medicine Directions o 
this mixture : Take from oz. ss. to oz. i, in a half pint of cold water, every two 
hours until it operates. Remarks : In costive habits a corrective, and io 
dysentery a speedy relief. 

"The recipe is given that you may compare it with the prescriptions of the 
present day, and to let you see what has been protected by a patent from our 
Government. In December, 1836, the United States Patent Office, with all 
its records, was destroyed by fire, which renders it difficult to give anything 
like a full list of patents granted for medicinal preparation?. From 1848 until 
1859 but few patents were issued. From I860 to L870, 339 were granted." 

Since the trade-mark law of 1870 went into operation, moat nostrums are 
held by virtue of a trade-mark ; a few figures, which, however, probably do not 
apply to patent medicines only, will show the importance attached by merchants 
to this protection. 

"Since October, 1864, over 200 trade-marks have been filed with the Secretary 
of State in California. In 1871-2, 89 trade-marks were filed in the District of 
Columbia for medicinal preparations. These trade-marks are distinctive labels, 
or some peculiar device to particularize the products of an individual or firm. 
There may be found on the revised catalogue of a single house in New York 
(John F. Henry), for the year 1872, 1,570 different kinds of patent medicines 
and nostrums." (This includes the patent nostrums.) 

Upon what authority the following figures are furnished does not appear : 

" There are 14,000 drug stores and 4,000 grocery stores engaged in selling 
patent medicines in the United States. The number of persons employed in 
the manufacture and sale of these medicines is 135,000. Over ten million 
dollars is paid annually for advertising alone, all of which must be paid by the 
unfortunate consumers. And the amount sold annually in the United States 
is about eighty million dollars worth, being two dollars for each man, woman 
and child in our country." 

That about two-thirds of the sales of some of the leading (wholesale) drug- 
gists are patent medicines is probably correct ; but there are others who deal but 
little in these preparations ; and this is also the case with a number of pharma- 
cists, some even not selling any patent medicines. 

After pointing out the necessity of protection of the public against the 
evils resulting from this traffic as at present carried on, the author urges that 
it is the duty of the medical profession to act in the premises, and, while well 
weighing the difficulties, he suggests the following plan : 

41 Our hope of success lies in a concert of action by the medical profession 
throughout the United States, to secure the enactment of a law requiring the 
formula or recipe, printed in plain English, to accompany each and every 
package of medicine offered for sale in the United States, whether held by 
virtue of a trade-mark or a patent. Any person or persons who either manu- 
facture or sell such medicines, or cause the same to be done, who fail to comply 
with the law, or who shall knowingly or wilfully print or cause to be printed a 



350 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July 1, 1874. 



false formula or recipe to accompany such medicine, with a view of deceiving 
the public, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to be punished 
by fine and imprisonment, and to have all the medicines confiscated. 

"To accomplish the proposed legislation, the National Medical Association 
should secure the co-operation of all the State Societies in getting petitions 
to Congress on the subject, which petitions should not only contain the names 
of all the physicians in the United States, but also the names of all the State 
officers in each State. The petitions should all be sent up at the same time, 
and be presented by a committee appointed by the National Medical Associa- 
tion. 

"The object of the law is not to wipe from existence everything in the shape 
of patent medicines, but to correct the evil, if possible, and protect the inno- 
cent and unsuspecting from being imposed upon." 

It will be observed that this plan is essentially the same as the one proposed 
on page 90 of our February number, to which we would refer the reader for 
some further observations. 



The Enforcement of Pharmaceutical Laws, it appears to us, is not always as 
strict as it might be. It is possible that in Philadelphia nearly all legally required 
to do so may have been registered, but there appear to be, in some localities, such 
flagrant violations of the law that pharmacists should consider it their duty to 
furnish sufficient evidence to the Pharmaceutical Board to warrant them in pro- 
ceeding against the violators. The following letter, received from Mr. W. R. 
Jones, explains itself: 

"The so-called law, termed 'An Act to Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy,' 
is apparently a dead letter so far as any enforcement of the law is concerned, 
while all law-abiding members of the craft have appeared for examination, or to 
pay for and take out the required certificate, others have neglected and refused 
to do so ; not the least in number and importance are the grocers, who sell 
with impunity, and with a full notification, from the board, of the requirements 
of the law, daily violate the law, with no one to punish or prevent. In justice 
to those paying the fee, they should either be protected by the enforcement 
of the law, or the fee refunded. I, for one, will contribute towards a fund to 
bring a case to trial." 



Pills of Sulphate of Quinia. — In relation to the note on this subject, pub- 
lished on page, 112 of our March number, Mr. A. Schreiber, of Tell City, Ind., 
informs us that a smaller quinia pill can be made by using a mixture of equal 
parts of glycerin and muriatic acid, than with the glycerin alone ; Mr. S. has 
used such a mixture for this purpose for neveral years. 



The Stamp Tax. — We have heretofore endeavored to keep our readers in- 
formed upon the action taken by various bodies with the view of securing the 
repeal or modification of section 13 of the Internal Revenue Law, which 
had become burdensome and vexatious in consequence of a decision, dated 
September 9, 1873, by Commissioner Douglas. For various reasons, a repeal of 
the section could not be obtained, and the efforts of the Committees were then 
directed towards obtaining such a modification or explanation of its phraseology 



AM jui y D i', i874 RM ' \ Revieios and Bibliographical Notices. 351 

and meaning as to do away with the possibility of conflicting and vexatious 
decisions by revenue officers. A section clearly defining which medicines are 
not stampable, was attached to bill No. 3,571 of the House of Representatives, 
by which body it was passed June 2d. The Senate failing to agree with all the 
provisions of this bill, a Conference Committee was appointed by both Houses 
of Congress. The report of this Committee has been postponed until next De- 
cember. 

The section in question reads as follows : 

" Section 22. That hereafter nothing contained in the Internal Revenue 
Laws shall be construed so as to authorize the imposition of any stamp tax 
upon any medicinal articles prepared by any manufacturing chemist, pharma- 
ceutist, or druggist, in accordance with a formula published in any standard 
dispensatory or pharmacopoeia in common use by physicians and apothecaries, 
or in any pharmaceutical journal issued by any incorporated college of phar- 
macy, when such formula and where found shall be distinctly referred to in the 
printed label attached to such article, and no proprietary interest therein is 
claimed. Neither shall any stamp be required when the formula of any medi- 
cal preparation shall be printed on the label attached to such article, where 
no proprietorship in such preparation shall be claimed." 

A circular of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, after giving the information 
of the postponement of the report, continues as follows : 

" Nevertheless, as this section was one which met the full approval of both 
the Senate and House of Representatives, thpre is no doubt of its final pas- 
sage ; and it is reasonable to suppose that the Commissioner of Internal Reve- 
nue — in view of the sentiment of these bodies — will continue to withhold the 
enforcement of his ruling, of October last, until the final disposition of the 
question by Congress." 



KEVIEWS AND BIBLIO GK APHIO AL NOTICES. 



Materia Medico, for the Use of Students. By John B. Biddle, M.D., Professor 
of Materia Medica and General Therapeutics in the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, &c. Sixth edition, revised and enlarged, with illustrations. Phila- 
delphia: Lindsay & Blakiston> 1874. 8vo, pp. 435. Price, $4. 

That this work is a valuable aid to the medical student is proven by the rapid 
exhaustion of the previous editions; the present one follows the new Pharma- 
copoeia of the U. S. in nomenclature, and the so-called new chemical notation 
has been introduced throughout. As far as we have examined the formulas, 
they are given correctly ; this is also the case for propylamia (spelled by the 
author prop/tylamia), which, however, is not the alkaloid of herring pickle, this 
being trimethylamia, of the same elementary composition as the former. The 
therapeutical portion of the work has in many cases been re-written, and 
appears to contain all the most notable facts having become known up to the 
time of publication. This is also the case with the other^portions, the most 
important omission noticed by us being Scheffer's process for pepsin, and the 



352 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AM j^j£ 7 t M ' 

similar one for pancreatin proposed by Mattison. An erroneous statement is 
made on page 298, where it is said that "benzoin is volatile." 

The descriptions of the drugs are of the same character as found in nearly 
all works on materia medica written for the exclusive use of the physician or 
medical student : they are insufficient for the diagnosis of the crude drugs,, 
which, however, is not an essential branch of knowledge of the medical prac- 
titioner. 

Compared with former editions, the one before us has been greatly improved, 
and will be found of at ler st equal usefulness to the American medical student 
as the former ones. The publishers have made the book quite attractive in 
appearance. 



A Conspectus of the Medical Sciences ; comprising manuals of anatomy, physi- 
ology, chemistry, materia medica, practice of medicine, surgery and obstet- 
rics, for the use of students. By Henry Hartshorne, M.D., Professor of 
Hygiene in the University of Pennsylvania. Second edition, enlarged and 
thoroughly revised, with 477 illustrations. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea ? 
1874. 12mo, pp. 1024. 

The work is intended as an aid to the medical student, and as such appears 
to admirably fulfil its object by its excellent arrangement, the full compilation of 
facts, the perspicuity and terseness of language, and the clear and instructive 
illustrations in some parts of the work. We notice an oversight on page 52-9 ? 
where Russian rhubarb is still mentioned as one of the varieties of rhubarb, 
while for a number of years past the Russian government has not had any to 
dispose of, and for fully a decade this kind has enjoyed a mere historical inter- 
est, and is found only in cabinets, but not in the general market. 



Geo. P. Rowell # Co.'s American Newspaper Directory ; containing accurate 
lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States 
and Territories, and the Dominion of Canada and British Colonies of North 
America. New York : Geo. P. Rowell & Co , 1874. 8vo, pp. 896. 

We have on former occasions called attention to the usefulness of this annual 
publication. The present handsome volume shows an increase of 493 periodi- 
cal publications over the number exhibited in 1873, the whole number now 
being 7,784. 

The Mutual Relations of Druggists and Physicians. By Chas. E. Buckingham, 
M. D., Professor of Midwilery in the Medical Department of Harvard Uni- 
versity. Boston : 1874. 8vo, pp. 15. 

This is an able address, delivered before the graduating class of the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy at the commencement held April 22, and re- 
printed from the " Boston Medical and Surgical Journal." 



Transactions of the Fourth Annual Session of the Medical Society of Virginia, 
held in Norfolk, November, 1873. Richmond: Fergusson & Rady, printers, 
1874. 8vo, pp. 124. 

The receipt of this pamphlet is hereby acknowledged. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



AUGUST, 187 4. 



A PROCESS FOR THE ANALYSIS OP SOAP, BASED IN PART 
ON THAT OF MO.FF1T. 

By A Sienikr, Jr. 

I. Substances to be Sought. 

Three essential constituents are found in all soaps, viz., a base, a 
fatty acid and water. Besides these, there is usually more or less 
glycerin, sometimes added intentionally, though generally due to im- 
perfect separation ; an excess of alkali and alkaline and earthy car- 
bonates are commonly found, and sulphates and chlorides are of fre- 
quent occurrence. By the following method the fatty acids, save 
resin, are estimated together. The base is estimated as soda in the 
case of hard soaps, and as potash in that of soft. The water is deter- 
mined by subtracting the weight of all the substances found from 
the gross weight (it should not exceed 20 or 30 per cent). 

Recapitulating, the substances to be sought are 

Alkali, combined and free, Carbonate, 

Fatty acids (their fusing point Resin, 

to be found), Salts and coloring matter, 

Glycerin, Water. 

II. Process. 

a. Average the soap fairly, and weigh out three portions— ten 
grams, ten grams and forty grams. 

b. Digest ten grams with alcohol (five or six ounces), heat over 
water bath, filter, wash the residue frequently with hot alcohol (the 
funnel being kept hot by apparatus for hot filtration). Treat residue 
as (1), and filtrate as (2). 

(1). Residue. (Carbonates, other salts, coloring matter, &c.) 
Dry in oven at 212° F. (Counterpoise filter) and weigh. Digest 

2 



354 



Analysis of Soap. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. 1,1874. 



with hot water on filter and test solution volumetrically by a gradu- 
ated normal solution of oxalic acid. Every c. c. used will indicate 
•053 grams of Na 2 C0 3 . Incidentally notice whether any precipitate 
of calcic oxalate occurs. Subtract the weight of sodic carbonate 
from the whole weight of residue insoluble in alcohol, and the remain- 
der is the weight of salts and foreign matter. This can be further 
analyzed, if it is desired. 

(2). Filtrate. (Alcoholic solution of soap and free alkali). 

Pass through it a stream of carbonic acid gas, if precipitate forms 
continue, until precipitation ceases ; filter ; dissolve precipitate in 
water, and estimate with normal graduated solution of oxalic acid, as 
before. Every c. c. indicates -031 grams of free soda, or *047 of free 
potash, as the case may be. No precipitate indicates absence of free 
alkali. 

The filtrate from the precipitate by carbonic acid, or, if no precipi- 
tate has occurred, then the alcoholic solution, after the addition of 
about one ounce of water, is evaporated on a water-bath until all the 
alcohol has escaped (a retort may be used, if it is desirable, to save 
the alcohol). To the aqueous solution is then added normal gradu- 
ated solution of oxalic acid, until it is acid to litmus paper. Each 
c. c. required indicates *031 grams combined soda, or "047 grams of 
combined potash. 

A' little sulphuric acid is now added, to separate the fatty acids- 
more rapidly. Ten grams of beeswax — previously melted to free it 
from water — is added, and the whole placed on a water-bath until the 
fatty acids have mixed, forming a stratum on the top of the liquid. 
The mixture is then set aside to cool, and the cake, or solidified stra- 
tum, removed, dried and weighed. Subtract weight of beeswax, and 
the remainder is the weight of fatty acids and resin. 

c. (1.) Take forty grams, dissolve in water, add dilute H 2 S0 4 until 
precipitation ceases, and set aside in a cool place (below 57° F). 
The fatty acids will rise to the top, when they may be dried and 
weighed. 

(2.) Digest, with constant mixing, the fatty acids with a mixture 
of water, with nearly as much alcohol, until the subsident liquid (when 
the mixture has cooled and the fatty acids again solidified) ceases to 
be milky. Weigh fatty stratum again, and subtract from weight ob- 



AM Aug U i,i P 8?t RM } ^ nls Venenata, or Poison Sumach. 355 

tained above, and the result is, approximately, the weight of resin in 
forty grams. Divide by four, and the quotient is the weight of resin 
(approximate). 

(3). Find fusing point of fatty acids. 

d. Take ten grams, dissolve in alcohol, add alcoholic solution of 
sulphuric acid until precipitation ceases, and filter. Add baric car- 
bonate and filter again. Evaporate until the alcohol is all expelled, 
and weigh sweet residue as glycerin. 

e. Add together the amount found of carbonate, salts and foreign 
matter, alkali (free), alkali (combined), fatty acids, resin, glycerin, 
and the difference between that sum and ten grams is the weight of 
water. 

University of 3fic1iigan, June, 1874, 



EHUS VENENATA, OR POISON SUMACH— DESCRIPTION AN I) 
PARTIAL ANALYSIS. 

By Robert M. Cotton. 
This is a low, smooth, branching shrub, growing from six to eighteen 
feet high, and always inhabiting swamps, especially tamarack swamps. 
Its leaves are compound, dotless, alternate, odd pinnate and stipulate, 
with from seven to thirteen obovate-oblong, entire leaflets. It is most 
widely known under the common name of poison sumach, though, in 
some localities, it is known as poison elder. 

It is not necessary to give the details of the analysis, as Rochie- 
der's process for the analysis of plants was quite closely followed. 
It is sufficient to say that an acid was obtained from the decoction, 
which remained after subjecting a quantity of the powdered leaves 
to distillation for several days. This acid crystallizes in congregated 
clusters of minute, transparent, triangular prisms ; non-volatile and 
decomposed by a high temperature. The water solution of these 
crystals has a moderately sour taste, and reddens blue litmus quite 
distinctly. With neutral acetate of lead, it gives a white, flocculent 
precipitate ; with chloride of barium, a white, granular precipitate, 
which is increased in amount by heat ; with calcic hydrate a white 
precipitate is produced after standing a short time. A large number 
of other reagents were added, such as nitrate of silver, phosphate of 
magnesium, chloride of mercury, etc.,' without producing any precipi- 
tates. 



356 Rhus Venenata, or Poison Sumach. { AM Aug U T 



Am. Jour. Phai m. 
1874. 



It was at first supposed that this acid was the same which Gmelin 
speaks of in his Hand-Book (this being the only work where anything 
was found in any way touching upon this plant or genus) under the 
name of rhus- tannic acid, and said to be a constituent of the plants 
of this genus. But it is found that this acid has none of the proper- 
ties characteristic of the astringent acids ; it has not an astringent 
taste ; does not precipitate gelatin nor iron. Owing to the small 
quantity of the leaves originally taken, and the small amount of time 
that could be devoted to the work, the examination could not be fur- 
ther continued. 

If so desired, this acid can be obtained in any quantity by boiling 
the dry powdered leaves with water for some time, straining, express- 
ing and filtering while hot ; then boiling with and filtering through 
animal charcoal, precipitating with neutral acetate of lead, decom- 
posing the precipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, filtering out 
the sulphide of lead, then evaporating and crystallizing. The crys- 
tals can be purified by re-crystallization from water solution, if so 
desired. It is found by experiment that, in passing the decoction 
through animal charcoal, the charcoal retains all of the coloring 
matter with nearly all of the gum, but not taking up any recognizable 
quantity of the acid. 

Other crystals were obtained from portion third cf the decoction, 
rafter having filtered out the precipitate caused by alum and ammonia, 
by evaporating the filtrate and allowing it to crystallize. These 
crystals are deposited needle-shaped, and as long triangular prisms. 
In shape, they resemble the first-mentioned crystals of this acid, but 
are very much larger. They have a sharp, salty taste, and are neu- 
tral in reaction ; are soluble in water, hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric 
and acetic acids ; very soluble in ether, insoluble in alcohol, unless 
added in very large quantities. The crystals suffer decomposition 
instead of sublimation, and when completely burned leave a small 
white ash. The possibility of this being a compound formed from 
any of the reagents added, or by their decomposition, was satisfac- 
torily precluded by special examination for that purpose. It is sup- 
posed that this is an alkaline earth in combination with an organic 
acid, probably the same acid which was previously obtained separate, 
though the reactions of these two sets of crystals differ in a few in- 
stances. 

University of MicMgan, July 3, 1874. 



AM Aag U i;i P 874 RM '} Helianthemum Gorymhosum, Michaux, 357 

HE L I A N THE M UM CORYMBOSUM, MICHAUX. 
By Frederick J. Kruell, G. P. 
Condensed from an Inaugural Essay. 

This plant is said to possess the same medicinal properties as the 
officinal Helianthemum canadense. For the following analysis the 
herb was collected in the latter part of June, in New Jersey, and 
after carefully drying it in the shade, it was found to have lost 52 5 
per cent. 

An infusion, made with boiling water, was of a reddish brown color, 
and a slightly bitter but very astringent taste, and possessed a grass- 
like odor. 

The infusion was free from starch ; alcohol produced a precipitate, 
consisting mainly of gum, and iron salts indicated the presence of 
much tannin. The latter was removed by gelatin and the filtrate 
treated with subacetate of lead. The filtrate from this precipitate, 
after the removal of the excess of lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
contained but a minute quantity of coloring matter, which was found 
to be insoluble in alcohol and ether. 

Three tinctures were next prepared with ether, alcohol and with 
diluted alcohol. Evaporated to the consistency of a solid extract, 
the diluted alcohol tincture yielded 28 per cent. ; the alcoholic, 16 4 
per cent., and the etherial 4-6 per cent, of the original weight of the 
herb employed ; the portions of the herb extracted with alcohol and 
ether were dried, and exhausted with cold water, which, upon evapo- 
ration, yielded extracts weighing respectively 19'6 and 22 per cent* 
of the original weight, and containing glucose as indicated by Trom- 
mer's test. 

The extract obtained with diluted alcohol was of a dark-brown color,, 
and a bitter and astringent taste ; it was exhausted with diluted mu- 
riatic acid, the tannin removed, and then treated with carbonate of 
sodium, which darkened the color without producing a precipitate 7 
evaporated to an extract and treated with alcohol, which dissolved a 
little coloring matter but no alkaloid. 

The residue left by the dilute acid was digested in hot alcohol, and 
the solution filtered ; this was of a dark-brown color and a slightly 
bitter taste ; when added to water, it produced a milky solution, and?, 
on further examination, was found to be resin and coloring matter. 

The alcoholic tincture yielded an extract which was of a dark-greeik 



358 Emulsionizing Hoffmanns Anodyne. { A \^Tj 8 n 7 4 RM ' 

color, and a bitter and astringent taste ; was but slightly soluble in 
water, ether and chloroform, imparting merely a light-green color to 
the latter solutions. It consisted of resin, chlorophyll, bitter extrac- 
tive and coloring matter. 

The extract obtained from the etherial tincture was of a dark-green 
color, and of an agreeable aromatic odor, but of exceedingly disagree- 
able taste, resembling somewhat that of coal oil. This extract was 
insoluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and bisulphide car- 
bon, and sparingly so in chloroform. It consisted mainly of chloro- 
phyll, waxy matter and an acrid resin. 

A portion of the herb was distilled with water, but no indications 
of a volatile oil were obtained. 

From the foregoing experiments I would infer that the medicinal 
properties of frostwort are due to tannin and extractive matter. 

The constituents of frostwort may be briefly summed up as follows : 
Tannin, of which it contains a large percentage, resin, glucose, gum, 
extractive matter, chlorophyll and inorganic salts. 

EMULSIONIZING HOFFMANN'S ANODYNE. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

A few days ago, I received the following prescription : 
Hoffmann's anodyne, .... ^ii, 
Acacias pulv., .... 
Sacchar. alb., .... aa gii, 

Aquae, ..... ^i. 

Never before having had to make a similar mixture, I had my 
doubts about its feasibility ; at any rate, I would try. The old mor- 
tar process having failed (not to mention that no inconsiderable part 
of the anodyne volatilizes before the mixing can be done), I tried the 
bottle process of Mr. Forbes {Am. Journ. Pharm., 1872, p. 61). For 
some reason or other, I did not succeed, probably for want of dex- 
terity. Mr. Forbes' process is first to put the liquid to be emulsion- 
ized m the bottle, then a small quantity of powdered gum, shaking 
well, and then water. 

At last I hit upon the following : 
I put in the bottle — 

Mucilag. acac. (U. S. P.). .... 
Water, . . . • ' f 3vi, 

Hoffmann's anodyne, .... f^ii, 



A a5 u m8 H 7 A 4 RM *} Fluid Extract of Azedarach. 359 

and agitated violently ; a milky mixture, without any separation of 
gum, resulted. At last I added the sugar, 3'ii. Instead of the pre- 
scribed 3ii acacia, I took only 48 grains. 

You will see that I only followed the old, very old rule, for making 
■emulsions. Make the mucilage of about " the same consistence as 
the liquid to be emulsionized." 

By the way, I see that Mr. Forbes' plan has been suggested not 
■only by M. Nougaret, for castor oil (Am. Journ. Pliarm., 1869, Vol. 
xli, p. 204), but that Mr. Thos. Powers speaks of this bottle process 
-as of an old one(Am. Journ. Pharm., 1833, Vol. v, page 101). But 
Mr. Forbes is the first who found out how very little gum is needed to 
make an emulsion. Hans M. Wilder. 

Philadelphia, July 6th, 1874. 



FLUID EXTRACT AND SYRUP OF AZEDARACH. 
By John Joseph Miles, G-. P. 
Extract from an Inaugural Essay. 

Melia Azedarach, an elegant tree, twenty-five to thirty- five feet in 
height, is the principal shade-tree in the avenues of many of our 
Southern villages and cities, where it is known under the names of 
Bead-tree, Pride of China, China-tree, Pride of India, &c. It is 
avoided by tlies and other insects.* The bark of the root is officinal 
in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, but all parts of the tree possess medicinal 
properties ; it acts as an anthelmintic, and in large doses, narcotic. 

The fluid extract is prepared as follows : Take of the inner bark 
of the root sixteen troyounces ; dilute alcohol, sufficient quantity. 
Macerate the bark in sixteen fluidounces of the dilute alcohol for 
twenty-four hours ; then percolate until twelve fluidounces have been 
obtained, and set this aside. Continue the percolation with sufficient 
dilute alcohol to obtain twelve fluidounces of percolate; evaporate 

* Dr. F. P. Porcher, in his " Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests/' 
states that a decoction of half a bushel of berries to fifteen gallons of water 
sprinkled over the affected plant, will, in most cases, prevent the depredation 
of the black grub or cutworm; and, upon the authority of Mr. John Commins, 
it is asserted that the Pride of India, by being planted alternately with peach- 
trees, will prevent the latter from being infested by the aphis, and protect the 
fruit of the peach against the immense destruction by insects. — Editor Amer. 
Journ. Pharm. 



360 Gleanings from Eur •opea?i Journals. l^u^T; 



Am. Joint. Phabm. 



1874. 



this to two fluidounces and add to the reserved portion. Filter, add 
six troyounces of white sugar, and dissolve by aid of a gentle heat. 

The above extract has been used with satisfaction and decided re- 
sults in the dose of one-half to one teaspoonful, according to age. 

A very agreeable syrup may be prepared from the extract by the 
following formula: Take of fluid extract four fluidounces ; syrup of 
vanilla, eight ounces ; simple syrup, sufficient to make one pint. This 
is used in the dose of three to four teaspoonfuls. The syrup of 
vanilla wholly disguises that bitter and disagreeable taste that is so> 
objectionable in most of the anthelmintics. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

The Powdering of Chlorates is usually effected in a mortar, the 
salt being kept moist by alcohol. To obtain larger quantities of chlo- 
rate, in the form of powder, suitable for colored fires, A. Gawalowski 
proposes to dissolve the chlorate in hot water, to complete saturation^ 
and to dip into the solution plates of glass, which, on being removed, 
become covered with a fine crystalline powder of the salt, which is 
readily collected upon paper and dried, without the least danger to 
the operator. — Pharm. Cent. Halle, No. 24, from Journ. f. pr. 
Chem. 

Alkaloid in Hojys. — In 1863, Lermer suggested the presence of a 
peculiar alkaloid in hops. Griessmayer's recent experiments seem 
to prove the existence of a peculiar volatile alkaloid, which he named 
lupulina. The concentrated aqueous decoction of ten pounds of hops 
was distilled with potassa or with magnesia, the distillate neutralized 
with muriatic acid, evaporated to dryness, treated with cold absolute 
alcohol, to remove sal ammoniac, the alcoholic liquid heated to boil- 
ing and cooled, when much muriate of trimethylamina crystallized. 
The filtrate was evaporated in a water-bath, and finally spontane- 
ously, the residue redissolved in water, in a narrow cylinder, agitated 
with potassa and ether, and the ethereal solution evaporated sponta- 
neously. The remaining alkaline liquid had a peculiar odor, remind- 
ing of conia, and a cooling, but not bitter taste. It soon separated 
small crystals, and finally solidified completely. The author supposes 
that these crystals are impurities, and that the pure alkaloid is liquid 



^Aug^is™'} Gleanings from European Journals. 361 

or gaseous. The following reactions were obtained with the alkaline 
residue : 

Chloride of platinum produces, after the addition of alcohol and 
ether, a green-yellow precipitate. H 2 S0 4 and bichromate of potas- 
sium causes a violet coloration. Fuming HN0 3 yields at first a yel- 
low color, which turns green, then dark-green, and finally colorless. 
White precipitates are obtained with tannin, silver nitrate, Fehling's 
solution and corrosive sublimate ; with chloride of gold a yellowish- 
white precipitate, soluble in HC1 ; with iodine a brown precipitate ; 
with bromine, sulphur-yellow, becoming orange and brown ; with 
phospho-tungstic acid, voluminous yellowish- white. Nessler's reagent 
gave the reaction of ammonia; chlorine had no effect; with sulphu- 
ric, muriatic and oxalic acids, no crystalline compounds were obtained. 
— Chem. Cent. Blatt., No. 21 ; Polyt. Journ., ccxii, 67. 

Pure Albumen. — Graham's statement, that by dialysis for three 
or four days an albumen may be obtained which, on incineration, leaves 
no trace of ashes, has been examined by B. Aronstein, and found to 
be correct. It is necessary, however, to use very fine parchment 
paper, made by De la Rue, of London, no German parchment paper 
giving satisfactory results. The author's conclusions are as follows : 

1. Pure albumen is completely soluble in water ; its solution in 
the animal liquids is not affected by either the soluble or insoluble 
salts. 

2. Pure albumen is neither coagulated by heat, nor by alcohol ; in 
both cases coagulation depends upon the presence of salts in its natu- 
ral solutions. 

3. The insoluble salts, dissolved in the animal liquids, form no 
compound with albumen ; their solution in the blood serum, as well as 
in the whites of eggs, is effected by an organic body which does not 
belong to the albuminous compounds. 

4. The two liquids mentioned contain, besides albumen, paraglob- 
ulin, which albuminous body is insoluble in water, but here dissolved 
by the salts. 

5. Pure serum albumen is precipitated by ether, but not pure egg 
albumen; in the presence of salts the action of ether is reversed. — 
Zeitseh.f. Anal Chem., 1874, 71; Arch. f. Physiol, viii, 75. 

Detection of Morphia in the Presence of Quinia. — L. W. Jassoy 
proposes to agitate the supposed mixture with twenty times its weight 



362 Gleanings from European Journals. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 1, 1874. 



of water, and filter. If the quinia was present as sulphate, the 
greater portion of it will remain undissolved, while the morphia salt 
will be found in the filtrate, to which a few drops of iodic acid are 
added, and after agitation a little chloroform ; the latter will dissolve 
the liberated iodine, or, in case morphia is not present, will remain 
colorless, while the filtrate becomes fluorescent. 

In the presence of the more soluble muriate of quinia, the reaction 
is a little different. After proceeding as stated above, a yellow col- 
oration will at once be produced if morphia be present; but the 
iodine will not be dissolved in the chloroform, unless an excess of 
morphia be contained in the mixture. The yellow color, however, 
produced by the formation of a compound insoluble in chloroform, 
between the liberated iodine and the quinia, is sufficient to indicate 
the presence of morphia, or of a foreign body with a similar behavior 
towards iodic acid. — Arch. d. Pharm., 1874, June, 517. 

The Rapid Evaporation of Ethereal Tinctures from narrow vessels 
is effected by the following simple contrivance of Dr. G. Vulpius. 
The ethereal tincture is introduced into a beaker or cylinder, and a 
glass syphon is arranged in such a manner that the short leg is sus- 
pended at a distance of not over one centimeter above the surface of 
the ethereal liquid, while the long leg may reach nearly to the floor. 
Slight suction at the latter aperture will cause the heavy ether vapor 
to be siphoned off from above the liquid, and the evaporation of the 
ether and removal of its vapor continues so rapidly, that at the sum- 
mer temperature the ether will run off in drops if the long leg be 
surrounded by a layer of moist paper. The short siphon leg should 
be lowered in proportion as the ethereal liquid evaporates. — Ibid., 
■p. 522. 

Dry Syrup of Almonds. — To avoid the inconveniences resulting 
from the separation and rapid decomposition of almond syrup, Dr. 
Enders suggests a dry preparation from which the syrup may be very 
easily obtained. Twenty parts of sweet almonds are made into an 
emulsion with sufficient distilled water ; the emulsion is mixed with 
seventy-two parts of sugar, and in a steam-bath rapidly evaporated 
to dryness ; the residue is powdered and kept in well- corked vials. 
To prepare one hundred parts of syrup, sixty-eight parts of this 
powder are dissolved in twenty- four parts of water by the aid of heat, 
and then five parts of orange-flower water and three parts of bitter 
almond water are added. — Ibid., p. 511. 



A \tTiwT'} Acids with 0il °f Peppermint 363 

THE REACTIONS OF ACIDS WITH OIL OF PEPPERMINT, AND 
THEIR BEARING ON THE FORMATION OF CHLOROPHYLL.* 

By M. A. Frebault. 

With the object of combining the hydrocarbon of oil of peppermint 
with picric acid, the author heated gently together an alcoholic solu- 
tion of that acid with some of the essential oil ; water was added to 
dissolve the excess of acid, and the mixture left to stand. Twenty- 
four hours afterwards the oil, which had collected at the surface of 
the liquid, presented a magnificent green color. This formed the 
starting point for the author's investigation. 

Action of Picric Acid upon Oil of Peppermint. — If oil of pepper- 
mint be agitated with picric acid, nothing is observed at first further 
than that the picric acid partially dissolves, and communicates its 
yellow color to the oil ; but in half an hour the mixture is colored 
manifestly green, and in twenty-four hours this coloration acquires a 
great intensity. If a slight heat be applied to the mixture the green 
color appears more rapidly. 

This green product, exposed to the air upon water during four or 
five days, acquires the reddish-yellow color of dead leaves. Intro- 
duced floating on water into a test-tube containing nitrogen, the color 
is retained for some time ; but in oxygen it disappears more quickly. 
Treated several times with cold water, the washings remove each time 
some of the picric acid together with a red coloring matter, and finally 
the essential oil remains of a reddish-yellow color. 

The green product has a strong red fluorescence, and in an alco- 
holic or ethereal solution, this phenomenon is still more marked. 
Treated with solution of caustic potash or ammonia, a picrate of the 
base employed is formed, and the essential oil remains of a reddish- 
yellow color. When the green product is distilled from caustic potash, 
a colorless liquid passes over into the receiver, and there remains in 
the retort a black mass analogous to that obtained by treating oil of 
peppermint with chromate of potash. The distillate no longer yields 
the green reaction with picric acid. Nascent hydrogen reduces the 
green product, and transforms it into a brown substance. If, instead 
of operating in the cold or with a gentle heat, the solution of picric 
acid in oil of peppermint is boiled for a few moments, it passes from 
the green state to yellow-brown, and then reddish-brown. Upon the 

* Abstract of a paper in the Repertoire de Pharmacie, vol. ii, p. 199. 



364 Acids with Oil of Peppermint. { ^JJ^SP* 

addition of ammonia it quickly forms red crystals, which are proba- 
bly picramate of ammonia, and some crystals of picrate, whilst in 
the midst of them is disseminated an amorphous powder of a beau- 
tiful red color. This red powder is soluble in water, insoluble in ben- 
zin and oil of turpentine, and very slightly soluble in ether and al- 
cohol. 

That oil of peppermint is a reducing agent is shown by its produc- 
ing the characteristic color of Prussian Hue in paper saturated with 
a solution of ferric sulphate and ferricyanide of potassium. At the 
boiling temperature it partially transforms the perchloride of iron to 
the state of protochloride, and the perchloride of mercury is also par- 
tially reduced to calomel. Submitted to dialysis in alcoholic solution, 
the picric acid diffuses through from the green product, together, no 
doubt, with a little menthene, the solid and crystallizable portion of 
the essential oil. This solution has a bitter, sweetish, and slightly 
cool taste. Distilled in a water -bath it leaves a yellow residue, which, 
treated with sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonia, gives the intensely 
red coloration of picramate of ammonia. The alcoholic distillate has 
the cool taste of oil of peppermint due to the menthene. 

It was thought interesting to investigate whether the reaction took 
place between the crystallizable portion or the hydrocarbide of the 
essential oil and the picric acid ; whether the green reaction was also 
produced with oil of pennyroyal, which contains no stearopten. The 
phenomenon of coloration was found to be limited to the oil of pep- 
permint, except that it occurred also with oil of chamomile ; but in 
that case there is no combination, the green being produced by the 
mixture of blue and yellow, and there is no red fluorescence. 

The reaction between oil of peppermint and picric acid is so clear, 
that the author thought that picric acid might be used in testing for the 
presence of that essence in a mixture of essential oils, and vice versa 
that oil of peppermint would be a suitable test for the presence of picric 
acid. For this purpose he made a mixture of several essences, about two 
grams, to which he added two drops of oil of peppermint. This was 
shaken with a solution of ten centigrams of picric acid in about fifty 
grams of water. At the end of twenty-four hours the essential oils 
collected on the surface, and presented a very perceptible green tint. 
In a second experiment, a decoction of barley and hops was made, to 
which an extremely small quantity of picric acid was added. The 



A Vug a i P i8f4 RM } Acids with Oil of Peppermint. 365 

liquor was filtered, and a portion of it agitated with fifty centigrams 
of oil of peppermint in a test-tube. The green color was very evi- 
dent after twenty-four hours. 

The author has made no experiments with beer, but he suggests 
that it might be tested by evaporating the suspected beer to the con- 
sistence of honey, treating the extract with alcohol to which a few 
drops of nitric acid have been added, filtering the liquid, concentrat- 
ing and agitating with a little oil of peppermint. Nitric acid is used 
for the purpose of oxidizing any acid that may have been reduced to 
picramic acid by the action of sugar in the beer, and to saturate the 
lime salts present. 

Action of other Acids on Oil of Peppermint. — The question as to 
what this coloration is due may receive some elucidation from obser- 
vation of the action of other acids upon oil of peppermint, which has 
not yet been carefully studied. The following are the principal 
effects noted by the author : — 

Sulphuric Acid produced at first a rose color, then reddish-yellow, 
passing rapidly to reddish-brown. When ether was added it acquired 
a beautiful yellow color, whilst the lower portion of the mixture was 
colored red. When water was added and the mixture shaken the 
liquid separated into two layers, of which the lower acid aqueous 
layer was rose-colored, and the uppermost ethereal layer took a green- 
ish-blue tint and had a strong red fluorescence. 

Hydrochloric acid induced a rose color rather slowly. Upon the 
addition of ether this became faintly green. When water was added 
the underneath layer was rose- colored, but the ether retained its green 
color. In some experiments a blue color was produced. 

Nitric acid caused first a rose coloration, then red, soan becoming 
greenish; Upon adding ether and water and shaking, the underneath 
layer was rose, and the ether rising to the top took a violet-blue grey 
color. 

The blue and green tints were rapidly altered by the action of air 
and light. 

These observations were made upon pure and quite colorless oil of 
peppermint. When the yellow or greenish-yellow tinted oils fre- 
quently met with in commerce were employed, the phenomena of col- 
oration were much more intense with sulphuric and hydrochloric acids ; 
whilst with nitric acid the ethereal layer acquired a magnificent green 



366 Acids with Oil of Peppermint. {^^Si": 

color and a strong red fluorescence. The rose coloration first pro- 
duced by the acids had a violet reflection. Moreover, when chloro- 
form was employed in the place of ether, sometimes a violet or a grey 
color was obtained, the latter being the result of a mixture of yellow 
and violet, or perhaps red and green, or even blue and orange. 

From the foregoing, the author concludes that the coloration pro- 
duced by picric acid when reacting upon the oil of peppermint is not 
a property peculiar to itself, but common to the strong acids; that 
the picrate of the hydrocarbide w T hich he sought was not produced ; 
that it was not a case of oxidation pur et simple as might have been 
supposed with picric acid. He looks upon the coloration as a phe- 
nomenon dependent upon the separation and combination of the col- 
oring matters contained in the oil of peppermint. He thinks that the 
acids split up the oil into five coloring principles, red, blue, green, 
yellow and violet; and that, according to the quantity and nature of 
the acid employed, one or other of these principles is obtained, or 
perhaps a grey resulting from a mixture of two complimentary colors. 

Relation of the Crreen Coloring Matter to Chlorophyll. — The author 
remarks upon the striking analogy which appears to exist between 
the green substance obtained by the action of acids upon oil of pep- 
permint and chlorophyll, which is set forth in the following table : — 

Green Matter obtained by the Ac- 
Chlorophyll. tion of Acids on Oil of Pepper- 

mint. 

Strong red fluorescence. Strong red fluorescence. 

Becomes reddish-yellow in the air Exposed to air, it is changed into a 

(dead leaves). reddish-yellow substance. 

Treated with alkalies it becomes yel- Treated by alkalies, it becomes yellow. 

low. 

Reduced and decolorized by nascent Reduced and transformed into a brown 
hydrogen. matter by nascent hydrogen. 

Yellow leaves become green by the After being made yellow by alkalies, 
action of acids. again becomes green when treated 

with acids. 

The green aud blue colors obtained The green and blue colors obtained 
by the action of acids on chlorophyll by the action of acids upon oil of 
are decomposed by light. peppermint are decomposed by light. 

This comparative table presents points of great resemblance, of 



AM Aug U i; P i874 M ' } Acids with Oil of Peppermint 367 

which the most important doubtless is the fluorescence, the red fluor- 
escence being characteristic and confined to these two substances. 
Supposing it probable that in both cases the appearance is due to 
chlorophyll, the author endeavors to explain its formation in the oil 
of peppermint. He considers that as his experiments were made with 
colorless oil of peppermint it is necessary to assume that the constit- 
uent elements of chlorophyll exist in that essence ; but probably they 
exist there in a state of reduction, and that it is only under the influ- 
ence of acids that a kind of synthesis of the chromule takes place. 
The blue principle (Fremy's phyllocyanin) and the yellow principle 
(phylloxanthin) are, so to speak, in a latent and colorless state, either 
in consequence of reduction or their combination with the other color- 
ing principles present in the oil. Under the influence of acids the 
phyllocyanin is regenerated, and at the same time the phylloxan- 
thin, separated from the red and violet principles, unites with the 
blue especially to form the green color. With picric acid and nitric- 
acid the green coloration is more intense than with the other acids? 
because an oxidizing action is combined with a separative action. 

According to this hypothesis, which the author proposes to test by 
further experiment, chlorophyll, or at least its constituents, are vola~ 
tilizable in the state in which it actually exists in oil of peppermint, 
The greenish color which is seen in the oil when imperfectly rectified 
wouldt hen be due probably to chlorophyll, of which the elements have 
not been completely altered in a first distillation. 

Action of adored upon Oil af Peppermint. — The rose coloratioB 
which takes place when hydrate of chloral is shaken with oil of pep- 
permint, which was pointed out by M. Carl Jehn,* has also been the 
subject of experiment by the author. He has come to the conclusion 
that the color is produced in the oil of peppermint and not in the 
chloral hydrate, and that it only occurs when the chloral hydrate used 
is acid, it being more intense in proportion as the chloral hydrate i» 
more acid. But he has not yet been able to experiment with per- 
fectly neutral specimens. In this case the reaction would be due to 
the formic acid contained in the chloral hydrate, or possibly to hydro- 
chloric acid resulting from partial decomposition. — Pliarm. Journ, 
and Trans., June 6, 1874. 



* See Pharmaceutical Journal, before, p. 556; Amer. Jour, of Phar., 1873, p, 
447 ; compare also Amer. Jour. Phar., 1874, p. 273. 



£68 Soluble Starch. { A \*£i$g? 

SOLUBLE STARCH. * 
By M. Musculus. 

Chemists are not in accord as to what is to be understood by " sol- 
uble starch." Some consider as such the matter colored blue by 
iodine, which can be removed from starch by means of water, and 
which Naegeli has called "granulose." Others think that the sub- 
stance colored violet by iodine, which Bechamp obtained by treating 
starch with sulphuric acid, to be the true soluble starch. But the 
author has found that granulose, although it passes readily through a 
filter, is not really soluble in water, for it can be separated by evapo- 
ration in a state completely insoluble even in boiling water. Also 
that the soluble starch of Be'champ is a mixture in which may be 
found granulose, soluble starch, and the products of decomposition of 
starch (dextrin, glucose, or glucosin), which are always formed with 
sulphuric acid. 

The author has previously made known under the name of " dextrine 
ghbulisee, ,, f a body insoluble in cold water, which he obtained by 
dissolving starch in boiling acidulated water, and evaporating after 
saturation of the acid and filtration, to the consistence of a syrup. 
This deposits an abundance of granules, insoluble in cold water and 
soluble only at 50° C, a property that allows of their being washed 
and separated from the dextrin and glucose by which they are accom- 
panied ; further treatment with alcohol with remove a little granu- 
lose still adhering, and there will then be left what the author con- 
siders to be true soluble starch ; the granules composing it being 
grains of starch deprived of their organization. 

The author enumerates the following properties of this product to 
substantiate his assertion. When dried in the air it is white and 
resembles starch. Freshly washed, it is insoluble in cold water and 
does not reduce salts of copper ; but if it be left for some time in con- 
tact with water, it dissolves perceptibly and there is at the same time 
a little sugar formed. Its rotatory power is nearly quadruple that of 
dehydrated glucose. It dissolves entirely in water at 50° C., and is 
not precipitated upon cooling ; by evaporation, however, a residue is 
obtained which has recovered its insolubility in cold water. To redis- 

f Abstract of a paper read before the French Academy (Comptes Rendus, 
vol. lxxviii, p. 1413). 

* Comptes Rendus, vol. lxv, p. 857. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1874. j 



Soluble Starc7i, 



369 



solve it, it is necessary to heat it to boiling, or allow it to digest for 
half an hour in a water-bath at 100° C. Alcohol precipitates it and 
also restores it to its insoluble state. The same result is obtained by 
congealing the solution in a freezing mixture, it being found when 
the ice is melted as a white precipitate at the bottom of the vessel. 
When this substance is mixed with dextrin and glucose, as in the 
mother liquor wherein these granules are formed, all these properties 
disappear. 

These artificial starch granules give with iodine all the color reac- 
tions obtained with the natural granules as well as those given by 
dextrin, according to the disposition of their molecules, the result 
being variable at will. Thus, a dilute solution takes a pure red color ; 
but when it is concentrated to saturation, iodine gives rise to a violet 
color. If iodine be added to a solution moderately diluted, so as to 
produce a deep red-brown color, and the solution be allowed to evap- 
orate in the open air, it will gradually grow more and more purple ; 
and eventually, when sufficiently concentrated, become of a magnifi- 
cent pure blue color. If water be added, the violet color reappears 
and in its turn gives place to a pure red. 

If, instead of concentrating the red liquid by evaporation, a neutral 
salt having an affinity for water, such as chloride of calcium, be added, 
the result is the same. If the blue solution be allowed to stand for 
twenty-four hours, it deposits a blue-black substance, which is not dis- 
dissolved by cold water, This precipitate, however, appears to dis- 
solve in water ; it does not affect its transparency, and passes read- 
ily through a filter, but after a very short time it is again deposited. 
This is characteristic also of the iodized granulose ; from which the 
author concludes that in both bodies the disposition of tne molecules 
is the same, and that they do not differ in degree of cohesion. 

The iodized artificial granulose can, in fact, be destroyed, by a 
slight elevation of temperature ; it enters into solution in the water 
in which it was suspended, and is then only colored red with iodine, 
whilst natural granulose resists a boiling temperature and continues to 
be colored blue with iodine. The artificial granules resemble also 
natural grains of starch, in not being colored by a small quantity of 
iodine, the blue only appearing when it is in excess ; but if they be 
triturated in a mortar with a small quantity of iodine, a mass of a 
pure blue color is produced. 
23 



370 



Soluble Starch. 



\ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1874. 



When starch is incompletely dissolved, either with diastase or boil- 
ing acetic acid, the fragments which resist the longest are no longer 
colored blue with iodine, but take a tint which varies from yellow to 
orange-red. The artificial granules give the same colors if their co- 
hesion be augmented, which may be done by dissolving in water and 
evaporating to dryness. 

Diastase decomposes soluble starch in the same manner as natural 
starch, but much more easily and completely. According to the ob- 
servations of Payen, Schwarzer, Schulze, and the author, when dias- 
tase is caused to act upon starch, all coloration with iodine disappears 
when the degree of saccharification reaches one-fourth ; then, by aug- 
menting the diastase, the saccharification may be increased to one- 
half, a point that is not passed to any sensible extent ; in fact, by 
his earlier experiments, the author was led to think that it was not 
possible to saccharify more than one-third of a given quantity of 
starch by means of diastase. With soluble starch, however, the stop- 
page of the saccharification at one-third does not occur. The reac- 
tion with iodine disappears when it reaches one-fourth ; then, if more 
diastase be added, the production of sugar goes on rapidly until it 
reaches one-half, when it ceases, as with natural starch. 

A widely diffused opinion, introduced into science by Naegeli, 
regards starch as essentially composed of cellulose mixed with a little 
granulose. Be'champ has found that dextrin obtained from cellulose 
has less rotatory power than dextrin from starch. The author pre- 
pared dextrin from cellulose by dissolving cotton in strong sulphuric 
acid. This dextrin was afterwards saccharified with boiling acidulated 
water, and it was found that during this transformation the rotatory 
power was not changed. Starch, treated in the same manner, yielded, 
on the contrary, a dextrin of which the rotatory power had been low- 
ered more than one-half by the saccharification. It follows that the 
dextrin from cellulose has the same rotatory power as the sugar 
which is derived from it, which is not the case with that from starch. 
The author further remarks that all the dextrins of starch sugar have 
a rotatory power at least double that of the sugar itself. 

It is known that glucose freshly dissolved, and especially dehy- 
drated glucose, has a rotatory power at least double that of glucose 
that has been some time dissolved in a small quantity of water ; but 
this property is not persistent. The author has prepared a dextrin 
from glucose, by treating that sugar with concentrated sulphuric acid 



^Si',mt M -} Solubility of Plumbic Chloride in Glycerin. 371 

•and then with 95° alcohol. This anhydride has also a rotatory power 
double that of the glucose, and this power is persistent. 

The author has not yet obtained sugar from cellulose sufficiently 
pure to be able to compare it with sugar from starch ; but he feels 
certain that there is no great difference between their rotatory pow- 
ers ; so that their isomerism would not be manifested so clearly as in 
£ their dextrins. 

The author proposes to investigate whether other sugars which are 
/regarded as identical with glucose — the glucoses of honey and of 
fruits, diabetic sugar, &c. — present the same kind of isomerism. — 
JPharm. Journ. [Lond.~\, July 4, 1874. 



NOTE ON THE SOLUBILITY OF PLUMBIC CHLORIDE IN 

GLYCERIN. 

By Charles H. Piesse, Public Analyst for the Strand District. 

Although it has been noticed that plumbic chloride, and some other 
metallic chlorides, are somewhat soluble in glycerin, I have not been 
&ble to learn that any determinations of the extent of their solubil- 
ities have been made. I venture to think therefore that the following 
-quantitative experiments upon the solubility of plumbic chloride in 
glycerin may be worthy of note. 

The experiments were divided into two classes ; firstly of the solu- 
bility of plumbic chloride in pure glycerin ; and secondly of its solu- 
bility in mixtures of glycerin and water. 

For the first, pure glycerin of commerce was dried in a water-oven, 
until it ceased to lose weight ; about 100 c.c. of it was then rapidly 
poured into a dry bottle capable of holding about 150 c.c, and some 
dry PbCl 2 in impalpable powder added ; the bottle then corked, and 
hermetically sealed, was agitated for a couple of days, being placed 
in the water-oven during the intervals, so as to maintain the tempera- 
ture at about 100°C. The glycerin was then filtered in the water- 
oven, the funnel having been previously heated therein, the filtrate 
being collected in a weighed dish. When a quantity equal to about 
300 grains had filtered, the dish was removed, allowed to cool in a 
desiccator, and then rapidly weighed, a precaution which the very 
hygroscopic character of glycerin renders imperative. The weighed 
filtrate having been washed into a beaker, some dilute sulphuric acid 
was added, the precipitated plumbic sulphate being collected and 



372 Solubility of Plumbic Chloride in Glycerin. { A \*™lw A ™~ 

weighed with the usual precautions. The following were the results 
of two determinations : 

Solubility of PbCl 2 in 
Used. PbS04 found. 100 of C! 3 H 8 3 . Average. 

I . . . 274-59 6 07 2-01 

II. . . 385-85 8-18 1-97 



1-995 



The solubility of the plumbic chloride appears not to be perceptibly 
increased by the temperature at which the experiments were per- 
formed, since after several days standing in the cold (always in a 
desiccator), only the slightest possible opalescence was noticeable ; 
the advantages gained by heating being the diminished viscidity of 
the glycerin, and the prevention of the absorption of moisture. 

For the second, weighed quantities of dry glycerin were mixed 
with weighed quantities of distilled water in specific proportions. 
The bottles containing the mixtures, with an excess of plumbic chlo- 
ride, were intermittently shaken for about a week ; these experiments 
being conducted at the ordinary temperature. The results show that 
the solubility of the plumbic chloride is in direct ratio to the propor- 
tions of the glycerin and water. Thus : — 

Mixture A. C 3 H 8 3 , 50 per cent. + H 2 0, 50 per cent. 

PbS0 4 Solubility per 
Used. found. cent. 

I . . . 371-60 5-55 1-37 Theory, 1-363. 

II. . . 389-48 5-35 1-26 Practice average, 1-32.. 

Mixture B. C 3 H 8 3 , 25 per cent. + H 2 0, 75 per cent. 

PbS0 4 Solubility per 
Used. found. cent. 

I . . . 307-88 3-39 1-01 Theory, 1-044. 

II. . . 418-43 4-87 1-06 Practice average, 1-036. 

Mixture C. C 3 H 8 3 , 12-5 per cent. + H 2 0, 87'5 per cent. 

Used. PbS0 4 found. Solubility per cent. 

453-39 4-43 0-91 | theory, 0;888* 

[ Practice,0-91. 

In calculating the solubility of plumbic chloride in these mixtures, 
I have taken its solubility in pure water to be 0-733 per cent. By 
adding together, the weight of the plumbic chloride dissolved by the 
quantity of glycerin present in 100 parts of the mixture (as deter- 
mined from the experiments with pure glycerin), and that dissolved 
by the water, I obtained the theoretical amount which the mixture 



**JtZ% i P 874 EM *} NotG on a Reaction of Gallic Acid, 373 

was capable of dissolving. These approximate so closely to practical 
results, that they seem to prove the accuracy of the determinations of 
the solubility in pure glycerin. In order to see that the whole of the 
lead was precipitated from these mixtures by sulphuric acid, the fil- 
trates from them were neutralized with ammonia, and then treated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen, without causing more than the slightest 
discoloration. — Jour. Ohem. Soc, (London), June, 1874. 



NOTE ON A REACTION OF GALLIC ACID. 

By Henry R. Procter, F.C.S. 

If a solution of sodic or potassic arsenate, of faintly alkaline re- 
action, be added to one containing gallic acid, and the mixture ex- 
posed to the air, it will rapidly absorb oxygen, and develop an intense 
green color. If the liquid be undisturbed, the change will commence 
at the surface, and a beautiful green layer will be formed, floating on 
the colorless liquid ; while if air be altogether excluded, no apparent 
change takes place. O05 mgr. of gallic acid will produce a decided 
•coloration in 1 c.c. of water. The arsenical solution must not be acid, 
but excess of alkali causes irregular oxidation and the formation of 
brown products. 

Dilute acids change the green to a clear purplish-red, and cautious 
neutralization with alkalis restores the green, but any considerable 
•excess of the latter destroys the color. In its reactions with acids 
and alkalis it shows a certain similarity to the coloring matter of red 
cabbage, but in most other reactions the two are completely dissimilar. 
There is also a considerable difference in their absorption-spectra, the 
cabbage-green transmitting a broad band of red, while the gallic- 
green does not. 

Concentrated nitric and sulphuric, and boiling hydrochloric acids 
change the color to a pale yellow, which is not restored by Ammonia, 
but, in the case of nitric acid, is changed to a deep orange-brown. 

Oxidizing agents mostly change the color to an orange-brown. 
Even iodine in potassic iodide does this immediately. 

The color is also destroyed by reducing agents. Sulphuretted 
hydrogen passed into the acid solution rapidly decolorizes it, with no 
immediate precipitation of arsenic sulphide, and but slight deposition 
<of sulphur. Ammonie and sodic sulphides instantly change the 



374 



Test for Alkaloids. 



f Am. Jour. Pharmj. 
\ Aug. 1, 1874. 



color to brown or orange. Sulphurous acid and amnionic sulphite- 
destroy the color in either acid or alkaline solution. 

Sodic hyposulphite does not completely destroy the green, but 
makes it paler, and on the addition of hydrochloric acid a pale bluisb 
green remains, which is unaltered by excess of acid, but gradually 
fades away. 

Nascent hydrogen from zinc or sodium amalgam rapidly decolorizes 
the acid solution, but only acts very slowly on the alkaline one. No 
arsenetted hydrogen is evolved. The green matter is not taken up. 
from its aqueous solution by ether, bisulphide of carbon, benzene, or 
anilin, but is partly precipitated by alcohol. 

When gallic acid is present in excess, a green solution is some- 
times formed, which is not reddened by acids, but only turned pur- 
plish, and which on standing deposits a bluish precipitate. 

The reaction seems peculiar to gallic acid. Gallotannic acid slowly 
gives a faint greenish tint, probably due to traces of gallic acid,, 
while pyrogallin not only does not give the reaction, but seems to- 
interfere with it when gallic acid is present. — Jour. Chem. Soc. (Lon^ 
don), June, 1874. 



IODIDE OF BISMUTH AND POTASSIUM AS A TEST FOR* 

ALKALOIDS.* 

By M. Yvon. 

The employment of the double iodide of bismuth and potassium 
has been indicated for the detection of alkaloids, but the value of this 
new reagent has not yet been sufficiently established. The author jT 
in a note read recently before the Socie'te' d'Emulation pour les. 
Sciences Pharmaceutiques, describes a method for its ready prepara- 
tion. 

The preparation of the reagent by means of iodide of bismuth, ob- 
tained according to either of the processes given in Wurtz's Diction- 
ary, and iodide of potassium, appears to present some difficulties, the- 
iodide of bismuth not being entirely soluble in the alkaline iodide. 
But it is not at all necessary to use the iodide of bismuth, and thes 



* Repertoire de Pharmacie, vol. ii, p. 335. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Aug 1, 1874. J 



Test for Alkaloids. 



375 



author gives the details of several alternative processes, but for 
various reasons adopts the following as the most convenient : 

Take of— 

Subnitrate of Bismuth . 1-50 grams. 

Iodide of Potassium . . . . r00 " 

Hydrochloric Acid .... 20 drops. 

Water 20 grams. 

The subnitrate is suspended in water and boiled, and the alkaline 
iodide and the acid are then added. A limpid solution is thus 
obtained of very fine orange-yellow color, which may be readily used 
as a test for alkaloids. 

If one drop of this solution be poured into water, a white precip- 
itate is produced, resulting from the decomposition of the salt by the 
water. This decomposition may be avoided by the addition of a few 
drops of an acid, the author preferring hydrochloric acid for the pur- 
pose. It is not indifferent whether the acid be added to the reagent 
or to the solution to be tested for an alkaloid ; four drops of hydro- 
chloric added to 40 or 50 c.c. of the latter being sufficient to prevent 
the decomposition, but a much larger quantity is required if added to 
the iodide reagent. 

If the solution be not sufficiently acid, the decomposition takes 
place after some minutes, instead of occurring immediately. But the 
more or less deep orange-yellow precipitate resulting from the pres- 
ence of an alkaloid may be confounded with the pale yellow product 
of the decomposition of the iodide by water. 

Prepared in the above manner, this reagent deposits after some 
time a blackish powder which is easily recognized as iodide of bis- 
muth, and may be removed by filtration. 

The alkaloid precipitate does not appear to present a constant 
composition, it seeming to vary according to the proportion of acid 
present in the solution. Thus, for example, in precipitating quinia 
from a solution of its sulphate, if only sufficient acid be added to pre- 
vent the decomposition, a beautiful orange-red precipitate is obtained ; 
but if there be an excess of acid, the precipitate is paler and dimin- 
ished in volume. 

Since, therefore, the nature of the precipitate varies, and the com- 
position of the reagent itself also changes, M. Yvon considers it 
would be impossible to use the double iodide of bismuth and potas- 



376 



Fish Oils used as Medicine. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Mig. 1, 1874. 



siurn as a volumetric test ; but it would be useful for the detection of 
alkaloids where the precautions indicated are taken. — Pharm. Jour. 
[London], June 20, 1874. 



FISH OILS USED AS MEDICINE. 

The Chemist and Druggist contains a paper, by Mr. P. L. Sim- 
monds, on the fish oils of commerce, from which the following extract 
relating to those oils which are used in medicine is made : 

" In Russia among the accessory products obtained from various 
species of fish, oil is one of the principal, amounting in value to about 
half a million of roubles. This oil has three different uses — for medi- 
cine, for food, and for industrial purposes. Its source or origin is 
also threefold, according to the part of the fish in which it is chiefly 
concentrated. In some species, as, for example, in the cod, it is ob- 
tained exclusively from the liver ; in others, as in the c sandre,' the 
fat surrounds the intestines, the rest of the body in these fish never 
being fat ; but in the larger number of species, as the herring, the 
salmon, and the siluroids, it penetrates all the frame. According to 
these differences in the distribution of the fat in the body of the fish, 
as well as the use to which the oil is to be applied, the mode of ex- 
traction varies. The cod-liver oil for medicinal use is extracted from 
the livers cut into pieces while they are still fresh, and submitted to 
the action of heat in a steam bath. This method has only been intro- 
duced of late years on the coast of Lapland, on the initiation of the 
Minister of Works of Russia, who offered rewards to those who fol- 
lowed the better method pursued in Norway, to which publicity was 
given. The invitation was readily responded to, and from one fisher- 
man alone the Government buys- 15,000 lbs. to 20,000 lbs. of cod- 
liver oil for use in the hospital. The fish oil which is intended for 
food is obtained principally from the fat which surrounds the intes- 
tines of different species of sturgeon and the ' sandre ; ' these are 
heaped together, washed and melted by heat. This oil is added to 
caviare, which of itself is not considered sufficiently rich in fat, and is 
also used at the seat of production, in place of vegetable oil, by the 
workmen on fast days. 

" Very good medicinal cod-liver oil is now made at St. Pierre, 
Newfoundland, by the French, and it forms a considerable article of 
commerce, its production having been encouraged by the French 



♦ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1874. J 



Fish Oils used as Medicine. 



377 



Academy of Medicine, who state the brown, pale, and bleached oils 
-made there will compete favorably with the products of the Nor- 
wegian and English factories. That made in April, May, and June 
is the best ; the livers being then leaner ; later, when they are fat, 
the oil is not considered so good in a therapeutic point of view. 

"I have noticed the following mode suggested of marking cod-liver 
oil palatable : Take equal parts of ground coffee and bone-black, as 
used by sugar refiners, mix them in ten times their combined weight 
of cod-liver oil, and digest for half an hour at a temperature of about 
130° Fahr. ; then place the mass on a filter and drain the oil off, and 
you will have its nauseous taste changed into a pleasant coffee flavor. 
If the notion is correct that coffee is an antidote of iodine, and as the 
latter is one of the active ingredients of cod-liver oil, it may be well 
to let the patient use some iodine preparation at the same time, or to 
add a little iodine syrup to the deodorized cod-liver oil. 

" In Norway, the cod fish at the early part of the season are rich 
in liver, so that from 250 to 300 of the net-caught fish yield a barrel 
of liver, while 50 to 100 more fish taken on lines would be required. 
As the season advances, the fish may become perceptibly poorer, from 
400 to 450 being required to fill a barrel, while on the sea-board or 
western side of the Lofoden Islands from 600 to 700 livers are requi- 
site. On the whole, therefore, it may be assumed that an average 
number of 450 livers are required to the barrel. 

" The total produce of cod-liver oil from the Norwegian fisheries in 
1869 was estimated at 19,000 barrels — 200 barrels were prepared as 
medicinal cod-liver oil. Fresh livers for medicinal oil fetched from 
:27s. to 31s. per barrel, old livers from 22s. to 26s. The catch of 
each boat varies from eight to twenty barrels of liver. 

From the coast of Norway the average export of fish oil from 1851 
to 1855 was 52,900 tuns, and from 1856 to 1860, 59,617 tuns per 
annum. 

" The produce of the French cod-fishery imported in 1860 — which 
was a fair average of the five years previous — was as follows : Cod 
oil, 2,050,846 kilograms ; cod oil not purified, 284,649 kilograms. 
From St. Pierre and Miquelon about 500,000 kilograms of cod oil 
are shipped annually. 

" In the United States a large quantity of fish oil is made from the 
menhaden (Alosa menhaden). Long Island, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island produced in 1870 about 1,400,000 gallons, and the business in 



378 



Fish Oils used as Medicine. 



{Am. Jour. Pharh'. 
Aug. 1, 1874. 



the State of Maine is also large. Six factories in Long Island 1 
use up every week about 2,000,000 fish. The manufactories are- 
nearly all worked on different plans. Some use large tanks, in 
which the fish are placed, and into which steam is forced. A portion 
of the oil is extracted, and coming on the surface of the water, i& 
skimmed off;' the water is then drained away, and the refuse is 
pressed by hydraulic presses or powerful levers. In another mode of 
working used by one manufactory, the fish are placed in a large iron 
cylinder, similar to a boiler, and steam is let in at a given pressure,, 
while the cylinder is made to rotate by a steam engine. The fish are 
steamed from twelve to fifteen minutes, then turned out, and sub- 
jected to hydraulic pressure, which, of course, extracts oil and water 
together. This runs through pipes into tanks, where the oil rises to 
the surface, and is taken off. A thousand fish yield on average about 
thirteen or fourteen gallons of oil, though this depends largely on the 
season, and the good or bad condition of the fish. The uses to which 
this oil is put are very numerous. It is good for table purposes, and,, 
when properly prepared, the best kind is extensively used under the 
name of 6 olive ' oil. It is a good paint oil : (?) much of the linseed 
oil sold in America has a large amount of menhaden oil mixed with 
it. It cannot, however, be used for lubrication, owing to the rapidity 
with which it absorbs oxygen and 'gums.' 

"From the ool-a-chan, or houlican, a small transparent fish like a* 
smelt, the Indians of Vancouver obtain an excellent oil, which is used 
for the same purposes as cod-liver oil, and with as much, if not greater,, 
benefit. The oil when cold is of the consistence of thick cream, white 
in color, but with little odor, and by no means unpleasant to the. 
taste ; in fact, those who use it, very quickly acquire a partiality for 
it. The Indians make large quantities every season, and with them 
it supplies the place of butter. They cannot live without it, and it 
forms a great article of trade. They prefer it rancid. It is a no- 
torious fact that the Indians are subject to spitting of blood and con- 
sumption, but still live to a great age. How much has the ool-a-chan 
oil to do with the prolongation of their days ? 

"The houlican is somewhat larger than the sprat, and is so full of 
oil that it is said that those caught in the north will burn like a can- 
dle. The oil is obtained by merely immersing the fish in a small 
quantity of water and applying heat. The oil is then skimmed off,, 



AM Ain,'m4 ARM '} Notes on Scrophulariacece. 370 

and when properly filtered is a very pellucid oil of a delicate pale- 
yellow color. 

" Among the fish oils, and other oils, locally obtained or met with? 
in the East, are, at 

" Madras. Karahmanoo oil, from Polynemus plebeius and P. 
uronemus ; skate oil, serinei oil (shark liver). 

" Bohet fish liver oil, oil from the loggerhead turtle (Oaouna dioacea r 
Each.). 

" Patna. Porpoise oil. 

" Calcutta. Fish maw oil ; Joree and Seephoo oil. 
" In the Archipelago. Muria ekam fish oil. 

" On the Western and Malabar coasts an oil is prepared which is. 
supplied to the hospitals for the use of the troops : this, in many 
cases, is obtained from the liver of the skate or ray, saw fish, cat fish, 
seer and white shark indiscriminately. From analysis and experi- 
ments, it has been found to equal in its medicinal properties the best 
cod-liver oil, but from its disagreeable taste and odor it could never 
supersede that oil. At Kurrachee, large quantities of fish liver are 
prepared, but it is not so well made as at Malabar and Calicut. — 6W 
nadian Pharm. Journ., July, 1871. 



NOTES ON THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE SCROPHULA- 
RIACECE. 

By John R. Jackson, A. L. S. 

This order, which is for the most part composed of herbaceous 
plants, is usually considered as comparatively unimportant in an eco- 
nomical point of view. With us this is to some extent true, the fox- 
glove (Digitalis purpurea) being the only officinal plant of the group ; 
but in other countries many species are esteemed as valuable medi- 
cines. The family is very widely distributed; its members are most 
abundant in temperate regions, but some are nevertheless found in 
other climates. Though many of the plants are acrid and bitter,, 
their medicinal properties vary very much, as will be seen in the fol- 
lowing consideration of the different species. Thus, in the foxglove,, 
which is so well known that we need not describe the plant, the effects 
are remarkable for their varied operation, altering the frequency of 
the pulse, or enfeebling the action of the heart in various degrees ia 
different persons. 



380 



Notes on Scrophulariacece. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Aug. 1, 1874. 



In North America many of the Serophularice are used in medicine. 
Scrophularia nodosa, L., the figwort, a plant growing some two or 
three feet high, and found in woods and thickets over a good part of 
Europe, was at one time officinal in the Dublin Pharmacopoeia, the 
leaves being used in the preparation of an ointment. 

In some parts of Europe, as well as in America, they are occasion- 
ally used, as well as the roots, for making poultices for ulcers, tumors, 
burns and cutaneous eruptions. The leaves have a rank, disagree- 
able smell and an acrid, bitter case, and the root has also a nauseous 
odor. The leaves of this plant were, at one time, supposed to have 
tonic, diaphoretic and anthelmintic properties, and were advocated 
for the cure of scrofula. Farmers occasionally use a decoction of 
the leaves for curing scab in pigs. 

The great mullein, Verbascum Thapsus, L., a well-known British 
plant, in gravelly, sandy, or chalky soils, is common also in neglected 
fields and along roadsides in the United States. The thick, woolly 
leaves have a mucilaginous, bitter taste, which is extracted by infu- 
sion in water. They are demulcent and emollient, and were at one 
time much valued, not only in domestic practice, but by practitioners 
in catarrh and diarrhoea. Sir James Smith testifies to their value in 
the following words: "A pint of cow's milk, with a handful of the 
leaves of this mullein boiled in it to half-a-pint, sweetened, strained, 
and taken at bed-time, is a pleasant emollient and nutritious medicine 
for allaying a cough or removing the pain and irritation of the piles." 
The leaves, steeped in hot water, are not unfrequently used by coun- 
try people as poultices in hsemorrhoidal complaints. In Sweden and 
Norway a decoction of the leaves is given to cattle suffering from 
cough or pulmonary diseases. The flowers, it is said, when dried in 
the sun, give off a fatty substance, which is used in Alsace as a cata- 
plasm. Porcher, in his ' Resources of the Southern Fields and For- 
ests,' thinks that sufficient attention has not been paid to this plant 
as a medicine, and strongly recommends the desirability of making a 
careful analysis. In an enumeration of the uses to which the plant 
is put in North America, he states that the leaves steeped in hot 
water are applied externally as a feebly anodyne emollient dressing 
for sores, for the relief of headache and frontal pains, and are much 
used by the poorer classes. The leaves of this plant and the bark of 
the root of sassafras, in equal parts, boiled in water and concen- 
trated, then mixed with powdered sassafras bark to form pills, are 



A *ki™m£*'} Notes on Scrophulariaceoe. 381 

said to be valuable in the treatment of ague ; and finally he refers to 
a report of ' several cases in which the paroxysms of intermittent 
fever were completely prevented by the administration of the warm? 
infusion of the fresh root. Four ounces of the fresh root to one pint 
of water, reduced one-half by boiling, of which two ounces were given 
every hour, commencing four hours previous to the expected chill.' " 

Other species of Verbascum have been said to possess similar pro- 
perties to the species just mentioned. 

Jn the genus Veronica, which is well known in this country as 
including some of the prettiest of our native flowers, we find several 
species have been used at various times in medicine. The well-known 
and beautiful little plant, the germander speedwell ( Veronica cha- 
mcedrys, L.), was at one time valuable amongst the old herb-doctors 
as a vulnerary, and Gerarde recommends the root as a specific in pes- 
tilent fevers. 

The leaves of the common speedwell (V. officinalis, L.) are astrin- 
gent and bitter, and were, even up to a comparatively recent date r 
not only used as medicine in this country, but also as a substitute for 
tea. The plant grows in South Carolina, and, though not at present 
included in the United States Dispensatory as an officinal medicine, 
it is nevertheless, after careful examination, reported to contain " in 
the fresh juice and an extract from the herb, a bitter principle, sol- 
uble in alcohol, but scarcely so in ether ; an acrid principle, red col- 
oring matter, a variety of tannic acid, a crystallizable fatty acid, with 
malic, tartaric, citric, acetic and lactic acids ; a soft, dark, green, 
bitter resin and mannite." The Brooklime (V. Beccabunga, L.), also 
a British species and found in moist places, was formerly valued as 
an antiscorbutic, the leaves and young tender stems being the parts 
used. In some parts the leaves are occasionally applied as a styptic 
to wounds, and when bruised are also applied to burns. Like the 
former, this species has been used in North American practice for 
purifying the blood. 

Within the last few years, some attention has been given in Amer- 
ica to the Virginian veronica or culversroot {Veronica Virginica, L.) 
It is a perennial plant, common in the United States in mountain val- 
leys, and grows to a height of three or four feet. The root is the 
part used ; it is bitter and nauseous, and imparts its active properties 
to boiling water. The fresh root is an active cathartic and emetic. 
A large teaspoonful of the root in a gill of boiling water, repeated 



-382 



Notes on Scrophulariacece. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. t, 1874. 



every three hours, is said to be an efficient purgative, operating with 
mildness and certainty, and peculiarly adapted to typhoid and bilious 
fevers. 

The Gratia Dei, so called in olden times on account of its active 
medicinal properties, and known also as the hedge hyssop by the her- 
balists, is the Gratiola officinalis, L. It is a perennial herb, common 
in moist places in the South of Europe, where it is used in dropsy, 
jaundice, scrofula, chronic hepatic aifections, etc. In large doses, it 
is poisonous. "According to Vauquelin, the purgative property de- 
pends upon a peculiar substance analogous to resin, but differing from 
it in being soluble in hot water. Dr. Whiting has announced the 
existence of veratria in it, which accounts for its active properties." 
Though not used in medicine in this country, it is said to have formed 
the chief ingredient in a once famous nostrum for gout, known as 
" eau medicinale." In some of the meadows of Switzerland the plant 
is said to be so abundant that it is dangerous to allow cattle to graze 
in them. 

In a recent American list of " Pure Medicinal Preparations pre- 
pared in vacuo " at New Lebanon, occurs a preparation from Ohelone 
.glabra, L. The plant is known as the snake-head, or balmony, and 
grows in damp soils. Its action is described as follows in the cata- 
logue above referred to : Tonic, cathartic and anthelmintic, valuable 
in jaundice and hepatic diseases, likewise for the removal of worms. 
Used as a tonic in small doses in dyspepsia, debility of the digestive 
organs, and during convalescence from febrile and inflammatory dis- 
eases. Fluid extract ; dose, 1 drachm. Chelonin : dose, 1 to 2 
-grains. Amongst the medicinal plants prepared by the society known 
as Shakers, the foliage and twigs of Chelone glabra are included. 

In Kumaon and other parts of India, the roots of Picrorrhiza kur- 
roa, Royle, are used in medicine as a tonic and antiperiodic, and are 
sold in the bazaars, where they occur in short, brittle pieces, of a dark 
color, somewhat irregular, about the thickness of a goose-quill, but 
tapering towards the extremities, and covered at this part with nume- 
rous small rootlets. They have a dark-brown fracture when broken 
across, and an intensely bitter taste. This medicine is placed in the 
Indian Pharmacopoeia amongst non-officinal articles, with the remark 
that " it would be desirable to have more information with regard to 
this root and its properties." Other Indian Scrophulariacece included 
in the Pharmacopoeia, but not officinal, are, Ilerpestis Monniera, 



Am. Jour Pha.rm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1874. 5 



The Camphor Trade. 



383 



H. B. K., and Qelsia Coromandeliana, Vahl. The first of these is 
regarded by the Hindoos as a powerful diuretic and aperient ; the 
juice of the leaves, in conjunction with petroleum, is used as a local 
application in rheumatism, and the juice of the leaves of the Qelsia 
is said to have been given with advantage in cases of acute and 
chronic dysentery. 

Small quantities of the flowers of Lyperia croeea, Eckl., have occa- 
sionally been brought into this country from the Cape of Good Hope 
as a dye, but have hitherto failed to attract buyers. As imported, 
the flowers have somewhat the appearance and smell of saffron. Dr. 
Pappe in his "Florae Capensis Medicse Prodromus," says: "This 
bush deserves notice as a drug, and in all probability will, ere long, 
become an article of colonial export. It grows abundantly in some 
parts of the Eastern districts, whence it has found its way into the 
dispensary. The flowers, which are called Greele bloemetjes, closely 
resemble saffron in smell and taste ; they possess similar medical pro- 
perties, and as an antispasmodic, anodyne and stimulant, ought to 
rank with the Croeus sativus. Here they have as yet been only used 
with success in the convulsions of children, but they deserve a more 
general trial. On account of the fine orange color which they im- 
part, they are in daily request among the Mohamedans, who use them 
for the purpose of dyeing their handkerchiefs. This drug has been 
observed to be sometimes adulterated by the admixture of other 
plants of the same genus, which are less efficacious." 

Amongst plants of lesser utility belonging to the same order, it 
will suffice to mention the eyebright, Euphrasia officinalis, a decoc- 
tion or infusion of which is still occasionally used in some parts as a 
wash for disorders of the eye. It is astringent and slightly bitter. 
The yellow toad flax, Linaria vulgaris, is said to be purgative, and 
was at one time used by the herb doctors for the cure of dropsy. L. 
Cymbalaria, some species of Antirrhinum, Pedieularis palustris, and 
P. sylvatiea, have all been used by herbalists, but they are not of 
sufficient importance to call for further remark. — Pharm. Journ, 
\Lond.~\, June 27, 1874. 

THE CAMPHOR TRADE. 
The camphor of commerce is obtained from the camphor laurel, 
Camphor a offieinarum, which grows in China, principally near Chinchew, 
in the provine of Fokien, in the Island of Formosa, and in Japan. 



384 



The Camphor Trade. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm . 
( Aug. 1, 1874. 



There is another description, which is highly prized by the Chinese 
for its supposed medicinal qualities, that is found in a solid state in 
the trees growing upon the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, and 
throughout the Malayan Archipelago. The Arabs were acquainted 
with the properties of this article, which they called kaphoor, but it 
does not apper to have entered into the traffic of the Romans or the 
Greeks. Both kinds appear to have been used by the Hindoos before 
the arrival of the Europeans in India, and the prices of the different 
sorts, reduced to present Indian weights and moneys, will be as they 
existed in Malabar and Calicut at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. There are many plants, such as the cinnamon tree, which 
supply a kind of camphor ; another source is the Blumea grandis r 
one of the most abundant weeds throughout the Tenessarim provinces* 
It grows six or eight feet high, with leaves which, when bruised, emit 
a strong odor of camphor. There is also an imitation in Japan, but it- 
can be easily distinguished from the genuine. The camphor tree has 
been successfully cultivated in Europe, and there is mention of one 
at Malmaison over twenty feet high by six inches in diameter. In 
Spain camphor has been manufactured from several Labiatoe, and has 
been prepared artificially by passing a current of muriatic acid gas 
through turpentine ; this variety has not, however, been used in 
medicine. 

The camphor of commerce is derived from a shrub which much re- 
sembles the ordinary laurel in appearance, and several specimens may 
be seen growing at the royal gardens of Kew. It is an evergreen, 
and grows to a considerable size, and emits a camphoraceous odor 
when bruised. The leaves are shining and of a bright green. The wood 
which is white and fragrant, is much prized by the Chinese for carpen- 
try work, since the scent keeps off the operations of white ants and other 
insects. There are several methods adopted in different countries for 
obtaining the crude camphor, viz., the original condition in which it is 
brought to Europe. These consist chiefly in separating the root 
trunk and branches, which, being cut into chips, are introduced into 
a still with water, and heat applied, when the steam generated car- 
ries off the camphor in vapor. These vapors rise, and, passing through 
rice straw, with which the head of the still is filled, the camphor so- 
lidifies and is deposited round the straw in minute grains or particles, 
somewhat about the size of coarse sugar or sand, which by aggrega- 
tion form grayish crumbling cakes, with all the properties of purified 



An. Jour. Phabm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1874. f 



The Camphor Trade. 



385 



camphor. These cakes of impure camphor are refined by being in- 
troduced into a large globular glass vessel in quantities of about 10 
dbs., are reheated, when first the water rises in steam and is allowed 
to escape at a small aperture ; and then, after this aperture is closed, 
'the camphor sublimes and resolidifies in the interior upper part of the 
'flask as a semi-transparent cake, leaving all impurities behind. The 
flasks are then cooled and broken by throwing cold water upon them, and 
the camphor is taken out and sent to market. The glass globes em- 
ployed are called by the Italian name bomboles, the sublimation of 
camphor having been first practiced at Venice, where it was held as 
a monopoly, but it is now done in all the large cities of Europe. The 
process, which is completed in about forty-eight hours, requires con- 
siderable attention and experience. There are two kinds of unrefined 
-or crude camphor known in commerce: — 1. Dutch or Japan camphor, 
also called tub camphor, from the circumstance of its being brought 
from Batavia in tubs covered by matting, each surrounded by a second 
tub, secured on the outside by hoops of twisted cane. . Each tub con- 
tains from 1 cwt. to cwt. or more. It consists of pinkish grains, 
which by their mutual adhesion form lumps. It is of larger grain, 
clearer, and sublimes at a lower temperature than the second variety, 
which is known in commerce as, 2, ordinary crude camphor, China 
•camphor, and Formosa camphor. This is imported from Singapore, 
•Bombay, &c, in square chests lined with lead foil, and containing 
>to 1J cwt. It is chiefly produced in the Island of Formosa, and is 
conveyed in junks to the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Canton, 
whence <the foreign markets are supplied. 

Of the first description, in 1870 — the last year for which returns 
are obtainable, owing to alterations in the accounts of the British 
•Custom House — there were imported from China 7,890 cwts. ; from 
Japan, 2,576 cwts. ; from the Straits Settlements, 1,023 cwts. ; from 
Bombay, 311 cwts. ; and from Germany, Holland and France together 
568 cwts. ; in all, 12,^68 cwts., valued at £45,294, making an aver- 
age of <£3 13s. Sd. per cwt. Of the second, or better kind, the im- 
ports were : — From China, 2,171 cwts. ; from the Straits Settlements, 
51 cwts. ; from France and Germany together, 139 cwts. ; in all 
5,361 cwts., valued at ,£14,498, making an average of £6 2s. lOd. per 
-cwt. There is a considerable traffic carried on between the Chinese 
^mainland ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Canton with the ports 
24 



386 



The Camphor Trade. 



j Am. Jowr. Pharm . 
t Aug. 1,1874. 



of Tamsuy and Taiwan, on the Island of Formosa, and between the 
Chinese ports and the ports of Japan. 

The Island of Formosa is the chief place where the camphor of 
commerce is grown. This island is populated by the Chinese, who in- 
habit the fertile plains, where rice, sugar and indigo are produced, and 
by a mixed race of civilized aborigines and Chinese, on the lower range 
of hills where tea and hemp are grown ; and in the higher range, 
amongst the mountains — one of which, called Mount Morrison, is. 
said to be 13,000 feet in height — the camphor laurel flourishes. Here, 
beyond the boundary line of territory under the Chinese government,, 
have arisen constant disputes with the savage tribes, accompanied 
often with fearful attrocities and destruction to the timber. The fine- 
camphor trees thus destroyed it will take many years to replace; and 
as, from the peculiar character of their large, outspreading growth,, 
they only occur at widely-scattered intervals, the time may not be 
distant when this chief source of profit may be reckoned as one of the- 
things of the past. At present they are limited to the Taiwan and- 
Tamsuy localities, the trees having long since disappeared from th'e- 
mountains of the southern department accessible to the Chinese set- 
tlers. Formerly the camphor trade was a monopoly granted by the 
Chinese government. The camphor mandarin, as he was termed, who 
enjoyed this monopoly paid 60,000 dollars annually into the imperial 
treasury for his privilege, and having obtained the camphor at the 
rate of about five dollars per pical of lbs., he would then sell it 

at twenty- seven dollars. One dollar for duties and some other slight, 
expenses increased the cost, and about ten per cent, was lost by evap- 
oration during transit, for, with the proverbial dogged conservatism 
of their nation, they insisted on continuing to pack it in wood instead 
of stowing it in tin cases, by which contrivance it might be all saved. 

The profits still remained considerable, and it is the opinion of com- 
petent judges upon the spot that, under the peculiar circumstances of" 
the camphor manufacture and trade, a monopoly of this kind, carried 
out under European superintendence, might even be productive of 
good results. How long this system had been in existence is not known, 
but the earliest trade notices, which date back to the commencement 
of 1862, this monopoly is mentioned as a thing of some standing.. 
At the end of 1868 free trade was proclaimed ; but in spite of the 
promises held out, the traffic did not greatly increase. Local seizures,. 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Aug. 1, 1874. | 



The Camphor Trade. 



387 



intimidation, and persecution by Chinese agents, with many other 
obstacles placed in the way of British merchants by the native offi- 
cials, almost amounted to a revival of the monopoly, the abolition of 
which represented an annual loss to the government of 60,000 dol- 
lars. These obstacles required to be removed to induce British mer- 
chants to embark their capital in a trade subject to such arbitrary 
and oppressive interruptions. At the port of Tamsuy the principal 
article is camphor, and perhaps the most interesting, since Tamsuy 
seems to be the main source from which the supply is obtained for the 
European mark